Physical Geography 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
winter solstice
dec 21
Soil is produced by
Which clouds produce rain?
Negative Feedback
Warming Promotes Cooling
Stream Channel Patterns
straight, braided, meandering
Lumps of soil are called
groups of atoms held together.
Maritime Tropical (mT)
warm and moist

 110. The steep, bowl-shaped depression at the head of an alpine glacier is a(n):
a function of magma temperature
Low-pressure system
-also called cyclone
-circulating body of air
-rising air
-counterclockwise circ.
in northern hemisphere
rocks shaped by wind blown sediments
A steep, pyramid shaped mountain formed by glacial erosion on all sides is a(n):
The process by which decomposers convert nitrogen compounds into ammonia is called
The downward transport of fine particles carrying them out of the upper soil layers is
fairly stable temperatures, but begins to increase at about 19 milesozone occurs above 20 miuv light from sun strikes ozone molecules and heats them
the process of accumulation or deposition of ions and colloids in a soil
aggregation of various minerals and pieces of minerals
The changing weather conditions of monsoon circulation are associated with shifts in the position of the

 86. Corals have a symbiotic relationship with ___________.

1. ___________________ is when water vapor changes directly from the gaseous phase to the solid phase without a transitional liquid phase.
preciptiation may cause leaching of important minerals beyond the root zones of many plants
dynamic equilibrium
-an apparent "steady state" relationship with their environment (a condition where they appear not to change) until environmental change occurs (such as climate change or tectonic uplift and so forth)-THEN the river processes change in reaction to environmental changes
average values of weather elements, such as temp and precipitation, over an extended period of time
Define soil.
natural terrestrial surface layer containing minerals, organic matter, and organisms
the mechanical process of wearing or grinding something down (as by particles washing over it)
In the way glaciers transport materials, they resemble:
conveyor belts
Subsurface water contained in pore spaces in regolith and bedrock is known as _______
ground water
The soil order occurring in isolated areas with a very high organic content is the
The differences that arise between parent and offspring are
genetic differences
The process of water dissolving and carrying the material downward through the soil layers is called
island arcs
crossing the seafloor are curving chains of islands known as this...
Charles Lyell
the dominant geologist of the ninteenthcentury and a close follower of Hutton, did the most to convert the world to theuniformitarian view. Lyell went to the extreme of believing that everything in thepast operated exactly as it does today, which we now know is too strict aninterpretation. Lyell did not know about things like ice ages until later in hiscareer or that massive floods do occur occasionally (the Mediterranean Sea filledin a big flood).
process by which organic matter and minerals are washed out of a soil horizon
clasitic rocks
fragments of pre-existing rocks formed together
straight stream channel
very stable but highly unusual
The _______ and ______ characteristics of an air mass tend to reflect the characteristics of its source region
temperature; moisture

 7. The largest portion of fresh water today is located in
littoral drift

 73. Which of the following processes form spits?
Planets composed of rock material similar to earth.  They have very few moons, and are small and dense.
Mercury, Venus, Earth & Mars 
Terra is the Latin name for earth. 
more often an arid climate phenomena and usually triggered by heavy rain; generally long and narrow, frequently occuring in or around the normally empty channels of dry riverbeds
Fluvial processes dominate ___ of the earth's land area.
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
Small storms of local significance
Associated with larger storms, too
Define wind.
horizontal motion of air across Earth's surface
dry flat lake bed in center of basin
a section of a slope becomes unstable owing to the addition of water and flows downhill
A deep, steep-sided rock trench formed by erosion from alpine glaciers is a(n):
glacial trough
Alpine glaciers are generally:
long, narrow mountain glacier occupying the floor of a trough-like valley
Tall, closely spaced trees with a continuous thick and multi-layered canopy and thick surface roots are characteristic of the
low-latitude rainforest
Best time for the development of a hurricane in the Atlantic ocean...
small circle
these circles have centeres that do not coincide with earths center
no change will occur in the system unless there is a change in the energy
upslope fog/orographic fog
adiabatic cooling when humid air climbs a topographic slope
base level of a stream
ultimate level, sea level
What is the source of all the condensation and precipitation?
The California Current is a cold current off the west coast of California. If a cool, moist air mass passed over this colder current, what would probably result?
Advection fog
Meridians run ____ around the globe and ___ at the poles
north-south; meet
A continental arctic air mass would tend to bring _______ conditions when it arrived in an area
cold, dry
barrier island

