Phonetics Flashcards

vocal tract
Terms Definitions
B-E-D
i
High-Front
beat
/g/
Get
/n/
Nut
smooth
without aspiration
p
voiceless bilabial stop
pill
w
voiced labial-velar approximant
will
voiced velar nasal
ŋ
voiced velar nasal
-ing
voiced palatal affricate
ʤ
voiced palatal affricate
Jacob Jeffrey adjust
s
voiceless alveolar fricative
(eth)
voiced, interdental, fricative
(eth)
tip of the tongue prodtruding between the front teeth, nearly complete obstruction of the vocal tract (hissing noise), vibration
g
voiced, velar, stop
g
produced at the soft part of the roof of the mouth behind the hard palate--the velum, sounds are made with vibration
Sonorants
Vowels, glides, liquids, nasals
tʃ č
voiceless alveopalatal affricate
mid back rounded vowel
o
mid back rounded vowel
go toe
duration
the length of phonemes
vocalize
change into a vowel
stop
complete closure of two articulators
the sourve of moving air
lungs
types of tones
register and contour
liquids
involves substantial constriction of vocal tract, but constriction for liquids are not narrow enough to block vocal tract or cause turbulence; side air passage (l)
open 'o'
mid back lax rounded
voiced
pronounced with glottal vibrations; phonated
epenthesis
Additional phonemes are inserted in words
voiceless
pronounced without vibrations of the vocal folds
voiceless
pronounced without vibrations of the vocal folds
phoneme
symbol which represents one specific speech sound
affricate
made by briefly stopping airstream completely and then releasing articulators slightly so that frication noise is produced (tʃ, dʒ)
*6 most frequent consonants in GAE
/n,t,s,r,l,d/
Def:
glides
Term:
occur with little or no obstruction of the airstream in the mouth

vowels, y, w
fricative
a speech sound characterized by audible friction produced by forcing the breath through a constricted passage in the vocal tract
labial
involving lip articulation or a rounded vowel
Accents
The result of liguistic transfer, the influence that one's native language has on the way we speak his/her second language.
implosive
a stop made with an ingressive glottalic airstream
perceptual phonetics
study of a listener's psychoacoustic response of speech sounds in terms of loudness, pitch, perceived length, and quality
uvular
an articulation involving the back of the tongue and the uvula as the r in French rouge
clinical phonetics
study and transcription of aberrant speech behaviors
interdentals
made with tip of tongue protruding between front teeth (THigh, THy)
(theta)
voiceless, interdental, fricative
(theta)
tip of the tongue prodtruding between the front teeth, nearly complete obstruction of the vocal tract (hissing noise), no vibration
liquid
a frictionless speech sound with only a partial obstruction of the breath stream whose utterance can be prolonged, especially l and r
constriction
an articulated narrowing of the vocal tract that audibly obstructs the flow of air in consonants or defines a connection among resonance cavities in vowels
velar
articulated with the back of the tongue held close to or touching the soft palate
lateral
articulated so that the breath passes on either or both sides of the tongue, as l
Distortion
a speech production error in which a speech sound is recognizable as the correct sound but is not produced exactly correctly
Omission/ deletion
The most common omission in child speech is reduction of consonants in a sequence (cluster reduction)
vocoid
a sound with no obstruction at the center of the mouth. Vowels and semi-vowels are vocoids
nucleus
the center of a syllable, usually just the vowel
Low (in tongue height) have a higher ____ frequency
F1
*Sentence stress
The words that recieve primary stress in a sentence
Def:
syllabic stops
Term:
do NOT exist in ENGLISH;

n, m, l, r, ŋ are syllabic possibilities
l
voiced, alveolar, lateral liquid
l
tongue tip at or near the alveolar ridge, produced with the tongue touching the alveolar ridge but the airstream excapes around the sides of the tongue, vibration
consonant
any sound other than the sound of greatest sonority in a syllable
resonant
a vowel or a voiced consonant or semivowel that is neither a stop nor an affricate
sonorant
a voiced sound that is less sonorous than a vowel but more sonorous than a stop or fricative and that may occur as either a sonant or a consonant, as (l, r, m, n, y, w)
closed syllable
a syllable with a consonant at the end
velum
the soft movable part of the palate at the back of the mouth
allophone
an alternative form of a phoneme in a language, a variation of phonemes.

