Physical Anthropology Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
sex cells
small, noctural. prior=primate-prosimian-lemuriformss
largest. africa. primarily terrestrial, knuckle walking, groups consist of one large silver back and a few adult females and offspring, no meat, behave similar to us, can catch ebola.
Mendel's Laws of Genetics
Gould and Eldridge Work
Base pairs
AT and GC
Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor.
Specitation through a branching mechanism whereby an ancestral population gives rise to two or more descendent populations.
Carolus Linnaeus
(1701-1778), Swedish naturalist, Founded modern taxonomy with Systema Naturae (1758), binomial classification, Believed in teleological explanations of natural phenomena and fixity of species, Ironic twist: Used common attributes to group organisms, Grouped humans with other primates in the animanl kingdom
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
Active only during the day.
Chimp has how many chromosomes?
semifluid material that contains numerous structures involved with cell function
Sequences of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states. Nonhuman primate displays are most frequently associated with reproductive or agnoistic behavior, and examples include chest slapping in gorillas or, in male chimpanzees, dragging and waving branches while charging and threatening other animals.
a potent androgenic hormone produced chiefly by the testes
When both phenotypes appear in heterozygous individuals; Examples: Blood type A crossd with B = type AB
tending to come together from different directions
What happened 65 mya?
dinosaurs became extinct
Sometimes adaptations evolve for one function, but are then useful in another context
members of suborder of primates. traditionally the suborder includes monkeys apes and humans.
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
darker people located more_________-
near the equator
40% complete hominid
After the Beatles song
AL288-1 – technical name
Stand for the location – afar locality ancient delta
She was a Biped
pelvic bone so we know she was a female
3 ½ feet tall
2.5 years before present
Not a lot of trauma - Means she might have died in water
Internal genetic make-up of an organism
discrete structures composed of DNA and protein found only in the nuclei of cells.
Represented by two subspecies; usually solitary; almost completely arboreal; travel quadrupedally; frugivorous
Group living in primates help individuals to identify and protect themselves from:
a disease caused by deficiency of niacin or tryptophan (or by a defect in the metabolic conversion of tryptophan to niacin)
evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups
physical or chemical agent that causes mutations
member of human family (homo habilus, homo sapien, etc)
Drake Passage
develops due to warm water circulation. Warm water circulates around Antarctica and gets colder and colder and colder so now it's freezing
secondary context
a setting in which archeological material had been moved to from the original spot.
Biological fitness
the ability to survive and reproduce
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
radiocarbon dating
radiometric technique that uses the decay of C in organic remains such as wood and bone to estimate the time since death of the organism.
A grouping of organisms sharing a similar adaptive pattern.
Any member of the group containing lemurs and lorises. The system classifying primates into haplorhines and strepsirhines is a cladistic alternative to the system used in this text, in which primates are divided into prosimians and anthropoids, and tarsiers are grouped with prosimians.
site for greatest collection of H. erectus fossils (around 40 adults and children including discovered H. erectus in 20s and 30s)as well as 100,000 artifacts
a human's way of adjusting culture based on needs
a group of closely related species; grouping species into genera is subjective and can be the subject of debate. one technique is to see if animals can reproduce.
Relative dating technique based on the shifting nature of the earth's geomagnetic pole. By examining magnetically charged particles encased in rock, geologists can determine the orientation of these ancient "compasses." It is used to double-check other dating techniques.
3 base pairs
-exon: start (ATG), stop (TAA, TAG, or TGA), gene regulations or amino acid encoded
Carolus Linneaus
During 1735 the view of classification in hierarchial fashion; animals, plants, minerals, etc.
continental drift
According to the theory of plate tectonics, the movement of continents embedded in underlying plates on the earth's surface in relation to one another over the history of life on earth.
