Phonology Flashcards

articulation disorders
Terms Definitions
Neuromotor Disorders
Brain Damage

phonetic form
physical form
/t/ Glottalization in Ilokano
Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology

Testing time: 15-20 min.

Ages: 2-6 - 8-11

Tests both articulation and phonology
also called APENTHESIS
causes a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the phonetic form of a word
Percent consonants correct. Number of consonants correct/number of total consonants times 100
Four factors to consider when determining need for intervention



Error Pattern Analysis
/d/ spirantization rule in Spanish
/d/--> [ð]/[+vowel]_____
facilitating for /s/
/i/ /I/ /e/ /E/
How is hearing acuity tested?
Pure tone audiometry
can you compensate with a half paralyzed tongue?
Moderate: Intelligibility
Reduced intelligibility because of the inconsistent errors

Child may not talk as much as peers
the concrete observable sounds of a phoneme
Articulation Disorder
Phonetic errors, probs in sounds prod,motor in nature, doesn't impact other areas of lang.
the smallest linguistic unit that has meaning
informal screening
pre school and early years: observe, play, ask teachers/caregivers
later elementary: talk about hobbies, have read passage
Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation
Color coded book with pictures

Proctor asks "what is this?" and child answers
underlying representation/phonemic representation/ underlying form/ base form
the abstract level of representation, where phonemes have an essential characteristic form which is altered by environments and rules.
Define dissimilation.
Dissimilation is a process by which one segment systematically avoids taking on a feature (or a set of features) of a neighboring segment.
free morpheme
one that can stand one its own
What is phonetic context?
Sounds that precede/follow sounds you are targeting
T or F: Errors tend to be consistent in certain word positions with phonological disorders
How do we test function of the oral mechanism?
If the child is too shy to talk, should you go directly to single word testing?
phonology is what?
an abstract science dealing with the unconscious rules for sound patterning that are found in the mind of a person speaking a particular language
any of a small set of units, usually about 20 to 60 in number, and different for each language, considered to be the basic distinctive units of speech sound by which morphemes, words, and sentences are represented. They are arrived at for any given langua
What are some common errors for people with hearing loss?
Devoicing Voiced Consonants

Substituting Initial Consonants

Nasal Emission on Initial Consonants (including hypernasality)


High frequency (low intensity) sounds are most affected (sh, ch, voiceless th) - distorted or omitted
childhood apraxia of speech
- subtype of severe speech sound disorder in children
- abnormalities arising in linguistic or motor pressing level production
What are the factors to be considered when judging severity?
overall intelligibility

etiological factors

potential impact on client's activities of daily living

family and cultural expectations of speech and language development

chronological vs. developmental age
faulty tongue sh
Choose high front vowels such as /i/ /I/ then /e/ /E/
What are the steps involved in phonological process analysis?
Obtain a sample

Record the sample

Choose an analysis procedure

Analyze the sample
what does stimulability tell us?
1. for sounds that are stimulable child will respond faster to treatment./correct sooner
2. could mean sound is emerging/on the verge of producing it correctly
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Location and time is specific to individual child. What is appropriate and what is least restrictive.
What does a judgement of severity effect?
- prognosis
- length of therapeutic intervention
- frequency/intensity of intervention
If the child is not making progress, what could be the reasons?
Intervention is not working

Therapist is not effective

Child is not coming to therapy
What is Ingram's approach to analyzing a speech sample?
Phonetic Analysis: # of sounds child uses in each position

Homonym Analysis: Forms of sounds that look alike and have different meanings, determines the degree of intelligibility of the child

Substitution Analysis: Identify frequency of substitutions
why might tongue thrust exist too long?
- bottle feeding too long
- thumb sucking
- swollen tonsils
Why should you do single word testing?
If the articulation problems are so severe that you can not understand the child.

It is hard to get representation of all sounds in all positions in 100 utterances of spontaneous speech.
what are the reasons to assess childs language?
- determine if speech system not within normal limits
- describe childs sound system
- plan therapy program
- measure change
-predict change
- screen a population
What are the 5 criteria for analyzing a speech sample?
1. Does it describe the pattern used by the speaker?
2. Identify how these patterns are different from normal
3. Determine implications of these patterns regarding how it will affect communication
4. Provide a basis to assess change during treatment
5. If no change, maybe need a new treatment approach or do another analysis)
T/F A child very rarely only has an articulation problem.
True. Most likely it is articulation and phonology.
Why is it important for a test to be standardized/norm-referenced?
For data comparisons, it must be given in a standardized way.

