Physical Anthropology 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
george cuvier
catastrophism
Taphonomy
Laws of burial
Do individuals evolve?
no
sedentary
stay in 1 place
Eukaryotes
-multicellular organisms, contain nucleus
-1.2 billion years old
Antogony
reproduction of single organism
mutation rate
~120 per human cell
Phylogeny
The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
colobinae
folivorous, narrow incisors, high sharp molar cusp, complex stomaches, arboreal, larger tails and hindlimbs. split colobus, langurs, proboscis. prior= primate-anthropoid-catarrhini- cercopithecodea-___
sexual dimorphism
Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species. For example, humans are slightly dimorphic for body size, with males being taller, on average, than females of the same population.
RNA
Ribonucleic acid. A single-stranded molecule similar in structure to DNA. Three forms of RNA are essential to protein synthesis: messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA
agriculture
intensive crop cultivation, employing plows, fertilizers, and/or irrigation
Hominoids - characteristics
No tail
Dental formula
centromere
constricted portion of chromosome. after replication, the two strands ofa double-stranded chromosome are joined at the centromere.
Paranthropus boisei
Formerly know as Zinjanthropus ________; a later ROBUST australopithecine from East Africa that was contemporaneous with A. robustus and A. africanus and had the robust cranial traits, including large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments.
Pongidae
great apes; orangs: arboreal; gorilla and pan: knuckle walkers
Anthropocentric
interpreting everything in terms of human experience and values
Lysenkoism
soviet-era research program that tried to apply Lamarckian thinking to agricultural production
phylogenetic tree
a chart showing evolutionary relationships through times in history and the ancestors of the organism, its similar to a family tree works.
Distributions of the Diego antigen, type B and type O blood in terms of human evolution and distribution
...
Gametes
Reproductive cells (eggs and sperm) developed from precursor cells in ovaries and testes
Stereoscopic vision
Vision in which three-dimensional images are produced because each eye sends a signal of the visual image to both hemispheres in the brain. Stereoscopic vision requires binocular vision.
Cosquer
discovered 1985 by diver Henri Cosquer, orig. entrance 115ft below (today's) sea level, huge chamber partly above sea where gallery exists: 177 animal figures found (presence of many sea animal to testify influence of local envir. on myths, horses and some rare animals) and 65 hand stencils; possibly very 1st example of specific medicine making in world history (27 kya)
Homologous Chromosomes
Identical chromosome pairs
In normal cells all would be _____ except sex in men
metabolism
the chemical processes within cells that break down nutrients and release energy for the body to use.
epoch
smallest unit of geological time scale
behavioral plasticity
The ability learn new bejaviors.
Acheulian Complex
The culture associated with H. erectus, including handaxes and other types of stone tools; more refined than the earlier Oldowan tools
Atapuerca
Human remains found in caves, 900,000 years ago, Spain, Discovered possible intentional burial, earlier than neanderthals
Stabilizing selection
intermediate forms are favored and extreme forms are eliminated
Cebidae
larger of the new world monkeys, 2.1.3.3., some prehensile tails, arboreal, new world monkey
Cenozoic
noting or pertaining to the present era, beginning 65 million years ago and characterized by the ascendancy of mammals.
binomial nomenclature
linnaean naming system for all organisms, consisting of a genus and species label.
clade
a group organisms sharing a common ancestor. the group includes the common ancestor and all descendants.
Hardy Weinburg
allele frequencies in population will remain constant unless one or more factors cause the frequency to change. Factors: 1. Large popultaion, 2. Random mating, 3. No migration, 4. No mutation, 5. No natural selection.
crossing over
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
gregor mendel
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)
Taxonomy
The branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships
au. afarensis
3.6-3.0 MYA, valgus knee, lumbar lordosis, broad, short, pelvis, laterally facing ilium, long powerful arms and short legs, long curved phalanges, intermediate size canine, big molars w/ thick enamel, ecv 530cc mean 430cc small brain
savanna
A large, flat grassland with scattered trees and shrubs. Savannas are found in many regions of the world with dry and warm-to-hot climates.
4.2 million years before present
Oldest Astrolopithicus animensis
Why is the process of Meiosis necessary?
reproduction
paleopathology
the branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal remains.
