Photosynthesis 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Photosynthesis
6CO2+6H2O-----C6H12O6+6O2Bonds formed,energy storedlight/solar energy---glucose---ATP
CO2
carbon dioxide
Photons
Packets of light
Calvin Cycle
look in notebook
Chloroplasts
organelles consisting of photosynthetic pigments, enzymes, and other molecules grouped together in membranes
carotenoid
a light-absorbing compound that functions as an accessory pigment in phtosynthesis (113)
Integral Proteins
 
Embedded in the bilayer
photorespiration
consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
global warming
increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases - a slow but steady rise in Earth's surface temperature
Antenna complex
Hundreds of accessory pigment moleculesGather photons and feed the captured light energy to the reaction center, ("light-harvesting complex")
The ________ produced during the photosynthesis comes from water molecule
oxygen
the energy currency of the cell
ATP
Granna
Stacks of membranes called thylakiods in the chloroplast that contain chlorophyll
chlorophyll
a light0absorbing pigment in the chloroplasts that plays a a central role in converting solar energy to chemical energy
Carotenoids
Carbon rings linked to chains with alternating single and double bonds, Can absorb photons with a wide range of energiesAlso scavenge free radicals – antioxidant (Protective role)
I can identify and label the structures in a leaf cross section diagram.
 
ETC(Electron Transport Chain)
final step in aerobic respiration
glucose and fructose
combine to form sucrose;
transported by the phloem throughout the plant to provide energy
– Photosynthesis
organisms produce glucose (food) from inorganic carbon (CO2) – occurs via light-dependent and carbon-fixation reactions that take place in chloroplasts of plants
Photon
Each particle of light that shines from the sun
greenhouse effect
sunlight warms earths surface, which radiates heat to the atmosphere. CO2 & other greenhouse gases absorb & radiate some heat back to earth
Limiting Factors
Temperature, CO2, water, intensity of sunlight
Is oxygen released in cylcic electron transport?
No
Stoma
CO2 gets into the leaf through this (mouth) and oxygen exits through it
energy  
ability to do work or bring about change
Only about ____% of the organisms on our planet are autotrophs.
10
absorption spectrum
graph that plots a pigment's light absorption vs. wavelength
what is the molecular form for photosynthesis?
H2O+CO2 sunlight------------->C6H12O6+O2
Stroma
The space between the grana in a chloroplast.
chemiosmosis
the mechanism that generates ATP in a chloroplast; drives ATP synthesis using the potential energy of a concentration gradient of hydrogen across a membrane
chemical reaction
a process that results in substance forming or breaking into new susbtance.
CAM
A type of metabolism in which CO2 fixation occurs at night.
Ribulose Bisphosphate (RuBP)
A five carbon phosphorylated compound with a high energy potential that reacts with carbon dioxide in the initial step of the calvin cycle.
accessory pigment
a pigment that absorbs light enegy and transfers energy to chlorphyll a in phtosynthesis. (113)
visible spectrum
the colors that are visible to the human eye
mesophyll cells
loosely packed cells in C4 plants that fix carbon dioxide using PEP carboxylase into oxaloacetate
Reactant
A substance that reacts (is used) in a chemical reaction. Left Side
? characteristic absorption spectrum,
Each pigment has a characteristic absorption spectrum, the range and efficiency of photons it is capable of absorbing.
how does a greenhouse work?
glass/plastic walls allow solar radiation to pass through ; sunlight heats soil which in turn warms up their ; walls trap the warm air, raising the temp inside
WHAT HAPPENS DURINGLIGHT REACTION?
It makes a buildingmaterial for CO2fixation, H+ and ATP.
_____ goes into the Calvin cycle and ____ is produced
CO2 and PGAL
What is a plastid?
-Only present in plant cells. -Stores food or pigments.
Light Dependent Reactions
Purpose is to capture sun energy and turn it into ATP.
carbon fixation & after
the incorporation of isotope 14C to label the carbon in CO2 into organic compounds. after carbon fixation, enzymes of the cycle make sugars by further reducing the carbon compounds
Light is a form of ________. It behaves as both a _____ and a ______.
Electromagnetic Radiation.PhotonWave
What are some of the things that happend in the cell that require energy?
Cellular respiration, photosynthesis, active transport, cell division, and cell movement
in what two parts of the chloroplast does photosynthesis take place?
the thylokoid and stroma
10. Describe the differences between CAM plants and C4 plants.
Cam plants keep their stomata closed during the day and open them up at night, when it is cooler and the relative humidity is higher.
light reactants- steps, reactants, and the products
the light reactioin in photosynthesis are depent on light being there. LOCATED- THYLAKOID
1. water enters the cell.
2. sunlight energizes the energy-carrying molecules.( ADP-NADP+)
3. oxygen leaves the chloroplast, and ATP and NADPH move on to the calvin cycle.
