physical anthropology final exam terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
recessive
masked traits
transcription
DNA to RNA
Universal blood donor
O
polytheistic
believe in many gods
MUTATION
SOURCE OF NEW VARIATION
Meiosis
Important for producing offspring
happens in the testes and ovaries
Mitosis
(my toes) body cell division
Phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
Primates
stereoscopic vision, grasping hands and feet, opposable 1st digit, small litter size, postorbital bar, high visual acuity. split into prosimians and anthropoids
theropods
small- to medium-sized ground-living dinosaurs, dated to approximately 150 mya and thought to be related to birds
Biocultural
Interactions between biology and culture
Mesoamerica
region encompassing southern Mexica and northern Central America
Jurassic 3rd
Great Age of Dinosaurs
ethnography
understanding the workings of another culture by comparing it to the culture of the investigator.
Sexual selection
natural selection for mating success
Forensic Anthropology
Primarily concerned with the identification and examination of human skeletal remains, which can be used to reveal the sex, approximate age, race, and the presence of skeletal injury of a subject.
tectonic
Refers to various structures on Earth's surface, such as the continental plates
gibbons
lesser apes, monomorphic, M+F+K, ripe fruit, duets, highly territorial. prior= primate- anthropoid-catarrhini-hominodea-hylobatinae-_____
hominoidea
The formal designation for the superfamily of anthropoids that includes apes and humans.
Wallace
realized the idea of evolution parallel with Darwin
Quadrupedal
IMI: 80-100Forelimbs and hindlimbs are approximately equal in length
How many different species of Paranthropus were discovered in East Africa?
aethiopicus
boisei
Mechanism of evolution that produces new genetic material:
mutation
tarsiers characteristics include...
(Southeast Asia) nocturnal insectivores; pair bond; enormous eyes unlike other primates.
Mousterian
The stone tool culture in which Neandertals produced tools using the Levallois technique (stone tool prepared before being removed from the core)
Alloparenting
A common behavior in many primate species whereby individuals other than the parents hold, carry, and in general interact with infants.
Endogamy
marriage within one's own tribe or group as required by custom or law
physiological adaptation
Short term change to environment. Beneficial, replaced by long term change
data
the scientific evidence produced by an experiment or by observation, from which scientific conclusions are made.
adaptive radiation
the relatively rapid expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches.
Watson-Crick
discovered structure of DNA as a double helix
genetic drift
The gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events
Mendelian Trait
Characteristics that are influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus. Examples include many blood types, such as ABO. Many genetic disorders, including sickle-cell anemia and Taysachs disease, are also Mendelian traits
Robert Broom
scottish MD and paleontologist started work at Transvaal Museum New site- Sterkfontein and found Au. africanus
Neural Tube Defect is caused by
Folate deficiency
Turner's Syndrome
XO - missing a sex chromosome
directional change
genetic: relating to the nonrandom change in allele frequency caused by natural selection. The change is directional because the frequencies of alleles consistently increase or decrease depending on environmental circumstances and the selective pressures involved.
Evolution in which structures evolve at different rates is termed:
mosaic evolution
sensory modalitites
Different forms of sensation (taste, smell, etc..)
Fertile Crescent
Found along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, this was the first early river civilization. The cities in this area were governed by city-states and used irrigation to produced their corps.
Exogamy
marriage to a person belonging to a tribe or group other than your own as required by custom or law
chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes
Natural Selection
genetic change in frequencies due to differential reproductive success between individuals. Creates variation. EX= pepper moths in england during industrial revolution
hemispheres
the two halves of the cerebrum that are connected by a dense mass of fibers.
type specimen
according to the laws of zoological nomenclature, the anatomical reference specimen for the species definition.
Alfred Russel Wallace
English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin's (1823-1913)
Obligate Bipedalism
Bipedalism as the only form of moving
bipedally
On two feet; habitually walking on two legs.
Australopithecus garhi
Found with stone tools and processed animal bones so they were using tools and eating meat
Watson and Crick
Came up with Principle of Complementarity
Are the mechanisms the same in macro and micro evolution?
Yes
Geographic isolation
the only evolutionary force that can create a brand new genetic
When predation pressure is high, we generally find group composition to be:
Multi-male Multi-Female
Chromosomes
made up of DNA, located in nucleus of every cell, and carries information.
Chimpanzee
an African ape that is related to the gorilla but is smaller and spends more of its time in trees
DNA replication
Step 1: DNA unzips itself into two stands of exposed bases.
Step 2: DNA Polymerase glides along the exposed strands, adding complementary nucleotides to the existing ones. DNA Polymerase remains attached until all DNA has been copied and is signaled to detach.
Step 3: When DNA Polymerase is done, two identical strands of DNA have been formed- each containing one old strand and one new strand. The nucleotide sequences in both DNA molecules are identical to each other and to the original DNA molecule.
Organic base
Atom with lone pair of electrons that can bond to hydrogen
Which country has seen a decline in fertility? Why?
Europe
Socioeconomic factors
Homo habilis
"handy man" first fossil of genus Homo appearing 2.5 mya w/ larger brains and smaller faces than australopithecines
Sex influenced trait
Located on the autosomes but they express themselves as dominant or recessive depending on the sex of the individual
ecological niche
the position of a species within its physical and biological environment, defined by things such as diet, terrain, vegetation, type of predators etc. Each niche is unique to a given species. Together, ecological niches make up an ecosystem.
carbon-14 dating
Dating technique that can be used as far back as 75,000 years, but probability of error raises rapidly after 40,000 years.
Point Mutation
mutation in which one or just a few nucleotides in a gene are changed
Social Events that led to Darwin's work in evolution
The industrial revolution, enlightenment, and reformation, led to an increase of rationality in Europe's worldview
Law of Competitive Exclusion
when 2 closely related species compete for the same niche, one will out-compete the other bringing about the latter's extinction
Types of Allopatric Speciation
1. structural - parts don't match
2. behavioral - mating rituals
3. temporal - different time frames
Australopithecus afarensis is a crucial hominid group because...
it comes after the pre-autralopiths, but prior to all later astralopiths as well as Homo, thus, it is an evolutionary bridge, linking together much of what we assume are major patterns of early hominid evolution.
Major Homo erectus sites - Asia
Trinil - Java
Zhoukoudian - Peking
Unique characteristic of human mating:
Long arousal in humans (no penis bone)
What are the common behavioral characteristics between humans and other primates?
1. learned behavior 2. tendency to live in groups 3. not nocturnal
Factors that act to change allele frequency:
1. New variation (mutation) 2. Redistributed variation (gene flow/genetic drift) 3. Selection of "advantageous" allele combination that promote reproductive success (that is, natural selection).
What are the 5 main types of social groups that primates form? Define each.
Solitary- Females maintain separate home ranges or territories and associate mainly with their dependent offspring. Males establish their own territories or home ranges, or they may defend the ranges of several adult females from incursions by other males.Monogamy- one male and one female form a pair-bond and share a territory with their immature offspring.Polyandry- one female is paired with two or more males.Polygyny: one-male or multimale
Which of the following statements are accurate in describing chimpanzees?
They occasionally hunt and eat young monkeys.
Language is a set of written and/or spoken symbols, and is said to be ______ because ________.
arbitrary because the symbol has no inherent relationship with whatever it stands for.
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Term:
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