PHYS Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Lateral magnification
m = -s'/s
Anisotropic
opposite of isotropic, biorefringent materials are because of their microscopic structure... speed of light changes in these materials due to the direction and propagation of the light.
Two-slit interference maxima
dsinѲm = mλ
Focal length
r/2 for a spherical mirror
Scattering
The phenomenon of absorption and reradiation.
Diffuse refraction
Reflection from a rough surface.
Specular refraction
Reflection from a smooth surface.
Vertical or y-axis
Amplitude of the electric current
Linearly polarized
When the electric field remains parallel to a line perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
Refraction
The change in direction of the transmitted ray.
Interference fringes
alternating bright and dark bands caused by viewing a thin film of varying thickness with monochromatic light.
Phosphorescent materials
Materials that have very long-lived metastable states and emit light long after the original excitation
Two-slit interference minima
dsinѲm = (m - ½)λ
Total resistance
RT = R1 + R2 + R3
Objective
the lens nearest the object in a microscope
Object
The point at which the original object is placed in an optical device (P)
Magnifying power of a microscope
M = -(L*xnear point)/(fobjectie*feyepiece)
Magnifying power of a lens
M = xnear point¬/f
Snell's Law or Law of Refraction
n1sinѲ1 = n2sinѲ2
Phasor
a vector which rotates in the xy-plane with angular frequency ω
Focal ray
drawn through the focal point, it reflects parallel to the axis
Diffraction grating
tool used for measuring the wavelength of light which consists of a large number of equally spaced lines or slits on a flat surface.
Tube length
the distance between the second focal point of the objective and the first focal point of the eyepiece in a microscope.
Parallel ray
drawn parallel to the axis; emerging ray is directed toward the second focal point of the lens
Central diffraction medium
in single-slit diffraction, the area where most of the light intensity is concentrated.
Central ray
drawn through the center (vertex) of the lens. Ray is undeflected.
Fresnel diffraction pattern
Diffraction pattern observed near an aperture or obstacle.
Total resistance in a parallel circuit
1/RT = 1/R1+ 1/R2
Voltage Drop (IR drop)
The amount of potential difference across a
resistor
This is the amount of voltage required to
push a specific amount of current across a
resistor
Resonance absorption
when an atom absorbs a photon and making the transition to the more excited state
Stokes Raman scattering
when the energy of the scattered photon hf' is less than that of the incident photon
Simple magnifier
what a converging lens becomes when it is placed next to the eye with an object closer to the lens than its focal length.
Near point
the closest point for which the lens of the eye can focus the image on the retina
Order number
m = 0, 1, 2... for two-slit interference maxima. m = 1, 2, 3... for two-slit interference minima.
Image
The point at which the image forms in optical devices (P')
Anti-Stokes Raman scattering
when the energy of the scattered photon is greater than that of the incident photon.
Fermat's principle
The path taken by light traveling from one point to another is such that the time of travel is a minimum. That is, light travels along the path of least time.
First-order spectrum
the spectral line corresponding to m = 1.
Focal plane
plane which intersects the axis of a lens at the focal point.
Phase difference due to a path-length difference
δ = (∆r/λ)*360°
given 3 amperes and 90 volts what is the total power
270 watts
Photon
A particle of light with Energy E = hf = (hc)/λ where h = 6.626 x 10-34 J-s = 4.136 x 10-15 eV-s
Rayleigh's criterion for resolution
when the critical angle of separation, αc = 1.22λ/D, separates two sources as seen through a circular aperture, the two sources will be seen as one source.
Converging or positive lens
a lens whose focal length is positive
Coherence time
the length of time it takes for a packet of light to pass a given point.
Parallel Circuit is
A circuit in which there are more than one path for the current to flow.
Huygen's construction or Huygen's principle
Each point on a primary wavefront serves as the source of spherical secondary wavelets that advance at the wavespeed for the propagating medium. The primary wavefront at some later time is the envelope of these wavelets.
Diverging or negative lens
a lens whose focal length is negative (any that is thinner in the middle than at the top and bottom)
Power of a lens
the reciprocal of the focal length: P = 1/f
in a Parallel Circuit
A break in any one path does not interrupt the flow of charge in the other paths.
