Physical Anthropology Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
extinct species
societies learned habits
sex cells (sperm, ovum)
active during the day
Different forms of genes
Cells of the body
of or living in trees
Started the theory of uniformitarianism
French aristocrat and naturalist, Historie Naturelle (1749-1804): 44 volume encyclopedia, One of the 1st prominent scientists to suggest that: The earth> 6000 years old, The species change over time, Noted anatomical similarity between humans and apes and discussed possibility of common ancestry (no mechanism though)
(biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
Yohannes Hailes-Selassie
who found ardipithecus kadabba
Linguistic Anthropology
study of human language
a chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by cladistic analysis. It's based solely on the interpretation of shared derived characters. It contains no time component and does not imply ancestor-descendant relationships.
comparative genomics
'direct' between-species comparisons of DNA sequences. Different that 'indirect' methods, that include comparing amino acids (only 1 amino acid seperates us from chimpanzees).
forensic anthropology
Primarily concerned with the identification and examination of human skeletal remains, which can be used to reveal the sex, approximate age, race, and the presence of skeletal injury of a subject.
Complex traits
"continuously distributed," no clear boundaries so no exact categories (height, hair color; involve the environment)
Protein that is produced by lymphocytes and that attaches to a specific antigen.
the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures
Expansive change in allele frequency over expansion time
o Adapoid
o Middle Eocene (N. America)
o 5-7 kg (~large sifaka)
o P-O Bar
o Small Orbits (Diurnal)
o Molars w/ well-developed shearing crests: Folivory (+frugivory)
o Canine sexual dimorphism
o Strong male-male competition
o Gregarious (permanent social groups)
o Grasping hands and feet with nails instead of claws
o Arboreal quadruped
o Locomotion and ecology similar to ruffed lemur (ruffed lemur smaller and more frugivorous)
categories of the geological time scale; subdivisions of periods.
large complex polyer composed of carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen and usually sulfer
__________-is essential to Calcium absorption
Vitamin D
Stabilizing Selection
Selection against extremes, towards the average.
Very important site for H. erectus
Leakey family brought a lot of interest to this site which brings money which funds the research.
4 organizational levels of genetic study
Population - frequencies of characteristics
referring to traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci (ex: skin and eye color). Many polygenic traits are also influenced by environmental factors.
Physiological responses to changes in environment that occur during an individual's lifetime. Such responses may be temporary or permanent depending on the duration of the environmental change and when in the individual's life it occurs. The capacity for acclimatization may typify an entire species or population, and because it's under genetic influence, it's subject to evolutionary factors such as natural selection or genetic drift. Examples of acclimatization include tanning and the production of hemoglobin when going to a higher elevation.
knuckle walking
Special form of quadrupealism practiced by gorillas, bonobos, and chimpanzees
Lower Paleolithic
the period when hominins began producing stone tools, roughly 2.5 million to 200 000 years ago
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
natural selection
the mechanism that causes change within species
fixed idea about something (blonds are dumb)
o Small anthropoid (600g) b/c post orbital closure
o Possible ancestor of platyrrhines,
o Earliest fossil at 27 million years ago we don't know how they crossed Africa to S. America
the earliest members of the hominid lineage, as yet only poorly represented in the fossil record; thus, their structure and behavior are reconstructed mostly hypothetically.
bones that form the fingers and toes.
Adaptive Radiation
the development of many different forms from an originally homogeneous group of organisms as they fill different ecological niches
a form of lithostratigraphy in which the chemical fingerprint of a volcanic ash is used to correlate across regions.
Pertaining to the form and structure of organisms.
________ work supports the predictions of _________ models.
empirical, socioecological
an animal that maintains a relatively constant body temperature despite environmental fluctuations
Cultural Anthropology
study of living people (not past)
First to hypothesize how species could change. Emphasized the importance of interactions between organisms and the environment.
fixity of species
idea that organisms never change
Refers to humans and their bipedal ancestors.
Trinucleotide Repeat Disease
Fragile X syndrome (CGG) and huntington's disease (CAG)
ex. 6-55 repeats for fragile x results in stop to transcription of neuronal proteins
ex. huntington's- excess P53 protein (kills bad cells) produced, killing brain cells
Refers to a chromosome pair that bears different alleles for a single gene.
Occurs when a population is divided by some type of physical barrier (river, mountain range, ocean) and then the separated populations diverge over time, Ex. bonobo and other chimpanzee (long-haired and black-faced and pale-faced)
race (problems)
the definition of race is ambiguous, does it mean skin color? blood type? etc... There is too much human variability to classify a race of people
a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating
radiometric technique using the decay of K to Ar in potassium-bearing rocks; estimates the age of sediments in which fossils are found.