Benefit another individual at some potential cost or risk to oneself:
Altrustic behaviors
polyandry
A mating system where a female continuously associates with more than one male (usually 2 or 3) with whom she mates. Among nonhuman primates, polyandry is seen only in marmosets and tamarins. It also occurs in a few human societies.
biological determinism
The concept that phenomena, including carious aspects of behavior are governed by biological factors; the inaccurate association of various behavioral attributes with certain biological traits, such as skin color.
Raymond Dart
Australian born working in Africa who found the Tuang Child, attempts to explain behavior of early austropithecines with KILLER APE MODEL based on Makapansgat
Diploid Numbers
Total chromosome number in cells that have a pair of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species.
punctuated equilibrium
pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change
Bottle Neck effect
rapid dramatic changes during which individuals die without passing their genes on, limiting the next generations variation. EX= black plague
continental drift
the movement of continents on sliding plates of earths surface. as a result the positions of large landmasses have shifted dramatically during the earths history.
homodont
having teeth that are uniform in form, shape, and function.
evolution
a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
Pre-Cursor World
Hypothesis trying to explain how life emerged from a template.
socioecology
The study of how social structure is influenced by ecological conditions. Socioecological models posit that the distribution of resources influences competitive regimes, which in turn influence the distribution of females, dispersal patterns, the nature of dominance relationships, and the quality of social bonds among females.
A. boisei
fossils found in East Africa (approx. 1.75 mya), have enormous molars and premolars,large mandibles, sagittal crest, prominent brow ridges, skull more massive than other robusts (discovered by Leakeys)
Phyletic Gradualism
groups of organisms related to each other change slowly over time; microevolution occuring at a very slow rate (Darwin's straight line)
Phylogenetic Evolution
Changes in gene frequencies with in the gene pools of breeding populations.
Polygenetic traits
Influenced by more than one gene. Expression may be much influenced by environment, distribution of phenotypes is continuous with no discrete categories.
Physical anthropologists and other biologists have who study modern human variation have largely abandoned the traditional perspective of describing superficial phenotypic characteristics in favor of..
measuring actual genetic characteristics
Is the condition whereby visual images are superimposed on one another, provides for depth perception, and is party a function of structures in the brain:
Stereoscopic vision
The Study of Human Adaptation
physiological adjustments to the Earth's physical Environment
Biological continuum
the notion that humans aren't part of any kind of evolutionary hierarchy. It's more of a continuum, a set of relationships that all fall under one integrated spectrum.
Mendelian VS. Polygenetic traits
Mendelian traits are discrete traits. controlled by alleles at only ONE POINT OF THE LOCUS
Polygenetic traits are nondiscrete. controlled by alleles at TWO or more points of the LOCI
Charels Darwin
sailed on the HMS Beagle and studied finches in the galapogose islands
Pleistocene
The epoch of the Cenozoic from 1.8 mya until 10,000 ya. AKA: Ice Age
Ardipithecus ramidus
one of the earliest bipeds that lived in eastern Africa
Gene pool
Sun of genes every individual of a population carries. Controls all physical characteristics.
recombination (or crossing over)
the exchange of genetic material between partner chromosomes during meiosis, and increases genetic variation in populations.
The first scientific attempt to describe the newly discovered variation among human populations was...
Linnaeus' taxonomic classification, which placed humans into four separate categories, each with behavioral and intellectual qualities,
Divergent selection
one side or the other of the bell curve is favored
adaptive niche
the entire way of life of an organism; where it lives, what it eats, how it gets food, how it avoids predators. etc.
basal metabolic rate
The rate of energy use required to maintain life when an animal is at rest
Processes that do not change gene frequencies in the population
1. Crossing-over
2. Recombination
3. Mating
What two bacteria can cause a spontaneous pneumothorax?
staph and pseudo. pneumo
Out of Africa ("Eve") Hypothesis
hypothesis that all modern people are derived from one single population of archai H. sapiens from Africa who migrated out of Africa after 100kya replacing all other archaic forms due to their superior cultural capabilities
hemoglobin S is related to:
sickle cell anemia, and areas with malaria have higher occurrences of sickle cell anemia because those with hemoglobin S are more resistant to the malaria parasite.
physiology of skin color ( thickness, carotene, reflection of blood vessels)
Transparency or thickness of skin. Carotene is a copper colored pigment. Reflected color from blood vessels.
