physical anthropology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Australopithecus
Australopithecus aferensis
Parapatric
Partial isolation
lemuridae
medium, dayactive. prior=primate-prosimian-lemuriform
Osteology
the study of bones
Regulatory Genes
control gene expression
Archaeology
deals with past cultures
cultural behavior is ________.
learned
Altruism
Behavior that benefits another individual at some potential risk or cost to oneself
Curvier
Started the theory of catastrophism
Eosimias
oldest anthropoid, 90-180g, Dentition: Insectivory (+frugivory), Arboreal quadruped, Controversial to whether it was an anthropoid until post cranial was discovered and studied, Less leaping than omomyids
Microevolution
evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
Conspecifics
Members of the same species.
Gene Frequency
how often genes occur
anthropometry
measurement of human body parts
Friendly intentions and relationships are reinforced through _____.
grooming
Marcellin Boule
based reconstruction of neanderthals on "old Man" skeleton; didn't believe Neanderthals were our ancestors; reconstruction showed Neanderthals as brutish, primitive, unable to stand upright
Matt Cartmill
"visual predation hypothesis", that primate traits derive from an ancestral adaptation to feeding on insects at night, with a need for improved vision
gene
unit of inherited information in DNA
Cultural Anthropology
study of human social developement
Galileo
1564-1642, said that Copernicus was right. Out on trial b/c he offended the pope, He had to recount his statement
prosimians
members of suborders of primates. traditionally the suborder includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers.
fossils
the preserved remnants of once-living things, often buried in the ground.
lighter people located more____
near the poles
Somatic Cells
-components of body tissue
-soma= greek for 'body'
Comparative Approach
comparing human populations to determine common and unique behaviors or biological traits
Allopatric Speciation
Complete isolation between breeding groups
genes flow
exchange of genes between populations
What biochemical and/or genetic methods have been used to determine the evolutionary relationships of the great apes and humans?
DNA hybridization
Dmanisi
, Georgia. 1.7-1.8 mya. the oldest known archaeological site outside of Africa.
Karl Landsteiner
United States pathologist (born in Austria) who discovered human blood groups (1868-1943)
observation on finches
natural selection transformed 1 species of finch into 14 varieties so that they could all co-exist
Malthus
Inspired Wallace and Darwin by his essay on the principles of natural selection in 1798.
Catopithecus
o Postorbital plate (anthropoid)
o 2 premolars
o Earliest catarrhine!
o Still not very big (900g)
o Molar shearing crest suggest frugivory but eating leaves as protein source?
stratigraphy
the study of sequential layering of deposits.
Clone
a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell or individual by some kind of asexual reproduction
Binomial nomenclature
Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
lithostratigraphy
the study of geologic deposits and their formation, stratigraphic relationships, and relative time relationships based on their lithologic (rock) properties.
Glaciations
a period of global cooling during which continental ice sheets and mountain glaciers expand
folivore
An animal whose diet consists mostly of leaves.
Oldowan Tradition
first stone tool industry beginning btwn 2.5 and 2.6 mya, made from very fine grained stone (like flint), had to travel to acquire stone and plan how to use it
Meiosis
creation of sex cells by replication of chromosomes followed by cell division; genetic code passed on; sex cell replication
biocultural evolution
the mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolution; a basic concept in understanding the unique components of human evolution.
Australopithecus afarensis
Hadar and Laetoli. Famous skeleton known as Lucy (3.7-3.5 mya). Shares more primitive features with other early hominoids and with living great apes than do later hominids, who display more derived characteristics. Primitive teeth; crest in the back of cranium; and a small brain. Relative to lower limbs, the upper limbs are longer than in modern humans. Likely not very tall (less than 5 feet). Likely very sexually dimorphic. Efficient bipedal locomotion, and curved fingers
East African Paranthropus fossils are so robust, they were placed in their own separate species, known as _________.
Paranthropus boisei
Biochemical Inheritance
A. DNA structure
1. Double Helix
2. sugars, phosphate, bases: Thymine-Adenine/Guanine-Cytosine
3. Human genome ~ 60bill. base pair in every cell that code for ~ 30,000 genes
Robert Fitzroy
Captain of the Beagle, advertised for a companion on his voyage, which Darwin filled.
Amino acids
small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules
acclimatization to heat
They have vasodilation ( the capillaries near surface widen), and perspiration.
gradualism
a model of evolution in which gradual change over a long period of time leads to biological diversity
gene sequencing
process of determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes and genomes
ecological niche
(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)
taphonomy
the study of what happens to the remains of an animal from the time of death to the time of discovery.
lucy
from hadar, 3.2 MYA and an au. afarensis, ecv 380cc
Upper Paleolithic
last part of (10kya-40kya)of Old Stone Age featuring tool industries known by long slim blades and an explosion of creative symbolic forms
Allen's rule
Long extremities are better adapted to hot climates because you have more surface area so you'll get rid of more heat. Short legs and arms are better adapted to cold climates to reduce heat loss.
