physiology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
release norepinephrine
Autonomic ganglion
Hypovolemic shock
Anaphylactic shock
Neurogenic shock
muscle cells
Thoracic duct
Lymph nodes
P-R interval
Lymphatic system
Cardiogenic shock
Internodal pathway
Starling forces
Capacitance vessels
Creatine phosphokinase(CPK)
Angina pectoris
Lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)
Ca+2 chelatorprevents clotting
Right lymphatic duct
MAP-mean arterial pressure
Self vs. Non-self
Antithrombin III
blocks thrombin
precursor to thrombin
Cardiac control center
digests fibrin, dissolving clot
pump blood to arteries
pre cursers to platelets
agonist for nicotinic receptors
agonist for muscarinic receptors
converts plasminogen to plasmin
important in blood formation
immature red blood cell
antagonist for muscurinic receptors
2nd degree (secondary) AVblock
stimulant of NE release
nonselective agonist for alpha receptors
Have nucleus, mitochondria, & amoeboid abilityCan squeeze through capillary walls (diapedesisalso known as extravasation)
TPR-total peripheralresistance
main sources:
vessel diameter
blood viscosity
total vessel length
formation of RBCsstimulated by erythropoietin (EPO) fromkidney
made from fibrinogen
Platelet plug becomes infiltrated by meshwork of fibrin
fluid left when blood clots
non-selective antagonist for alpha receptors
Parasympathetic nervoussystem
mediates "rest & digest"reactions
Colloid osmotic pressure –AKA Oncotic pressure
the marrow of the bones.
NO (nitric oxide)
with prostacyclin (PGI2--a prostaglandin)– Keep clots from forming & are vasodilators
seperation of blood into its components
Lack nuclei & mitochondriaEach RBC contains ~280million hemoglobin molecules
plasma protein
clotting factor in blood
fluid part of the blood
straw-colored liquid consisting of H20 &dissolved solutes
Drugs that inhibit actions of thenormal ligand
converts fibrinogen to fibrin which polymerizes to form a mesh
CO-cardiac output
=stroke volume X heart rate
Epinephrine (Epi)
released from adrenal medulla
released into blood into response to preganglionic stimulation
released during mass activation
Poiseuilles law
describes factors affecting blood flow
Q=change in pressure(r4)(x)/nL(8)
(used chiefly of viviparous mammals) the young of an animal in the womb or egg, esp. in the later stages of development when the body structures are in the recognizable form of its kind, in humans after the end of the second month of gestation.
(of blood pressure) indicating the maximum arterial pressure occurring during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.
sodium bicarbonate
a white, crystalline, water-soluble solid, in powder or granules, NaHCO3, usually prepared by the reaction of soda ash with carbon dioxide or obtained from the intermediate product of the Solvay process by purification: used chiefly in the manufacture of
Fenestrated capillary
have wide pores in endothelial cells
found in: kidneys, endocrine cells
Diapedesis/ Extravasation
ability to squeeze through capillary walls
Universal recipient
Type AB is “universal recipient” because doesn’t make anti-A or anti-B antibodies– Won’t agglutinate donor’s RBCs
Cell-mediated immunity
cells enulf and eat unwanted cells
HDL(high density lipoprotein)
transport excess cholesterol from tissues and delivers it to liver
HDL = Healthy, excess cholesterol from tissues is “properly” disposed of or stored in the liver for future use
Postganglionic neuron
part of sympathetic nervous system
go from sympathetic chain ganglion to major organs
first artery out of the left ventricle
Is located below the thyroid gland• Grows during childhood, gradually regressesafter puberty• Contains T cells that supply other tissues– T cells can be depleted, e.g. by AIDs or chemotherapy– These can only be replenished up to late childhood• After that, repopulation is accomplished by production in secondary lymphoid organs
Rheumatic fever
causes thickened and calcified mitral valve
the tube in humans and other air-breathing vertebrates extending from the larynx to the bronchi, serving as the principal passage for conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe.
humoral immunity
immunity conferred to an individual through the activity of B cells and their progeny, which produce circulating antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance and recognize the substance upon renewed exposure.
one of the minute blood vessels between the terminations of the arteries and the beginnings of the veins.