Ardipithecus kadabba
5.8-5.2 MYA, canines sharpen itself on 1st premolar, thicker enamel, hominin-shaped canines, bipedal toe-bone
Middle Stone Age, in between the end of the Paleolithic and the beginning of the Neolithic, referred to as Archaic cultures in the Americas
Male foraging model
American model that bipedalism was selected in males so that they could come back and carry food back to females that were sexually faithful (highly suspect the sexual part) Females to carry offspring in their arms
Heterodont Dentition
Different kind of teeth for different functions
sex chromosomes
in mammals, the X and Y chromosomes.
Found south of Zaire River; similar to chimpanzees; more arboreal than chimpanzees; use sex to defuse potentially tense situations.
New world monkeys
located in the Americas, 2133 dental structure, includes Spider, Howler, Capuchin, Squirrel Monkeys, Tamarins, and Marmosets
the dog was red; the dog gwa sre d...
A form of locomotion in which the body is suspended beneath the hands and support is alternated from one limb to the other; arm swinging.
the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism
Bioenergetics thermoregulation model
Food resources are dispersed and you have to look for them and spend a lot of energy to look spend less walking upright
Time of the activity – thermoregulations Large predators which hunts at nights or early in the morning or in the evening sleep during the midday for them to be safe they had to look for food midday in the heat so walking upright helps you regulate your body temp at that time better
Fitness is relative because
fitness changes as the environment changes.
visual predation hypothesis
Cartmill - forward facing eyes played a role in primate evolution.
Law of independent assortment
the law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
Nuchal torus
a projection of bone in the back of the cranium where neck muscles attach
Typical H. erectus characteristics
Thick brow ridge
Long low profile of the brain case
Angular occipital long low
750-1200 cc brain capacity
Brain Asymmetry
Occipital Tauros
Most notable difference between marsupials and placentals concerns:
fetal development; in marsupials the young are born extremely immature and must complete development in an external pouch
Early Homo and the australopiths lived...
at the same time, contemporaneously.
What were some reasons for population growth?
Agriculture, food surplus, health care, sanitation
H. erectus characteristics – Diagnostic
Brow ridge – straight across the forehead
Xray – solid bone (Neanderthal hollow)
Top of skull looks like a roof – parietal bones pinch in and form a ridge – sagital keel – thickening of the bone
Angular occipital bone with a occipital Taurus – thick bone
5 sided with an angle and a torus
A number of primatologists think the primary benefit of dominance is...
increased reproductive success of high-ranking animals.
What are the two main functions listed in the book for territoriality? Give a brief explanation of how each influences territoriality?
resource and mate defense. Resource-defense territoriality occurs when resources are not only limited but also clumped and defendable.mate defense also plays a role in the evolution of territoriality in some primate species.
The important factor that moved scientists away from racial typologies and classification in favor of a more evolutionary approach was _____________.
the synthesis of genetics and Darwin's theories of natural selection during the 1930s.
What is the function of DNA molecule in protein synthesis?
Exposes the code for the protein
What is CITES and how has it affected primates?
CITES= convention on internat'l trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora They ban commercial trade of all endangered species and monitor the trade of those that are at risk of being endangered.
A disadvantage to fluorine analysis is that it:
can only be done on bones found in the same area.
sex cell
Oldest Australopithecus
3.9 m.y.b.p
formation of new species
mating with close kin
Worked with:
true breeding plants
characteristics that were clearly recognizable
Single character at a time
Kept accurate records
controlled by a single gene
agile long-tailed nocturnal African lemur with dense woolly fur and large eyes and ears
the science of biological classification.
capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activity; aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc.
Small changes occurring, within species, such as changes in allele frequencies
Disruptive Selection
Selection against the mean.
Macro evolution
Over 1000's of years
the separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms.
a neurotransmitter involved in e.g. sleep and depression and memory
Aye Aye
solitary, special finger, 1-0-1-3, 1-0-0-3 dental
Physical Anthropology
The Study of Human Variation
theory that the same gradual geological process we observe today was operating in the past.
• Recent skeleton
• Grasping hands and feet w/ long digits
• Nail on big toe instead of claw (other digits have claws)
punctuated equilibrium
evolutionary theory where evolutionary "homeostasis" is present followed by sharp fits of more dramatic change in a species
Detailed descriptive studies of human societies. In cultural anthropology, an ethnography is traditionally the study of a non-Western society
Gona, Ethiopia
earliest stone tools found here
genus including several species of early bipeds from eastern, southern, and central Africa living btwn about 1.1 and 4.3 mya, one of whom was directly ancestral to humans
independent assortment
independent segregation and assortment of chromosomes during sexual reproduction. Independent assortment occurs during meiosis
the interdisciplinary approach to the study of early hominids, their chronology, physical structure, archaeological remains, habitats, etc.
Quaternary 1st
Present day - humans arise
mating consortships
Temporary relationships that last while the female is in estrus, and the two spend most of their time together, mating frequently. Seen in chimpanzees, and common in bonobos.
Paranthropus robustus
A robust astralopithecine from South Africa that may have descended from A. afarensis, was contemporaneous with A. boisei, and had the robust cranial traits of large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments.