butter vs. buder
Def:
manner of articulation
term:
this feature refers to how the airstream is affected as it travels through the mouth
LAX
ae, ^, aj, cj (backwards c), I, E, U, c(bakcwards), a, e(upside down)
diphthong
a vowel in which there is a change in quality during a single syllable, as in English [aI] in high
Regressive assimilation/example
when a phoneme is modified due to a phoneme following it

arencha gladja went
manner of articulation
the degree of obstruction or the type of channel imposed upon the passage of air at a given place of articulation like stop, fricative, nasal, semivowel
register tone languages have a...
single pitch per phoneme (high, medium or low)
what is the filter in SFT?
the oral tract - divided into interior and posterior cavities
T-E-N
10
æ
Low-Front
bat
/ɛ/
gEt
/Ɣ/
undER
b
voiced bilabial stop
bill
voiced interdental fricative
ð
voiced interdental fricative
the thee thy thou
voiceless interdental fricative
ɵ
voiceless interdental fricative
three, third
t
voiceless, alveolar, stop
t
tongue tip is at or near alveolar ridge, sound is made without vibration
onset
consonants preceeding the vowel
F2
shows front back distinction
high back rounded vowel
u
high back rounded vowel
too cool for school
Def:
pitch
Term:
fundamental frequency as perceived by listener;

in ENGLISH, we use intonation patterns;

tonal languages use this feature to distinguish meaning;

young language learners in ENGLISH also use with a single word to convey meaning
sage
wise, judicious, or prudent:
 Name the three major systems
respiratory
laryngeal
supralaryngeal
creaky voice
another term for laryngealization
rhotacization
r-coloring, resulting from the lowering of the third formant
high back lax vowel
ʊ
high back lax vowel
put foot
diphthong;
bIte, stEIn, AIsle, chOIr, Island
entry
an entrance or a passage.
rounded
pronounced with rounded lips; labialized
Depalatalization
A palatal sound becomes non-palatal. [sh] -> [s]
phoneme
symbol which represents one specific speech sound
onset
the consonants occurring before the vowel in a syllable
What is F3 connected to?
lip rounding
ʌ
mid central lax unrounded;
bUt, tOUgh, anOther, Oven
*Which consonants are semivowels/approximants?
liquids and glides
Def:
stops
term:
produces when the airflow is completely stopped for a brief period
p, b, t, d, k, g
vowel
a speech sound produced without occluding, diverting, or obstructing the flow of air from the lungs
nasal
pronounced with the voice issuing through the nose
aspiration
articulation accompanied by an audible puff of breath, as in the h-sound of how or in the release of initial stops, as in the k-sound of key
Phonological analysis
Studying the sounds within the system.
velar
an articulation involving the back of the tongue and the velum as in English g in guy
consonants are made by bringing both lips together(5 kinds)
bilabialsp,b,m,w,(wh)
tense
tense vowels in English are those which can occur in stressed open syllables
What's an Obstruent
any Stop, Fricative, or Affricate
labiodental
consonants made by bringing both lips closer together (f, v)
Suprasegmentals
features of speech productoin that go beyond the phonemic level to affect an entire utterance
clarify
to make (an idea, statement, etc.) clear or intelligible; to free from ambiguity.
syllabic
dominating the other sounds in a syllable
point
a diacritic indicating a vowel or other modification of sound
Two-way scoring
a perceptual system in which speech sound productions are dichotomized into two classes representing typical vs. atypical behavior (right vs. wrong/correct vs. incorrect)
Aspirated sounds
Sounds produced with a puff of air
phonetics
the study of the production of speech sounds
vocoid
a sound with no obstruction at the center of the mouth. Vowels and semi-vowels are vocoids
what attracts stress?
heavier syllables and full quality vowels(in English this is everything except schwa)
*Interdentals according to manner
Fricatives- voiced and voiceless th
r
voiced, alveolar, retroflex liquid
r
tongue tip at or near the alveolar ridge, curling the tip of the tonuge back behind the alveolar ridge, vibration
ingrain
to implant or fix deeply and firmly, as in the nature or mind.
articulator
a movable organ, as the tongue, lips, or uvula, the action of which is involved in the production of speech sounds
semivowel
a speech sound of vowel quality used as a consonant; (w) in wet or (y) in yet
PALATAL
S(with the thing on top) ʑ, č, j with a v on top, j
nasal
a sound in which the soft palate is lowered so that there is no velic closure and air may go out through the nose, as in English [m]
Back vowels
"Vowels in which the body of the tongue is in the back part of the oral cavity. The vowels u,o, (backward c), a form a set of back reference vowels."
Nasal Emission
Release of noise energy thru the nasal cavity

~ with dots over the phoneme

Most often occures in people with neurological problems, cleft palate, or unsual sound production patterns
Linguistic complexity
the context in which a sound to be transcribed is embedded, which may range from a sound isolation to a sound occurring in conversational speech
glottalic airstream mechanism
movement of pharynx air by the action of the glottis. Ejectives and Implosives are formed this way
When is it important to know how to transcribe intonation patterns?
accent modification/trainign
What is fundamental frequency? Differences btw genders?
Rate of vocal vibration
males : 125 cycles per second average
females : 250
baby cry: 500
Define place of articulation
The point in the vocal tract where constriction is located
*Contrasive stress and when it can change the usual stressings of words in a sentence
stress used to emphasize an important piece of info

I saw her crawl ON the table
/ 137
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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