It must be both valid and reliable
stops, affricates
fricatives, liquids, glides
which have continual airflow
Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis, Second Edition

Co-normed with GFTA-2

Testing time: 10-30 min.

Ages: 2 - 21

Use to determine which phonological processes are being used after administering the GFTA-2
Articulatory disorder secondary to brain damage

Affects phonation, articulation and respiration

"Dysarthric speech"

Deterioration of muscles
Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns- third edition
Multiple opposition
-maximal distinction-different from the child's error.
-maximal class-different in features
-Sound that have greatest impact.

twinspeak. twins developing their own language.
is tongue tie related to speech?
the phenomenon of mispronunciations in a second language in ways attributed to the phonology of the first language
(a) inconsistent errors on consonants and vowels in repeated productions of syllables or words, (b) lengthened and disrupted coarticulatory transitions between sounds and syllables, and (c) inappropriate prosody, especially in the realization of lexical or phrasal stress.
Is Ingram's approach to analyzing a speech sample informal or formal?
our ability to discriminate sounds is ___________
What is PCC?
Percent of Consonants Correct

(# correct / total #) x 100
particular stratum
strata that includes the core vocabulary, the vocabulary as it includes mildly non-native words, or even the vocab amplified by words as foreign
Traditional motor approach
discrimination training followed by production of the sound in isolation, nonsense syllables, words, structured phrases, sentences, and spontaneous speech. This approach uses a vertical goal attack strategy in which high criterion levels (e.g., 85%
phones that belong to the same class of phoneme
Cleft Palate
May need an obturator or surgical grafting

Sometimes they will close right away, sometimes they wait to close
analyzing syllable structure
list different word structures being used, vowels, CV, CVC, etc.
the mental store of words in the brain
Define allophone.
An allophone is a positional variant of a phoneme. Each allophone is the specific rule-governed and therefore predictable relaization of the phoneme in a particular linguistic environment. The allophones of the phoneme occur in complementary distribution or in free variation; they never contrast.
a sound at the phonemic level is eliminated at the phonetic level
Organic Factors that are related to articulation disorders
Hearing Loss
Structural Loss
What kind of skills do we need to speak with a half-paralyzed tongue?
phonemic transcription
when a linguist records words as a sequence of phonemes
voiceless stop insertion
a voiceless stop with the same place of articulation as the nasal is inserted between a nasal and a voiceless stop

/strɛŋθ/ ==> /strɛŋkθ/
What will happen with articulation problems?
Child will:

Demonstrate a reduced knowledge of phonological rules

Use less complex utterances

Have increased comprehension errors
What errors do HI individuals make?
- devoicing voiced consonants
- substiting initial consonants
- nasal emissions on initial consonants
- high frequency sounds most affected- they are distorted or omitted
What are some examples of formal screening tests?
Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation

Photo Articulation Test
differential diagnosis of DAS
-No behavior or symptom defines CAS, so one can never really
What can the clinician be confident will happen if a decision is made to intervene with stimulable sounds?
Stimulable sounds will improve faster
what are the four factors to consider when we look at the need for intervention?
1. intelligibility
2. severity
3. stimulability
4. error pattern analysis
lack of lip rounding
Choose high back vowels like /u/ then /o/
what is our final aim of therapy?
to produce correct articulation in speech in context (connected speech)
What does a screening do?
Gives an estimate of accuracy in a child's speech

Splits population into 2 groups

1. passes
2. needs further assessment (not necessarily therapy)
Difference between speech samples and language samples
They are the same samples but you examine them differently.
5 criteria for analyzing speech sample
1. does it describe pattern used by speaker?
2. ID how patterns are different from normal
3. Determine how these patterns affect communication?
4. analysis must prodvide info to develop goals/guidelines for therapy
5. Analysis must provide a basis to assess change during treatment
What should a good sample for phonological process analysis include?
It must reflect production in actual situations

It will reveal consistent patterns and inconsistent patterns (tells us what is correct/incorrect)

It will contain the full set of English phonemes
Is delayed imitation permitted with single word articulation tests?
Some tests permit it as long as you specify that it was delayed imitation
What is the number one reason for articulation and phonological assessment?
To determine if the speech sound system is within normal limits or not.
T or F: process and rule are the same thing
False, do not confuse the two
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