Thrifty Genotype
Human genotype that permits efficient storage of fat to draw on in times of food shortage and conservation of glucose and nitrogen.
The subfamily of Old World monkeys that includes baboons, macaques, and guenons.
Genetic Drift
changes in allele frequencies produced by random factors. a result of a small population
when individuals have sex with others within their species
The study of extinct organisms based on their fossils
Viewing entities as they relate to something else. Cultural relativism is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts
Race does not exist but_______does.
distinct ethnic groups
An animal whose diet consists mostly of insects.
A. africanus
(2.3-3 mya) evidence favors mental capabilities as comparable to those of modern great apes
the ultimate source of new genetic information acted upon by natural selection; not necessarily bad or abnormal things; random changes in our genes
within a species, a community of individuals where mates are usually found.
phyletic gradualism
the traditional view of evolution, that emphasizes that change accumulates gradually in evolving lineages.
The subfamily of Old World monkeys that includes the African colobus monkeys and Asian langurs.
Pertaining to a zoonosis, a disease that is transmitted to humans through contact with non-human animals.
artificial selection
selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
Haploid Numbers
Total chromosome number in cells that have one of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species.
universal donor
a person whose type O Rh-negative blood may be safely transfused into persons with other blood types
believe your culture is best (is the center)
ancestral (primitive)
referring to characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor
somatic cell
a body cell; not a reproductive cell
Alfred Russel Wallace
English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin's (1823-1913)
Scientific Method
An approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis is stated, and that hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data
A mating system in which a single female forms a stable pair-bond with two different males at the same time. Polyandry is generally rare among mammals, but it is thought to occur in some species of marmosets and tamarins.
A. afarensis
2nd species defined in fossil record (2.9-3.9 mya), one of best known due to "Lucy" (from Afar, Ethiopia); sexually dimorphic and bipedal, btwn 3.5 and 5 ft. tall, arms long in comparison to legs and still have curvature of fingers and toes still more adapted to tree climbing, backward-sloping forehead, large brow ridge, chinless with large jaws, brain small and apelike, more parallel tooth rows and slight diastema
Jane Goodall
Behavior studies - compared chimp and human behavior
Homonid - What is
All fossil and living Man
the phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates.
A gradual change in the frequeuncy of genotypes and phenotypes from one geographic region to another.
Geological time scale
A time scale established by geologists that reflects a consistent sequence of historical periods, grouped into four eras: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.
Theory of Evolution
Darwin, survival and babies from the fittest (natural selection), change across generations
CP3 (sectorial premolar complex)
combination of canine and first premolar teeth that forms a self-sharpening apparatus.
Gene Pool
All of the genes shared by the reproductive members of a population
Processes that do change gene frequencies in the population (they cause evolution directly)
1. Mutation
2. Gene Flow
Artificial Embryo Twinning
put cell in petrie disk, send electrical impulses into it so it begins dividing, and implant the cell in a mother)
population genetics
The study of the frequency of alleles, genotypes, and phenotypes in populations from a microevolutionary perspective.
Early Stone Age
Circa 45,000 BCE. Tools are simple and of stone, such as flake axes. End of Paleolithic Period a drastic climate change turns N. Africa into a desert with only water source at Nile. Animals in search of hospitable living environments flock towards the Nile and man follows them in a massive Eastward migration
How humans Change over time?
bigger brain, use tools, smaller teeth, smaller skeleton
Home ranges
The area in which an individual or a group of animal travels, feeds, rests, and socializes. Territorial species actively defend the borders of their home ranges.
Mandibular Torus in H. erectus
Internal thick buttress area internal chin in place of external chin
All old World monkeys, apes and humans share which feature?
2-1-2-3 dental formula
Vertical clinging and leaping
A form of locomotion in which the animal clings to vertical supports and moves by leaping from one vertical support to another.
ecological species concept
the concept that a species i a group of organisms exploiting a single niche. This view emphasizes the role of natural selection in separating species from one another.
Mothers and infants in nonprimates...
have a critical period, where the infants develop a closeness with mothers that doesn't always end with weaning. Some mothers and infants may remain close until one or the other dies.
Principal of segregation (know to Mendel as his first principle of inheritance)
genes (alleles) occur in pairs (beause chromosomes occur in pairs). During gamete production, the members of each gene pair separate, so that each gamete contains one member of each pair. During fertilization, the full number of chromosomes is restored, and members of gene or allele pairs are reunited.
Regulatory genes can "speed up evolution"
They can determine what genes will be express and which ones are not, resulting in a different phenotype
Apes and humans differ from monkeys in the following ways:
Larger size, no tail, different should/lumbar area, bigger brain, increased period of infant development and dependency.
A study in Colorado found that infant mortality rates are almost twice as common...
among people living at altitudes above 8.200 feet. Some of this is due to preeclampsia, which is a severe elevation of blood pressure in pregnant women after the 20th gestational week.
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