Mechanisms of Evolution
Factors that produce variation within the gene pools of populations.
ancestral traits
the preferred term in anthropology to refer to characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and thus not diagnostic of groups that diverged after the character first appeared.
In mammals the proportion of behaviors under genetic control...
is reduced.
Continental Drift
theory that states that there was a supercontinent that split into the continents of today
stratigraphic correlation
The process of matching up strata from several sites through the analysis of chemical, physical, and other properties
Differences in assumptions between scientific and theological systems of knowledges
scientific knowledge is falsifiable while theology is faith based. one is science, while one is not
optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)
electron trap technique that uses light to measure the amount of radioactivity accumulated by crystals in sediments (such as sand grains) since burial.
Binocular vision
Vision in which both eyes can focus together on a distant object to produce three-dimensional images.
Genetic adaptations for cold
Short & Stocky
Short arms and legs
High long noses - arctic nose
Evenly distributed layer of fat in the body - insulation
HIgh blood flow to extremities especially in fingers
Rounded skulls - less surface area, less heat loss
Coding DNA:
Codes for sequences of amino acids or RNA molecules. Only 2% of our DNA, includes exons within functional genes
prehensility
Grasping, as by the hands and feet of primates.
bishop james ussher
said earth was only 6000 years old; based on religious text
People in the subtropics and temperate regions have_______skin
lighter skin
ability to tan
Hadar site - location 333
13 individuals
Like they were walking together and looked like they all died together
No babies or old people
Young children and some adults
The purpose of scientific research:
generate more accurate and consistent explanations of phenomena in our universe based on observation and testing.
Features of Eocene primates:
1) primates 2) widely distributed 3) mostly extinct by end of Eocene. Some of them are probably ancestors of the prosimians (lemurs and lorises).
In what ways is the concept of race used today?
Census forms
applications
identifications
options when dealing with carrying capacity
1. limit the population
2. increase food supply
3. migration
Point mutations in both coding and noncoding DNA are known as _________.
single nucleotide polymorphism (e.x: sickle cell anemia).
What is meant by Slow virus
Slow incubation periods or latency - time period between when you catch it and start seeing it 1-12 years
Entire populations have adapted to high altitudes, as in the case of the __________.
indigenous peoples of Tibet and the Quecha. Both peoples of Tibet and the Quechua burn glucose more efficiently.
How do mutations differ from other mechanisms of evolution?
They happen within the individual and change the gene. Others happen in populations and combine genetic material.
Explain why anthropologists object to race concept.
They feel it's a social concept not a biological one. People are mainly separated by culture not by any biological element.
Gametes
Reproductive Cells
Zygote
Fertilized egg
Melanin is__________
natures sunscreen
primatology
study of non-human primates
_________of Homo sapiens
No subspecies
3 inner ear bones
amplification
diurnal
Active during the day.
Empirical
based on observation or experiment
taboo
forbidden behavior (marrying your sister)
cladogram
A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by cladistic analysis. It is based solely on interpretation of shared derived characters. No time component is indicated, and ancestor-descendant relationships are not implied.
species
(biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
2 Reasons for DNA Replication
Mitosis
and
Meiosis
Individual
basic unit of natural selection
Mutation
Evolutionary changes produced by random factors
hand-axe
type of Acheulean bifacial tool, usually teardrop-shaped, with a long cutting
edge
Ethogram
A complete inventory or descriptive catalog of the behavior patterns of a given species
Charles Lyell
geologist; created law of Uniformitarianism (if it's true then, it's true now). Worked to removed God from geological processes
natural selection
differential reproductive success over multiple generations.
Plato
"World of Ideals," For everything, there is an ideal or perfect counterpart
intraspecific
between species; refers to the variation beyond that seen within the same species to include additional aspects seen between two different species
Recessive
Describing a trait that isn't expressed in heterozygotes; also refers to the allele that governs the trait. For a recessive allele to be expressed, an individual must have two copies of it
ardi
adult female skeleton described in 2009 has adducted hallux
pastoralism
breeding and managing migratory herds ofdomesticated grazing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, llamas, and camels
Genotype
Genetic endowment of an individual (the gene saying/coding that you are going to have brown eyes)
Pangea
single colossal landmass that formed during the late Paleozoic
K-selected
Pertaining to an adaptive strategy whereby individuals produce relatively few offspring, in whom they invest increased parental care. Although only a few infants are born, chances of survival are increased for each one because of the parental investments in time and energy. Examples of K-selected nonprimate species are bierds and canids.
micronutrients
Nutrients required in small or trace amounts. Some examples are phosphorus, sulfur, and potassium.
Charles Darwin
british biologist who introduced the ideas of natural selection and evolution; argued that specific behaviors evolved because they led to advantages in survival or reproduction
chromosomal mutation
any event that changes genetic structure
classification
the arrangement of organisms by their physical similarities, which reflect historical and evolutionary relationships
macaques
group of old world monkeys comprising several species, including rhesus monkeys.