Each device operates independently of the other devices connected in the circuit.
Sum of the current through each circuit element is equal to total circuit current.
R1 is 90 ohms and R2 is 45 ohms, what is the total resistance (R1 and R2) of the circuit of this parallel circuit?
30 ohms
Sign conventions for reflection
s is positive when the object is on the incident-light side of the mirror. s' is positive if the image is on the reflected-light side of the mirror. r, and thus f, is positive if the mirror is concave so the center of curvature is on the reflected-light side of the mirror.
Index of refraction
n = c/v where v = speed of light in the medium.
Principal rays for a thin lens
the rays you need to draw to determine the location of the final image formed from a thin lens.
Total Water
60%
Normal K
3.5-5.0 mmol/l
Normal albumin
3.5-5.0 g/dl
Normal Ca
8.9-10.4 mg/dl
ultrafiltration occurs across:
glomerular capillaries
V x [Urine]
Excretion Rate
Normal total protein
6.0-8.0 gm/dl
Renal; blood flow %
25%
Osmolarity of body fluids
290 mOsm/L
Osmolarity: 1 mosm/L =
19.3 mmHg
Renal Vasodilators (5)
PGE2; PGI2(Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs inhibit synth of prostaglandins, interfering with the protective effects of prostaglandins on renal fxn following hemmorrhage); NO; Bradykinin; Dopamine(low dosage only)
Filtration across the glomerular capillaries is...
GFR
region of glucose curve between threshold and Tm (250-350 mg/dl), represents excretion o fgluc in urine before saturation (Tm) is fully achieved
splay
Proximal tubule-non-specific cation carrier secretes ... (3)
creatinine, catechols, morphine
excretion rate - filtered load
secretion rate
Kidneys sythesize and secrete:
renin, erythropoietin, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol
heart chambers
Right atrium: receives oxygen-depleted blood from the body via the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava and pumps it through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.Right ventricle: receives oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium and pumps it through the pulmonary valve into the lungs via the pulmonary artery.Left atrium: receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.Left ventricle: receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium and pumps it through the aortic valve to the entire body via the aorta, including to the heart muscle itself through the coronary arteries.
Volume depletion incr Na reabsorption, phosphate follows and phosphate ___ rises/falls.
excretion; falls
Condition with injury and inflammation to glomerulus and red cell in urine
acute glomerulonephritis
RBF=
RPF/1-Hct, where 1-Hct is fraction of blood volume occupied by plasma
Late distal tubule and collecting duct-alpha intercalated cell does ______.
K+ reabsorption
Henle's Loop-Thin ascending limb is _____ to water but ____ is reabsorbed passively
impermeable; Na
Henle's Loop-Thick ascending limb is only segment which actively reabsorbs _____ and the entire ascending limb is relatively _______ to water.
solute; impermeable
Aldosterone promotes the excretion of ___ which is related to the ___ retaining action.
K+; Na+
With Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH secretion, there is incr/decr ADH which leads to plasma vol___, plasma Na___.(psychogenic drinking would have the same darrow-yannet)
incr, decr
intercalated disk
Intercalated discs (IDs) are complex adhering structures which connect single cardiac myocytes to an electrochemical syncytium---mainly responsible for force transmission during muscle contraction. Intercalated discs also support the rapid spread of action potentials and the synchronized contraction of the myocardium
Urea reabsorption is by ______ _______ mechanism
simple diffusion
Normal RBF
1200 ml/min or 20% of cardiac output
% Body weight is ECF (Na+, Cl-, HCO3-)
20%
% Body weight is ICF (K+, Mg+, Protein-, Organic Phosphate-)
40%
Addison's disease is high/low aldosterone leading to ___ plasma vol, ___ Na, and ___ K. Hyperaldosteronism is the opposite of this.
low; decr; decr; incr
If we remove bicarb from the system, the pH will ___.
decr
other types of metabolic alkalosis include ___ and ___.
bicarb ingestion; hyperaldosteronism
metbolic alkalosis that responds to NaCl(saline treatment) includes ___ and ___ in which the volume depletion initiates a compensatory incr in Na reabsorption which is coupled to ___ reabsorption and H+ ion secretion.
diuretics; vomiting; bicarb;
ADH regulates ___ (not ___ excretion). Its primary mission is to ___ "free" water.
water; fluid; retain
Urea permeability is affected by ___ which causes it to be ___ in the medulla.
