AP Lab Review for Biology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pericardium
Earthworm
Phylum Annelida
Protosome
Description: segmented worms
Symmetry: bilateral
Digestion: complete
Body Cavity: coelom
Reproduction: sexual
Special: nerve cord that runs down length of body with ganglia (mass of neurons)*
5 aortic arches
Jellyfish
Phylum Cnidaria
Class Schyphozoa
Description: medusa (mouth down)
Symmetry: radial
Tissue Layers: epidermis, mesoglea, endodermis
Digestion: incomplete
Special: nematocysts- "stinging cells"- used to capture food
nerve net- sensory cells
hydrostatic skeleton- uses water to provide support and movement
Reproduction: sexually an asexually (fission)
Sea Biscuit
Phylum Echinodermata
Deuterostome
Description: "having spiny skin"
Symmetry: larvae- bilateral; adults- radial
Digestion: complete
Body Cavity: coelom
Reproduction: sexual
Special: move by "tube feet"- water vascular system
right iliac region
cecum
appendix
Sea Squirt
Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Urochordata
Deuterostome
Description: tunicate- have jelly-like "tunic" covering
Symmetry: bilateral
Digestion: complete
Body Cavity: coelom
Reproduction: sexual
Characteristics: Seen in larval stage:
Notochord
Tail
Dorsal nerve chord
Muscular pharynx w/ gill slits at entrance to
digestive system
Seen in Adult Stage:
Only muscular pharynx
Blue-footed Booby
Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Aves
Deuterostome
Description: birds
Symmetry: bilateral
Digestion: complete
Body Cavity: coelom
Reproduction: sexual: internal- shelled egg
Characteristics: Notochord
Tail
Dorsal nerve chord
Muscular pharynx w/ gill slits at entrance to
digestive system
Wings, feathers, hollow bones, beak
Lungs
Four chambered heart*
Endothermic- warm blooded*
Sea Anenome
Phylum Cnidaria
Class Anthozoa
Description: polyp (mouth up)
Symmetry: radial
Tissue Layers: epidermis, mesoglea, endodermis
Digestion: incomplete
Special: nematocysts- "stinging cells"- used to capture food
nerve net- sensory cells
hydrostatic skeleton- uses water to provide support and movement
Reproduction: sexually and asexually (fission)
frontal
pertaining to the forehead
dorsum
pertaining to the back
axillary
pertaining to the armpit
coxal
pertaining to the hip
synapsis
process by which homologous chromosomes come together to form a tetrad
pubic
pertaining to the genital region
beta-carotene
the most abundant carotenoid accessory pigment in plants. It is carried near the solvent front during chromatography because it is very soluble in the solvent being used and because it contains no atoms that form hydrogren bonds with cellulose.
hypotonic
the solution with a lower concentration of solutes
hypertonic
the solution with a HIGHER concentration of solutes
enzymes
biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions
palmer
pertaining to the palm of hand
hypertonic
 
contains more non penetrating solute particles than the interior of the cell into a surrounding hypertonic solution by osmosis
Cell Respiration
Construct a respirometer that will measure oxygen consumption of sprouted and unsprouted seeds. 2. Set up a controlled experiment to measure the effects of different temperatures of the rate of respiration
telophase
the final stage of mitosis, consisting of the formation of a new nuclear envelope around each group of chromosomes. The chromosomes gradually uncoil to form chromatin once again.
Plasmids Xtra Info
can transfer genes(ex: antibiotic resistance) that occur naturally within them. can act as carriers for introducing foreign DNA from other bacteria, plasmids, or even eukaryotes int recipient bacterial cells.
microtubules
part of the mitotic spindle that attaches to the centromere during metaphase
map unit
unit of measurement to describe relative distances between linked genes
passive transport
 
 moving biochemicals and atomic or molecular substances across the cell membrane. Unlike active transport, this process does not involve chemical energy. The four main kinds of
are diffusion, facilitated diffusion, filtration and osmosis.
sacral
pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
popliteal
pertaining to the back of the knee
selectively permeble
membrane which allows some materials to pass through and not others
hypodermis
 
 
subcutaneous tissue just depp to the skin: consist of adipose plus some areolar connective tissue
substrate
a molecule acted upon by an enzyme. This molecule has the proper shape allowing it to fit into the active site of the enzyme.
Restriction endonucleases contd.
they recognize specific DNA sequences in double-stranded DNA and digest the DNA at these sites, resulting in production of fragments of DNA of various lengths.
meiosis I
first of 2 divisions that reduces chromosome number from 2n to n
interphase
(between phases)
 
the longest stage of the cell cycle.
as the cell prepares for mitosis, the chromosomes replicate during the S phase

G1   


  S phase   


 G2   
females reproductive system
 
overall function is to produce offspring
ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. the remaining female structure serves as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. mammory glands of female breast produce milk
 
mammory glands, ovary, uterus, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes
Genetics- The Fruit Fly
Determine the pattern of inheritance of a particular trait in fruit flies 2. Analyze data using chi square test
Testape
a piece of paper that changes color in response to glucose concentration
initial rate
the linear rate at which a chemical reaction undergoes in the early period
mitosis
(eukaryotes)
(divion 1/ 2 daughter cells)
Used for repair, growth, and replacement
Produces two identical daughter cells
(somatic cells)
 
Question to the Osmosis lab
Does solute concentration affect the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane?
Sample Hypothesis: As the molarity of sucrose inside of a dialysis bag increases, the mass of the bag will increase due to increased osmosis into the bag.
ventral body cavity
 
anterior and larger of the closed body cavities
 
has 2 major subdivisions: the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
 
 
need to know what organs are in each cavity
sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
a strong acid that is used to denature the enzyme
Experimental Procedures to Diffusion lab
Experimental Group: Place 15 ml of a 15% glucose/ 1% starch solution inside of a bag made of dialysis tubing. Tie the bag at both ends and place it inside of a beaker containing 150 ml of water and 4 ml of IKI. Allow the setup to stand for 30 minutes or until a distinct color change is seen in the bag or beaker. Record the final color of the solution in the bag and the solution in teh beaker. Test the liquid in the beaker and in the bag with glucose Testape.
Control Group: Repeat the above experiment, except place 15 ml of water inside of the bag.
Variables: the dependent variable is the concentration of glucose in the beaker and the color of the solutions inside of the beaker and inside of the bag. The independent variable is whether glucose/starch or water is inside of the bag.
Question to Determing the Water Potential of Potato Cells
What is the wtaer potential of potato cells?
Sample Hypothesis: The water potential of potato cells will be lower than that of pure water.
Question to the Enzyme Catalyzed Rate of H2O2 Decompostition
Does the rate of a catalase catalyzed reaction remain constant over a 180 second period of time?
Sample Hypothesis: The rate of a catalase cataylzed reaction will decrease as time progresses over a period of 180 seconds.
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Term:
Definition:
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