Frank-Starling Law of theHeart
strength of ventricular contraction varies directly with EDV
Folic acid
necessary to create new cells and maintain cells
Venous return
return of blood to heart via veins
dependent on:
blood volume and venous pressure
skeletal muscle pump
pressure drop during inhalation
plaque build up at site of endothelial injury
Buffy coat
platelets and white blood cells
<1% of blood
Skeletal pump
blood is moved toward heart by contraction of surrounding skeletal muscle
Semilunar valves
blocks blood from flowing back into the ventricles
either of the two external openings of the nose.
active transport
the movement of ions or molecules across a cellular membrane from a lower to a higher concentration, requiring the consumption of energy.
Rho(D)/ Rh factor
another antigen found on RBC
Rh+ has Rho(D) antigens; Rh- does not
any substance (as a toxin or enzyme or protein) that stimulates the production of antibodiesantigens present on RBC surface specify blood type
Dual innervation
one organ is innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
bile duct
a large duct that transports bile from the liver to the duodenum, having in humans and many other vertebrates a side branch to a gallbladder for bile storage.
lymph node
any of the glandlike masses of tissue in the lymphatic vessels containing cells that become lymphocytes.
a type of white blood cell having a large, spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin layer of nongranular cytoplasm.
AV (atrioventricular) node
depolarizes at 60 bpm
node for the ventricles
delay the signal for .1 sec
Plateau phase (Ca++)
caused by a ca influx negating the k output
signal-gluatamate, aspramate
nerve gas blocks
Function of leukotrines
College drop out rate
anatomy of a muscle
Gastrointestinal system
Gross Anatomy
Small Intestine
T/F The postganglionic sympathetic neurons are unmilenated?
What is the all-or-none principle
Terminating Cell Pathways
removing chemical signal
extracellular protein degraded by enzymes
transporting the signal to other cells
endocytosis fo the receptor ligand complex
associative bias
bias—predisposition to learn associations between some stimuli but not others
Somatic Senses
Touch, Proprioception, Temperature, and Nociception: Pain and Itch.
Leptin promotes satiation or hunger?
Molecular structure
Contractile filaments (myofilaments) within the myofibrils are arranged in a exact pattern producing a banded appearance. 2 types of contractile filaments in each myofibril (thin and thick).Filaments are arranged into repeating segments called sarcomeres (functional contractile units in a muscle cell).
Functional unit that determines differences other than rhythm and frequency for ACTL organ
into, greater
Cloride moves ____ cell.Its concentration gradient is ____ outside than inside.
Connection formed when mobile myosin heads bind to actin molecules in muscle
secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum ( beginning of teh small intestine)
Endergonic reaction
a non-spontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings
carotid sinus
baroreceptor sensitive to high BP
Autocrine Signaling
Cytokines that act on themselves
lymph nodes are filter, macrophages and immune response filter lymph - T or F
what respiratory elements offer the most resistance?
Valence shell
The outermost shell containing reactive e-
alpha-1 receptors
Adrenergic, stimulatory, blood vessels towards skin. glands... cause vasoconstriction
Transit tube
sphincters at top and bottom
prevents reflux
What are glycolipids
phospholipids with carbohydrate chains
Na+ moves through specialized channels to depolarize , Ca channels open release NT
______, ______ studied mechano receptors, weak localized response, and the generator/receptor potential
Bernard Catz
What examples of poly-saccharides?
Chitin, Cellulose, and Starch
primary auditory cortex
associated with the reticular formation of the brainstem
random assigment
The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such persons have the same chance of being in a given condition.
Describe the phases of an action potential.  What ions are primarily involved at each stage
Plasma membrane
Maintains boundary of cell and integrity of cell structure; embedded proteins serve multiple functions
Synpatic vesicle
cellular structure that holds and releases neurotransmitter at the synapse
very specific, step by step procedures for solving certain types of problems

Molecular Structure...