Catastrophism
The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each boundary between strata corresponded in time to a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that had destroyed many of the species living there at that time.
Random Assortment
The chance distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells during meiosis; along with recombination, a source of genetic variation from meiosis
Indigenous people in the tropics have_______skin
dark skin
What are cusps?
a series of enamel bumps
action theory
theory that self-serving actions by forceful leaders play a role in civilization's emergence
Co-Dominant
when two different alleles are present in a genotype and they are both expressed
Dominant
Describing a trait that is expressed in heterozygotes. (T)
adaptive radiations
the relatively rapid expansion and diversification of life-forms into new ecological niches.
semibrachiators
Practice a combination of leaping with some arm swinging. Include mariquis, and spider monkeys.
______ is an effective mechanism for cooling the human body, and aided by our humans lack of hair.
Sweating
polymorphisms
Loci with more than one allele. Polymorphisms can be expressed in the phenotype as the result of gene action (as in ABO), or they can exist solely at the DNA level within noncoding regions.
bifacial
1. having two faces or fronts 2. having the opposite surfaces alike, as some tools
Haplorhini
(dry nose) A suborder of the primates that includes New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, tarsiers and apes (including humans).
genetic drift
gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events
paleolithic
old stone age --> nomadic (hunt & gather), stone tools, no writing
chordata
The phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates.
Klinefelter's syndrome
XXY chromosome -> sterile and "female like" make
Allele
Alternate forms of a gene. occur at the same locus on both members of a pair of chromosomes, and they influence the same trait. But because they're slightly different from one another, their action may result in different expressions of that trait. The term allele is sometimes used synonymously with gene
KNM-ER 1470
Richard Leakey found it, 1.9 MYA, male, orthognathic, 770 cc, very large cheek teeth (says root) also classified as rudolfensis
Neandertals
a distinct group within the Homo genus inhabiting Europe and SW Asia from approx. 30kya to 125kya
Oldest Homo erectus fossils found in
East Lake Turkana
Alleles
different forms of the same gene which control characteristics in different ways.
70 trillion possibilities in one mating pair
E. Darwin
life originated in the sea, all species share a common ancestor, cast amint of time for life to evolve, competition for resources, environment is key in the evolutionary process
Evidence suggests that the ______ was divergent and thus unlike the hominid pattern.
large toe
Mendell
He breed pea plants. He was able to predict the outcome of hybridization. he could do it over successive generations. Created the laws of heredity.
uranium series (U-series) techniques
radiometric techniques using the decay of uranium to estimate an age for calcium carbonates including flowstones, shells, and teeth.
Function of DNA
-Replication= the process by which DNA copies itself
 
-Protein Synthesis= helps in the creation of molecules that make up the organism
Heat escape model
Bipedalism was selected for so they could regulate their body temp better.
Living in open savannah woodland environment exposed to sun all the times. – upright less solar radiation 60% less
Interferes with your temp but also less mutation
The difference between phylogenetic trees and cladisitic analysis is:
Phylogenetic trees usually hypothesize ancestor-descendant relationships, where cladistic analysis (through cladograms) makes no attempt to discern ancestor-descendant relationships.
Dental formula
all Old World anthropoids = 2.1.2.3 = 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 3 molars on each side of midline

Generalized placental mammals = 3.1.4.3

Number of teeth vary among primates.

New World monkeys = 2.1.3.3
Out of Africa hypothesis
The idea that modern humans evolved from a second migration out of Africa that occurred about 100,000 years ago, replacing all the regional populations of hominids derived from the first migrations of Homo erectus out of Africa about 1.5 million years ago
melanin and skin color
Melanin is the gene responsible for skin pigmentation.
racism, brain before bipedalism, piltdown man
3 reasons no one believed Dart
Homo erectus - Nariokotome
West Turkana boy or wt 15,000 material
Young boy around 11 years old
Tall 5'6" adult he would have been 6'
1.6 m.y.b.p.
880 cc brain capacity - his brain capacity would have not grown much more because around puberty brain stops growing
Discovered 1884
Almost complete skeleton
Human Genome Project
a project that mapped the entire human genome
Miocene European forms:
The best known of the forms are Dryopithecus. The Greek fossils are called Ouranopithecus (about 9 to 10 mya).
endocast more human-like, foramen magnum placed forward
2 things Dart claimed about Taung child
modern definition of evolution
a change in allele frequency from one generation to the next
Cornerstone of the behavioral ecology perspective is..
behaviors have evolved through the operation of natural selection.
Homo - always capitalize and underline
Some fossil Man and all modern Man
The view held by most linguistics is that...
nonhuman communication is mostly involuntary vocalizations and actions that convey information about emotion state of the animal. Nonhuman animals haven't been considered capable about communication about external events, objects, or other animals.
High ranking baboons ____ the hindquarters of subordinates to express dominance.
mount. Which may also serve to defuse potentially tense situations.
What is the importance of variation within a population?
They allow for the population to adapt to changes in the environment.
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