reproductive strategies
1. To produce massive numbers of young, but then leave survival to the whims of nature. 2. Have a low productive rate (lower biotic potential) then care for young until they can compete for resources with adult members of population
Golger's Rule
The further from the equator an organism is, the less pigmentation it will have and visa vera
a change or alteration in form or qualities
thermoluminescence (TL)
electron trap technique that uses heat to measure the amount of radioactivity accumulated by a specimen such as a stone tool since its last heating.
ardipithecus ramidus
long powerful arm, 4.4 MYA, small molars w/ thin enamel, forward shifted foramen magnum, foot with abducted hallux, long toes, long curved phalanges, short thumb, laterally-facing ilium
Late Miocene
forest begins to contract and becomes more arid; fossil gap - not sure exactly what led up to "Lucy"
Berrgman's rule
1980's - noticed that in cold climates, body sizes of mammals are larger than in hotter climates. Larger bodies lose heat more slowly
In order to show a recessive characteristic physically, the individual has to be which genotype?
Homozygous recessive
Having the same allele at the same locus on both members of a pair of chromosomes
behavioral ecology
The study of the evolution of behavior, emphasizing the role of ecological factors agents of natural selection. Behaviors and behavioral patterns have been favored because they increase the reproductive fitness of individuals.
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
biostratigraphic dating
A relative dating method that uses the associations of fossils in strata to determine each layer's approximate age.
grasping, as by the hands and feet of primates.
calibrated relative dating techniques
techniques that use regular or somewhat regular processes that can be correlated to an absolute chronology to estimate the age of a site.
Do all primates share the same set of synapomorphies?
Oldest H. erectus
from East Lake Turkana
1.8 million years before present
Human Polymorphism
Presence of different forms of a gene within a population
e.g. Sickle Cell Anemia
Cultural tradition results from..
offspring observing the activities of parent,s and in turn, their own offspring observe them performing the same activities, which can persist and come to typify an entire group or even a species.
sex linked traits
carried on the sex chromosomes such as color blindness and hemophilia
Habitual Bipedalism
A way of moving shown by most hominins most of the time
Maximizing dietary quality model
All animals require energy for daily activities – don’t spend as much time looking for food but spend the time reproducing
Seasonal, not as plentiful – burn less calories than on all fours
Conserve more energy for reproduction
generalized and specialized traits
a trait that's adapted for many functions is said to be generalized, while one that's limited to a narrow set of functions is said to be specialized, and can apply to entire species.
The senses and brain of primates
Color vision, depth perception (stereoscopic vision); eyes towards front of face; visual information transmitted to both hemispheres; visual information araganzed into 3d images by specalized structures in the brain; decreased reliance of sense of smell; expansion and increased in complexity of the brain.
What is the Linneaus Race System???????*****
White: Europe
Black: African
Red : Americas
Yellow: Asia
Darwin's Works and when
1859 - Origin of Species
1871 - The Descent of Man
Another explanation for distribution of skin color....
is that UV radiation depletes folate which causes neural tube defects, thus reducing reproductive success.
How does predation affect primate groups? What are some problems with understanding predation upon primate groups and how do researchers attempt to circumvent these issues?
Predation is believed to be a significant source of mortality among primates. Predation is very hard to observe directly because most predators avoid close contact with humans, and the presence of human observers deters attacks. Usually predation is inferred when a healthy animal that is unlikely to have left the group abruptly vanishes without a trace.
The role of bonding between primate mothers and infants was clearly demonstrated in a set of experiments at the U of Wisconsin Psychologist Harry Harlow when he..
raised infant monkeys with surrogate mothers made of wire or a combination of wire and cloth. Infants raised with no mother were incapable of forming lasting affectional ties.
Give and example of a balanced polymorphism and explain what it means.
Sickle cell anemia
When a trait is selected for heterozygous genotype
H. erectus - Shovel-shaped front teeth
Back of the front teeth has an extra ridge of enamel – prominent among Inuit and some Asians
Makes teeth stronger
Within the home range is a portion called the _____, which contains the highest concentration of predictable resources, and it's where the group is most frequently found.
core area = the portion of a home range containing the highest concentration and most reliable supplies of food and water. The core area is defended.
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