(Fig. 14.19)
1. Composed of a tube of a single layer of flattened endothelial cells (recall that endothelial cells are the lining of other blood vessels)
2. Capillary walls are very thin to minimize diffusion distance
3. Capillary lumen is so narrow that red blood cells must squeeze through single file
4. Water-filled pores between epithelial cells in wall facilitate exchange
Fimbria: fringe of tissue near the ovary leading to the fallopian tube, moves to help usher egg released from the ovary into tube
Fast Fibers
White muscle fibers. Large in diameter; light in color due to reduced myoglobin; surrounded by few capillaries; relatively few mitochondria; mainly use glycolysis to synthesize ATP; quick and powerful but fatigue rapidly; fast cross bridge cycling.
In a Guanylate Cyclase Trans-membrane receptor, the conversion of ______ to ______ is catalyzed?
the co-transport of glucose and sodiumm (Na+) is an example of _______________ transport
secondary active
minimizes movement of ions across axon membrane and maintains current flow
ST interval
time during which ventricles are contracting and emptying
- mean corpuscular vol- size of rbcs
Which branch is responsible for pupil dilation, salivation, heart beat and volume, fat breakdown and ejaculation?
Antigen Presentation
Protein antigensTaken in and partially digested by macrophages Part of antigen linked to MHC protein and put into cell membrane T or B cells then find MHC protein complex---activate T cell attack on cells that have that protein
smell sensation
binds odor chemical, cascade of intercellular reations that open Na and Ca channels can generate APs in afferent axon
fast fatiguable motor units are the largest and are recruited __________.
coping mechanism
an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control or gives psychological comfort
any animal tissue that covers a surface, or lines a cavity or the like, and that, in addition, performs any of various secretory, transporting, or regulatory functions.
two types of diffusion are?
simple and facilitated diffusion
Define homeostasis:
The state of "dynamic constancy" of the internal environment depite changing conditions of the external environment.  Maintained by negative feedback loops.
ANS control of cardiac output
Medulla oblongata integrates information about blood pressure, particle concentrations, and emotion stress
it then sends commands to the sympathetic division and parasympathetic division
What type of enzyme adds a phosphate group to the target proteins in the cell
Muscarinic receptors
On smoothe muscle, on cardiac muscle, on gland cells, on some CNS neurons, on some neurons of autonomic ganglia
What is a synthetic mineralocorticoid ?
deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA).
Factors Influencing Whole Muscle Tension:
Frequency of Stimulation
(voluntary control)
Tetanus: many rapid stimuli prevents muscle relaxation
1. is a contraction of maximal strength
2. Increased AP: so much Ca++ released that maximum number of cross bridge sites are uncovered = maximal tension
3. all fibers recruited, so asynchronous contracting not possible, fatigue eventually occurs
factors that affect enzyme activity:
temperature, pH
coenzymes, derived from vitamins, example: NAD and FAD
endergonic and exergonic reactions
redox reactions
gain and loss of electrons can be gain and loss of hydrogens
role of NADH and FADH2 as electron shuttles
Juxtamedullary nephrons
originate closer to the medulla and have long loops of henle- important for water conservation
A protein that acts as a biological catalyst to speed up a chemical reaction
the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering their internal water volume (tono= tension)
includes the pineal gland, which has a role in regulating biological rhythms,
- due to cell starvation- eat a lot
Negative reinforcement is
 the removal of an unpleasant condition that increases the frequency of the behavior.
 I band:
 I band contains the protein actin whose subunits (globular components, G-actin) have a site for binding myosin; G-actin subunits form F-actin, filamentous actin, which consists of two chains of F-actin twisted around each other;
Physical Factors
Some factors constant, such as vessel lengthSome factors variableFlow=pressure/resistance
Acetylcholine synthesis/degradation/function
synthesized from AcCoA + choline by choline acetyl transferase (Chat).stored in vesicles which are released when AP increases Ca2+ entry into nerve endingbinds to receptor and broken down in synaptic cleft by acetylcholinesterase (AChE).AChE inhibitors used to treat glaucoma, increase GI motility, and myasthenia gravis.
