Physical Anthropology Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
geographic races
...
Culture is
learned
Oldest true hominid
anamensis
tay-sachs
recessive disorder; progressive degeneration of nervous system
Chromatin
uncoiled DNA, spaghetti like
DNA
Blueprint of a protein
Hemizygous
half of the genetic information
Microevolution
evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
observation
the gathering of scientific information by watching a phenomenon.
knappers
people who make stone tools.
Culture
Behavioral aspects of human adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, and social roles Culture is a set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next by nonbiological (that is, non-genetic) means
Directional Selection
Selection toward an extreme.
What do genes code for?
Proteins
sexual dimorphism
differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species.
Homo
Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapien
Lucy
A forty percent complete skeleton discovery of an Australopithecus afarensis, or a species within the category of hominid. She was rediscovered on November 24, 1974 in Hadar, Ethiopia.
Callitrichidae
small body size, re-evolved claws, procumbent incisors, 2.1.3.2, new world monkey
paleoanthropology
the scientific study of human fossils
paradigm
a conceptual framework useful for understanding a body of evidence.
Lamarck
proposed that organisms can inherit characteristics held by their parents even when these traits were developed by their parents (such as a bodybuilder passing his muscle to his children when he had to take steroids to do so)
Forensic Anthropology
An applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters. Forensic anthropologists work with coroners and others in identifying and analyzing human remains
bouri ethiopia
where a. garhi was found
Dmanisi
located in republic of Georgia,from 1.8mya, relatively primitive (more like ergaster), didn't have teeth so probs in a lot of pain and had to have someone helping which shows change in gestation, social interaction, and organizing functions
What gene controls language
Fox P2 gene
Laurasia
North American, Greenland, Europe, and Asia
Altruism
Behavior that benefits another while involving some risk or sacrifice to the performer.
Homo floresiensis
Nicknamed "Hobbit" for its diminutive size, a possible new species of Homo found in Liang Bua Cave, on the Indonesian island of Flores
Homo habilis
Hominid remains that were believed were more closely related to modern humans than Lucy and had a larger brain, called "Handy Man".
Modern Synthesis
a comprehensive theory of evolution that incorporates genetics and includes most of Darwin's ideas, focusing on populations as the fundamental units of evolution.
Colobines
The subfamily of Old World monkeys that includes the African colobus monkeys and Asian langurs.
sedimentary
Rock formed when the deposition of sediments creates distinct layers, or strata.
falsifiable
able to be shown to be false.
cladistics
a system of biological taxonomy based on the quantitative analysis of comparative data and used to reconstruct cladograms summarizing the (assumed) phylogenetic relations and evolutionary history of groups of organisms
uniformitarianism
the idea that the earth (geologically speaking) is essentially the same as it was in the past in terms of its process of change and composition
Binomial nomenclature
Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
macroevolution
evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups
Reproductively Isolated
Pertaining to groups of organisms that, mainly because of genetic differences, are prevented from mating and producing offspring with members of other groups
Cholera is_______
bacteria in contaminated food and water
Asia, Africa and South America
Resource competition is expected to generate _____ ______.
dominance relationships
Venus figurines
clearly related to fertility and possibly fertility networks for growing selective genes in populations: to become more adapted to specific environments (way of finding mates outside of family groups)
Physical or Biological Anthropology
focuses on human biology
geographic isolation
an extremely important form of isolating mechanism. Allows for speciation.
Devonian
Age of fish; first amphibians and forests
One important trait that makes primates, and especially chimpanzees and bonobos, attractive as models for behavior in early hominids may be called _______________.
cultural behavior
biological profile
a systemized study of the generic characteristics of shape and size of human remains that may allow for an estimation of age sex and population ancestry
Continuous Variation
The outcome of the number of enviromental factors influencing the expression of traits in a population
clinical distribution
the frequency chance of a particular trait as you move geographically from one point to another
Creation Theory
god (or other power) is ultimately responsibe for us being here
paleomagnetism
dating method based on shifts in the positions of the magnetic poles.
zygote
the resulting cell when a male and female gamete are fused
Base pairs
Any of the pairs formed between complimentary bases in the two nucleotide chains of DNA, such as A-T and C-G (DNA) A-U and C-G (RNA)
Primatology
The study of the biology and behavior of nonhuman primates
philopatry
The tendency in some animals to remain in their natal (birth) groups throughout their lives. In many OWM species, females are philopatric.
Taung child and significance
small-brained bipedal African ancestor that began evolution to modern day humans (controversy involved with scientific community and inability to accept small-brained ancestor)-discovered by Raymond Dart
How many bones (on average) in humans and chimps?
206
Blood Type
Controlled by one gene with three alleles
clade
a group of organisms sharing a common ancestor. The group includes the common ancestor and all descendants.
In chacma baboons...
males consistently try to kill infants, and their attacks are highly aggressive, and purposeful. This suggests that infanticide is a reproductive strategy.
Homo erectus
An early Homo species and the likely descendant of H. habilis; the first hominid species to move out of Africa into Asia and Europe
Phenotypic ratio
a ratio that shows the varied outcomes that results from a genetic cross and is based on physical appearance alone
technology
tools and skills needed to use them (a computer)
cranial crests
bony ridges on the skull to which muscles attach.
Fixity of Species
The notion that species, once created, can never change; an idea diametrically opposed to theories of biological evolution
Nariokotome boy
one of oldest and most complete Homo erectus fossils (tall adolescent boy from Kenya expected to have reached 6ft), significant because more robust than moderns, but post cranially modern
Homozygous
both alleles at a given locus are the same
Heterozygote (Hybrid)
Having a different allele at the same locus on both members of a pair of chromosomes.
rhinarium
The moist, hairless pad at the end of the nose seen in most mammals. The rhinarium enhances the an animals ability to smell.
Middle Paleolithic
the middle part of the Old Stone Age characterized by the development of the Mousterian tradition of tool making and the earlier Levalloisian traditions
Comte de Buffon
He suggested in his 1749 work Natural History that the earth was 75,000 years old and shaped by erosion, volcanic activities, earthquakes.
What families are included in the superfamily Hominoidea?
orangutans, chimpanzees, gorillas, humans
Petralona - KNOW THIS ONE
Occipital angular with thick torus like Homo erectus.
Sloping forehead
Frontal view:
Thick completely hollow brow ridges
Rounded shape
Just like Homo erectus on occipital and just like Neanderthal in frontal region.
An objection to the use of racial taxonomies is that they are:
typological in nature
What two main kinds of resource competition have ecologists identified? How do they differ?
scramble competition and contest competition. scramble competition- occurs when resources are distributed evenly across the landscape.contest competition- occurs when resources are limited and can be monopolized profitably, generating direct confrontations over access to them.
Proteins are made up of:
amino acids, small molecules, 20 in all, and 8 of which must be obtained from foods.
Important points that emerge from Early African Hominids:
Restricted ranges; most species at least partially tied to arboreal habitats; very little in the way of an evolutionary trend of increased body size or of markedly greater encephalization; all early African hominids show an accelerated development pattern, quite different from the delayed development pattern characteristic of Homo sapiens.
Mitosis is associated with what type of cell?
Somatic Cells (muscle, skin, nerve, heart, brain)
The more recently a group has migrated into an area_____
the more cultural vs biological adaptations there will be
Selective pressures act on us, but they also act on...
pathogens. It is in a pathogens interest to be less virulent so it doesn't kill the host before it has time to spread.
Homo sapiens are a polytypic species because...
there's a great deal of genotypic and phenotypic between populations, and even between individuals within the same population.
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