Early Homo are a partial exception from other Early African Hominids because...
this group shows both increased encephalization and numerous occurrences of likely association with stone tools).
What is the relation between body size and choice of habitat(arboreal/terrestrial etc) in relation to being nocturnal/diurnal?
nocturnal- smaller, more solitary, and more exclusively arboreal. rely more on olfactory signals.
GRASP (Great Ape Survival Project) and WildlifeDirect:
Organizations that are trying to save the mountain gorillas.
Chimpanzees exhibit ______, which is a behavior once believed to be unique to humans.
Tool use. By using twigs and grass blades to fish termites from their mounds.
megadontia
enlarged teeth.
Bipedal
having two feet
Eutheria
Only placental mammals
indridae
biggest, no tail. prior=primate-prosimian-lemuriform
Kabwe
Early Archaic Hominid
Rhodesian man
Complete transitionary form
Phenotype
physical expression of the genes
Loris
asia, slow climbing, overlapping territories (solitary), defense behavior=omit bad smell, roll into spikey ball
hylobatidae
split gibbons and siamangs. prior=primate-anthropoid-catarrhini-hominodea-_____
homologies
similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor.
___________combined with_______leads to physical diversity within and between populations
differential adaptation
genetic drift
First Homo erectus found in
Java
Mamalia - characteristics
Mammary glands
Viviparous birth
Endothermic
4 chambered heart
3 inner ear bones
some hair
differentiated vertebral columns
Hard upper pallets
Heterodont dentition
pathogens
Any agents, especially microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi, that infect a host and cause disease.
Gene
location on the chromosome with specific instructions
Orangutan
An arboreal anthropoid ape (Pongo pygmaeus) of Borneo and Sumatra, having a shaggy reddish-brown coat, very long arms, and no tail.
Grooming
Indicates submission or reassurance in dominance hierarchies; picking through fur to remove dirt, parasites, and other materials that may be present. Reinforces social relationships.
secular trend
Differences between generations - lifestyle changes
microliths
small stone tools usually produced from narrow blades punched from a core; found especially in africa during the latter part of the pleistocene.
Meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Paleoanthropology
The interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominins - their chronology, physical structure, archaeological remains, habitats and so on
Suspensory
IMI: >100Forelimbs are longer than hindlimbs
Homo rudolfansis
East Lake Turkana
Larger brain capacity
Endothermic
Capable of controlling internal body temp on its own
bionomial nomenclature
"two names", in taxonomy, the convention established by Linnaeus whereby genus and species names are used to refer to species. For example, Homo sapiens refers to human beings.
midline
Anatomical term referring to a hypothetical line that divides the body into left and right halves.
Ethnologists
study human societies and the behavior people within those societies
Nucleotides
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
Synapomorphies
A trait that certain groups of organisms have that exists in no others.
cladogenesis
branching evolution occurs when a new species branches out from a parent species; rapid
genotype
The alleles possessed for a particular trait.
chimps
(PAN) split common and bonobo, prior= primate-anthropoid-catarrhini-hominodea-pongidae-________
classification
in biology, the ordering of organisms into categories such as oprders, families, and genera to show evolutionary relationships.
endogamy
marriage within the tribe, caste, or social group
haploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
Amino Acids
Small molecules that are the components of proteins
michel Brunet 2002
who found sahelanthropus tchadensis and when
Homo erectus - South Africa
Use of Fire
Balanced Polymorphism
when adaptation is selected for heterozygous alleles
Good example of natural selection - it's not perfect but the best available
Reproductively isolated:
Pertaining to groups of organisms that, mainly because of genetic differences, are prevented from mating and producing offspring with members of other group.s
Differences in size and structure between males and females:
sexual dimorphism
Lufengpithecus
Fossil material found from the Lufeng site in Southern China.
cusps
The elevated portions (bumps) on the chewing surfaces of premolar and molar teeth.