ADH; trapped
In distal nephron and collecting duct, ___ is reabsorbed and urine osmolarity finally becomes ___.
water; 1200
all urine production in excess of osmolar clearance is ___ clearance.
free water
Base excess is a value which describes how many mEq of___ must be given to a patient to return the ___ to normal.
H+; pH
___% of filtered K+ is reabsorbed before ___ which is where K+ ___ takes place.
distal nephron; secretion
Adding CO2 to the system tends to ___ the pH
decr
Filtration fraction = _______ and its normal value is ___ % and thus increases in filtration fraction produce an increase in _______ concentration.
GFR/RPF; 20; protein
inulin is filtered, but not reabsorbed or secreted by reanl tubules and its clearance measures...
GFR(Glomerular Filtration Rate)
tricuspid valve
The tricuspid valve (also known as the right atrioventricular valve) is on the right side of the heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle. The normal tricuspid valve usually has three leaflets and three papillary muscles. They are connected to the papillary muscles by the chordae tendineae, which lie in the right ventricle. Tricuspid valves may also occur with two or four leaflets, and the number may change during life
In a person whose cardiac ouput is 5 l/min, the RBF is _____/min or _____/day.
1.25; 1800
Water reabsortion is _____ and it occurs by two methods: _____ and ______.
passive; tight jxns; aquaporins
Dilation of afferent arteriole or constriction of the efferent arterioles causes...
increase in Pgc (glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure)
In metabolic acidosis, bicarb must ___ and so, in most cases, anion gap incr/decr. Anion gap = __ - [___ + ___]
Na - [HCO3 + Cl]
Pi gc or Oncotic pressure in glomerular capillaries is determined by...
protein concentration of glomerular capillary blood and it increases along the length of the capillary as fluid is filtered out
Portion of blood filtered into Bowman's space is the ultrafiltrate which contains _____ and all of the ______, but not the _____ and ______.
water, small solutes; protein, blood cells
Late proximal tubule- _____ moves passively carrying with it _____ (3)
Cl- ; Na, Ca, Mg, etc
Renal Plasma Flow RPF=
[U] PAH x (Urine flow rate)/[RA] PAH - [RV] PAH
Endothelin
paracrine vasoconstrictor
k+ normal ecm
4.2
S-D
40 (Pulse Pressure)
Shape of current
continuous loop
What does pepsin digest?
proteins
Mercury (rotation)
59 days (very slow)
Field is parallel/perpendicular to equipotential surface.
perpendicular
Major refractive surface of eye?
Cornea
Eris
biggest Kuiper Belt object; bigger than Pluto!!!
____ light "bounces" off a surface
reflected
Mean arterial pressure
diastloic pressure + 1/3PP
Tonic receptor
slowly adapting, detect steady stimulus
endurance athletes typically have much higher resting cardiac output than non-athletes
false
O2 consumption is depressed post exercise while the body cools down and repays some of the metabolic demand of the exercise
false
age of solar system
5 billion years old
A polarizer does what to light?
rotates it
What is radioactivity?
The spontaneous decay or disintegration of an unstable atom, usually accompanied by the emission of ionizing radiation.
Skin CO 430 mL/min
9 % of total
ETT
excericise with EKG see where pt feels pain
constipation
describe the two sphincters of the rectum
isometric contraction
muscle held a constant lengthgenerates tension but does not contractamount of tension is a function of muscle fiber length
Motoneuron pool
group of motoneurons that innervates fibers within the same muscle
adhesivè
Coated with glue, paste, mastic, or other sticky substancê
axis tilt
23.5 degrees. is oriented to point directly to Polaris
phase shift in resistor
V and I change together
As energy is withdrawn from a liquid, molecular motion diminishes until the molecules, on the average, are moving slowly enough so that the attractive forces between them are able to cause cohesion
Freezing
flow autoregulation
maintain blood flow in face of changesin MAP. occurs by increasing BP, cause BF to increase but organ doest need it so constrict the arteriole to the organ
what does the gallbladder do?
stores and concentrates bile
increase of H, leads to increase of Ca, stablizing Na channels, making them less excitable
Ogliodendrocytes
the diaphragm rises to dome shape when it contracts, causing exhalation
false
tropical year
time from one spring equinox to the next = 365.36 mean solar years.