 76. The Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States are mostly __________coast.

 40. A __________ is a manmade lake resulting from the construction of a dam.
The sun and everything that orbits around it.
Three-dimensional object
An object with height, width, and depth.A globe is 3-dimensional, so it simultaneously shows accurate shapes, sizes, distances and directions.
Parent material
the inorganic material that forms the basis of most soils
Isostatic rebound
the term used to describe the long-term rising of portions of the earth’s surface which are literally rebounding to pre-glacier elevations
Continental Drift
The Location of the Continents Can Affect Ice Development
Define cloud.
aggregation of water droplets and ice particles
cut bank
found on the outside of a meander; formed by the erosion from the faster moving water
ephemeral streams
Streams that only run when there is precipitation and then dry up quickly
Long tongues of ice extending off of ice sheets are called
outlet glaciers
At the base of a wave-cut cliff, one will usually find a _______
The key factor in determining how the soils of a region support vegetation and crops is the
soil moisture
Is the top of a cloud positve or negative charge?
describe the segments of electromagnetic spectrum from shortest to largest wavelength (9)
radio waves, microwaves, thermal infrared, middle infrared,shortwave infrared, visible light, uv, x rays, and gamma rays
soil profile
the sequence of horizons, from top to bottom, of a soil
glacial abrasion
the dragging of ice and rock along rock surfaces creating striations
Positive molecules accumulate around the ____ (top/bottom) of the thunderhead and negative molecules accumulate around the ____(top/bottom).
Positive molecules accumulate around the top of the thunderhead and negative molecules accumulate around the bottom.
The transfer of water from land and ocean to the atmosphere and back again to land and oceans in a never ending cycle is
hydrologic cycle
long, narrow mountain glaciers occupying the floor of a trough-like valley

 97. Alpine glaciers are generally:
Two-dimensional object
An object with height and width, such as paper.Because a map is two-dimensional, it can never show all of these features correctly: distance, direction, area and shape.
what is one of the leading places for karst topography in the U.S.
Glaciers are the most powerful tool
in the erosional arsenal
The General Circulation of the Atmosphere
Idealized Pattern
Uniform surface
No Earth rotation
a firtile spot in a desert where water is found
radial drainage pattern
A system of streams running in all directions away from a central elevated structure, such as a volcano.
A species found in one area and not elsewhere is said to be
endemic species
Dynamic meteorolgy uses
the basic laws of motion to predict condition in the future
half life
The time it takes for decay to occur varies with the isotope. We use the term halflife to describe the rate of decay.
Obliquity Cycle
a 41,000 year variation in the tilt of the Earth's axis from a maximum of 24.5 degrees to a minimum of 22 degrees and then back.- the more tilt, the more seasonality
The differences between northern and southern hemisphere circulation patterns is strongly influenced by differences in
the tilt of the Earth
high elevations and high latitudes/more snow accumulation than snow melt

 107. Glaciers usually result at areas of:
Plate tectonic theory explains what?
the location of volcanoes and earthquakes, the distribution of mountain ranges and other major structural features of earth's surface
Dynamic High Pressure Air Masses
Strongly descending air produces a dynamic high.
A very cold Earth surface produces a thermal high.
The two types of drift are BEST called:
stratified drift and till
Earth's orbit is a what?
Ellipse with the sun at one focus
___ (cold/warm) air eventually overtakes the ___ (cold/warm) air.
Cold air eventually overtakes the warm air.
Lengths: Metric Measure
1 kilometer (km) = 1,000 meters (m)1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm)1 centimeter (cm) = 100 millimeters (mm)
Floods are important because
they have the large amounts of energy needed to cause rapid erosional changes
Relations of Cyclones and Anticyclones
alternating: Often occur in next to each other in midlatitudes
Anticyclone forms a cold front on its leading edge
What is the solstice?
1 of 2 points in earth's orbit where the axis leans at the maximum angle of 23.5 toward the sun.
Dew-point is the temperature at which
the air is completely saturated and can hold no more moisture
Islands at the northwest end of the chain are?
older and more worn down
It is the entire network of creeks, streams and rivers that
drain all runoff from watersheds
What factor determines whether or not an air parcel is stable?
difference in temperature of parcel and surrounding air
Saffir-Simpson scale is based on what?
Low pressure, wind speed, and size of storm surge
elevated areas can be as high as
15 feet above the adjacent flood plain along the lower end of the Mississippi River, but in most other (smaller) streams they are usually are much lower
Thickness of the ring tells us....
if it was a good or bad growth year
Why did Hurricane Isabel not turn back towards the NE? Is this common?
high pressure system in new england forced hurricane to keep a straight path inland (uncommon)

peak flow of a flood depends on the size of the drainage basin feeding the stream. larger drainage basins show a longer delay

 39. According to the figure below, peak flow of a flood occurs approximately __________ hours after flooding begins.
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