Australopithecus garhi
2.5 mya in Ethiopia; 450 cc; bipedalism, prognathic face, large molars; culture-meat eating by scavenging and beginning of stone tool use
Mendel's peas
crossed pea plants; studied modes of inheritance
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
He argued that ancestral giraffes had stretched their necks to reach leaves higher up trees. Their necks became slightly longer and their longer necks were inherited by their offspring. (Inheritance of acquired characteristics)
He used the term biology to refer to the study of living organisms.
Three examples of phenotypic characteristics of a population (race) which are related to climatic/environmental adaptation.
Gloger's Rule
Bergman's Rule
Allen's Rule
lumbar vertebrae
the five vertebrae of the lower back.
Carlous Linnaeus
One of the first taxonomists- he classified all know plants and animals of during the 1750-1760's period.
Middle Pleistocene
The portion of the Pleistocene epoch beginning 780,000 ya and ending 125,000 ya.
TRISOMY 21
DOWN SYNDROME, 3RD CHROMOSOME COPY ON 21
 
1 OUT OF EVERY 1,000
Tool
an artifact that was used for a specific purpose
Polgenic traits
trait influenced by one or more genes
What is the basic unit of natural selection?
Individual
ribosome
organelle composed of a form of RN called ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein. Essential to the manufacture of proteins.
Differs for the isotopes of different elements:
a half-life
Sickle Cell Anemia
(you can live w/sickle cell trait) more likely to have problems though
Linguistic anthropology
study of how people use language to relate to each other and how they develop and transmit culture
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
sickle-cell anemia
low O2 from irregular shaped RBC , joint pain, thrombosis, anemia fever.
Aramis, Ethiopia (Awash River)
where ardipithecus kadabba and Au. ramidus were found
Distinguishing Cranial Traits btwn Homo and Australopithecus
larger cranial capacity than Australopithecus, more rounded crania, absence of any crests or flaring zygomatic arches (cheeks that support chewing habits), small facial skeleton relative to brain case size, absence of dish-shaped face, less massive jaw, smaller molars and premolars, true parabolic-shaped dental arch
Give an example of a polymorphic trait.
Sickle cell anemia
dominant
a trait governed by n allele that can expressed in the presence of another, different allele. Dominant alleles prevent the expression of recessive alleles in heterozygotes.
In Africa, most fossil discoveries have come from either _______ or _______.
East or South Africa.
ABO Blood Groups
An example of a trait that is determined by multiple alleles
sex chromosomes
one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human, contains genes that will determine the sex of the individual
A. anamensis
oldest known so far (btwn 3.9 and 4.2 mya) "ape man of the lake"; particularities include sectorial premolar shaped to hone upper canine like apes, and (like other A. and humans, enamel in molars is thick and limb bone fragments indicate bipedalism
What is a nucleotide?
One phosphate, one sugar and one base.
sagittal crest
A ridge of bone that runs down the middle of the cranium like a short Mohawk. This serves as the attachment for the large temporal muscles, indicating strong chewing.
Culture/ biology of lactose intolerance
That lactase decreases as you get older and you can no longer eat dairy products because the lactose can not be broken down. This is prevalent in countries where dairy is not a everyday nutrition. Prevalent in West Africa, Europe, and some South America.
Hadar site - 2006 discovery
Young child in Ethiopia
at least 3 years of age
complete skull and teeth
found knee cap
fingers with natural curve
scapula and leg bones
Characteristics of marmosets and tamarsins..
Smallest of the New World monkeys; aboreal quadrupeds; claws for climbing; eat insects, gums, fuits; mated pair; extensive infant care.
The world pictures by scholars before the reformation
priests/monks were the chief purveyors of knowledge and in lieu of physical law, it was God who willed the world as it was.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, a German anatomist, classified humans into five races: white, yellow, red, black, and brown, and used criteria other than skin color, arguing that...
categories based on skin color were arbitrary and many traits, including skin color, weren't discrete phenomena.
What are the costs/benefits of living in groups? What are the costs/benefits of living monogamously?
benefits of sociality: better able to acquire and control resources, less vulnerable to predators, can chase lone individuals away to protect resourcescosts: more competitions over access to food and mates, more vulnerable to disease, face various hazards of conspecifics
In what ways do Bonobos differ from chimpanzees?:
The relationships with other sympatric primates species
How does gene flow affect the idea of race?
Gene flow between populations means no 'race' can be distinguished from another
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