When oxygen is present two or more stages complete cellular rrespiration
krebs cylcle electron transport chain
Jan van Helmont concluded that plants...
Gain most of their mass from water
A card that compares Photosynthesis with Cell Respiration
Cell respiration is the reverse of photosynthesis
what is built into the thylakoid membranes?
the chlorophyll molecules that capture light energy
LIGHT REACTIONSTEP 5
A+ the end from H20 of the e.t.s. the electrons H+s fromH2O are picked up by the coenzyme NadP+ forming NAPH + carried to the stroma to the calvin cycle.
 I can explain the role of the rubisco enzyme in the calvin cycle and photorespiration.
Hooks up the Carbon and RUBP
What compounds are formed from carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle?
Glucose, C6H12O6; 2PGA, each with 3 carbon; 12PGAL, 2 carbon. Making 6RuBP, 5 carbon.
where are the two photosystems & electron transport chains located?
within the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast
 I can I can describe how H+ (protons) build up to high concentration levels inside the thylakoid.
it is activvely transported by h+ ion(proton) pumping protein 
what does the photosynthesis equation show about water?
it is a reactant & product in the reaction
equation that summarizes photosynthesis
water + carbon dioxide -> oxygen, water and simple sugars 12H20 + 6CO2 -> 6O2 + 6H2O + C6H12O6
How much ATP are in cells? And why?
Very little, Because ATP is not good for storing large amounts of energy, and only a few seconds of energy comes out of ATP
Chlorophyll a
Blue-green pigment
INORGANIC
does not contain carbon
Who discovered O2?
Joseph Priestly
heterotroph
organism that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic substances and therefore must take in organic food
PEP
phophoenolpyruvate
uses the enzyme PEP carboxylase
combines with CO2 in C4 photosynthesis to create OAA
autotroph
any organism capable of self-nourishment by using inorganic materials as a source of nutrients and using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis as a source of energy, as most plants and certain bacteria and protists.
visible light
portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye
light-harvesting complex
proteins associated with pigment molecules (including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) that captures light energy and transfers it to reaction-center pigments in a photosystem
Photosystem
in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis
autotrophs
create own foods from inorganic stuff
pump
animal organ that propels fluid through the body
glycolysis
the catabolism of carbohydrates, as glucose and glycogen, by enzymes, with the release of energy and the production of lactic or pyruvic acid.
stomata
small opening between two guard cells on the underside of leaf epidermis through which gases pass.
reaction center
complex of proteins associated with two special chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor; located centrally in a photosystem, this complex triggers the light reactions of photosynthesis
What is the overall equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2+6H20->6O2+C6H12O6
Photosynthesis Review
the energy entering chloroplasts as sunlight gets stored as chemical energy in organic compounds.
sugar made in the chloroplasts supplies chemical energy and carbon skeletons to synthesize the organic molecules of cells.
plants store excess sugar as starch in structures such as roots, tubers, seeds, and fruits.
in addition to food production, photosynthesis produces the O2 in our atmosphere.
chemosynthesis
the use of surrounding reactants to produce carbohydrates; used by anaerobic bacteria
which wavelengths of light does chlorophyll reflect?
green light
pigments
molecules that are good absorbers of light
3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA)
the Calvin Cycle produces this 3 carbon sugar
biochemical pathway
a series of chemical reactions im which the product of one reaction is consumed in the next reaction
At the end of photosystem I transport chain, electrons combine with_____________to form_______________.
NADP+;NADPH
C4 plants
desert plants , use enzyme PEP carboxylase to fix CO2 to PEP, result is Oxaloacetate, a C4 molecule
Pq, cytochrome, Pc
first electron carrier, ATP generator and protein complex, protein at the end
CAM plants
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed
3 stages of the calvin cycle
fixation, reduction, regeneration
photolysis
yields electrons to donate to p680 and produces O2when p680 loses electron, becomes positive. so strong that it oxidizes electrons away from O2 in water-broken by manganese containing enzyme-protons released into thylakoid lumen
Where is food produced in the plant?
palliside layer
fermentation
a change brought about by a ferment, as yeast enzymes, which convert grape sugar into ethyl alcohol.
PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY
method by which pigments of a plant can be separated
Where does the calvin cycle take place?
in the stroma
C3 plants
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into a four-carbon compound, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle
cyclic electron flow
A route of flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves photosystem 1 but not photosystem 2
results of Calvin cycle
9 molecules of ATP consumed, 6 molecules of NADPH consumed, and 1 of 6 G3P that was produced is later metabolized into larger carbohydrates.
What happens to extra glucose?
its stored as sugars or starches
photosystem II (PS II)
One of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane.
What are some characteristics of chloroplasts?
1. Larger than mitochondria2. Shape is variable3. Able to divide or arise from protoplastids.
Most plants use a mixture of at least _ chlorophylls because ___________
2, other pigments absorb different wavelengths
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