Lens abberation
when a thin lens blurs the image instead of focusing it
Tell about temperature...
Atoms in matter are in motion. Particles have kinetic energy. Random movements. Temperature is the average kinetic energy of particles in matter. Higher the kinectic energy, the higher the temperature.
distinctive feature of cardiac aaction potential
plateu phase exists between depolarization and repolarization causing a long action potential
Major Components of the Circulatory system
Heart: pump provides force
Layers of retina (outside in)
Pigment cell layerphotoreceptor layer (R and C)Outer nuclear layer (cell bodies of R and C)Outer plexiform layer (synapse of p-receptor and bipolar)Inner nuclear layer (cell bodies of bipolar)Inner plexiform layer (synapse of bipolar and ganglion)Ganglion cell layerOptic nerve layer
asthma is primarily a problem with:a)pneumonia in the upper airwaysb)respiratory muscle weaknessc)small airway hyper-reactivityd)emphysemae)low hemoglobin concentrations in the blood
c- small airway hyper-reactivity
how much earlier to stars rise?
4 minutes earlier every day
__ is proportional to the number of field lines passing through a surface
strength of field
Second heart soundd
dub is result of closing the aortic and pulmonic valves at the end of systole
What is the buffering system in the small intestine?
bicarbonate and mucus
the QRS complex of the ECG represents atrial depolarization
false - ventricle
what causes slow filling phase of ventricle
atrial pressure wquals ventricular pressure
1) Autonomic NS-- SYMP: increases BP via increases in HR and SV PARA: Decreases BP via Decrease in HR
2) Baroreceptor Reflexes: high stretch= high BP (brain takes motor action to lower BP) (pulse frequency determine BP
What is hyperopia and what fixes it?
Farsightnednes-- light focuses behind retina
The second feature (the smallness of the ripples) was perplexing. On the one hand, we knew there had to be some non-uniformity. (Why?) But the near uniformity of the background had a puzzling implication: the universe seemed to be more uniform than it sho
- problem that universe expanded rapidly and was too young for radiation to have reached equilibrium.
- Alan Guth said that the universe underwent a period of cosmic inflation.
-according to inflation an infinitesimal volume expanded at a fantastic rate to a huge volume.
-But happend so early in cosmic history that density was still high after the inflation period.
- then hubble expansion occured
- it resolves the temperature problem because at very early stage all material in the visible universe was much more closely packed than a simple backwards extrapolation of Hubble law. so equilibrium would be reached.
-inflationary period then spread the nearly uniform material over a large volume and then the Hubble expansion leaves us in a universe where the radiation from all regions has the same spectrum.
-On the very largest scales, many orders of magnitude larger than our entire observable universe, there could be significant temperature variations but started inside preinflationary volume which was in complete equilibrium
PR interval
measure of time from P to Q it is the prolongation of conduction of AP through the AV node
1) cortex: highly vascularized, isotonic to plasma2) medulla: progressively hypertonic3) renal pelvis:hollow collecting tube for urine
how much of the cardiac output goes through the kidneys?
Describe blood through the GI system
PU nutriets in GI and delivers them to the interstitial space.Metabolic waste products enter the blood from the interstidal space and are delivered by the blood to many organs for elimination from body
m= viscosity of the fluid being pumped
L= vessel length (comes with rapid weight change)
What is the flocculent spiral form?
A star (or a cluster of stars) forms, and the massive ones evolve quickly, exploding as supernovae. The blast wave compresses nearby gas, leading to more star formation.
In this way, a fairly broad region of star formation can happen in quick succession. The rotation of the galaxy stretches this out into one of many stubby disconnected spiral arms.
What happens with blood O2 at the periphery?
OXYGEN LEAVES THE BLOOD AND ENTERSTHE INTERSTITIAL SPAACE AND CARBON DIOXIDE LEAVES THE INTERSTIATIAL SPACE AND ENTERS THE BLOOD
Diffence in CO between R and L heart
no difference they are in series so the CO is equal on both sides
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