Explain the difference bw "preferential" and "true" capillaries.
Preferential capillaries: larger, outside the capillary beds, used for chemical exchange of fluids/solutes with tissue and blood. True capillaries are smaller and inside capillary bed, used when there is a decrease in o2 or if other pathology is present.
RNA is not made from DNA. True or False
Large intestine-mainly drying and storing organ

consists of cecum, colon,appendix, and rectum

Taeni coloni is the muscle that helps form postra pockets allowing for segmentation --controled by___

defication-occurs?due to?
intrinsic plexi
3 to 4 times daily-due to gastrocolic reflex mediated by gastrin release when food enters stomach.
End-diastolic volume (EDV)
amount of blood in ventricle just prior to systole
Differences between simple diffusion and active transport
Active transport requires energy, Active transport requires carrier protein, and Active transport moves regardless of concentration (can move low to high)
Diffusion through channels
Requires no energy expenditure by the cellChannels are like pores they allow particles to flow in either direction
What is consolidation?
turning short term memories into long term

Veins: Venous Return:
Factors influencing venous return (volume of blood entering each atrium/minute)...
-Cardiac Suction-
1. During ventricular contraction, AV valves are drawn downward, enlarging the atrial cavities and causing atrial pressure to drop below 0 mm Hg, which increases pressure gradient.
[Like a suction pump]
The ________ ensure(s) that blood levels of a specific releasing hormone are locally high in order to stimulate the pituitary. 166) _____ A) pulsatility of tropic hormone release B) degradation rates of tropic hormones C) hepatic portal system D) affinity
E) hypothalamic-pituitary portal system
Bundle of His
AKA AV bundle
Where: medial of heart, next to AV node
Function: conducts pace from AV in RA to the ventricles.
all WBC's have this identity marker protruding from their cell membrane; unique to everyone (except ID twins)...all cells but RBC's have this
Major Histocompatibilty Complex
Pathway for images/light (5)
Optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus, occipital lobe
The essence of a thing is that which makes the thing what it is...
peptic ulcer disease
- PUD- erosion of the upper GIT
What are the polysaccharides stored in plants?
starch and cellulose
What happens when capillary oncotic pressure changes
Decrease pressure: increase GFRIncrease pressure: decrease GFR
Sympathetic heart rate
cardiac nerves supple SA AV increase rate of depol in SA reducing AV delay , speeding up spread of AP through bundles of his and purkinje fibers
action in response to a stimulus of a system, a nerve or a muscle
simple diffusion can occur through cell membrane what 2 ways?
-interstices of lipid bilayer
-through watery channels in some of transport proteins 
Describe some of the other categories of neurotransmitters in the CNS:
Amines, catecholamines, Choline derivative, amino acids, polypeptides, lipids, gases, purines
Correlate the pathophysiological mechanisms of bronchial asthma to the clinical features.
dysfunctional catecholamines in the basal nuclei and prefontal cortex are a symptom of what disease?
ADHD, treated by Ritalin, which increase the amount of Dopamine and NE in synapses

- the largest group of tissues in the body
- makes up 40 -50% of body mass
Which is false?Hypoadrenocorticism is uncommon in dogs and even rarer in cats.
Hydrocortisone cream is effective at relieving inflammation because it contains glucocorticoids.
Inadequate secretion of aldosterone by the posterior pituitary is the major cau
Inadequate secretion of aldosterone by the posterior pituitary is the major cause of diabetes insipidus.
Laminar Blood Flow:
Stream line flow of blood in the vessels. No sound produced.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Sections of the DNA contain the code to create the proteins necessary for cellular functions. Double helix configuration
For a proposition to be true...
all must know is true.
what three digestive organs play no role in digestion?
pancreas, esophagus, large intestine
Summary of Steps in Muscle Contraction:
when action potentials stop, calcium is actively transported back to the SR
If you lack vitamin D as a adult you get :
How deos enzymes help proteins?
acts as biological catalysts / speeds up the reaction.
What are the basal ganglia?
They are nuclei deep in cerebral hemispheres that code and relay info associated with control of body's movements. They are extrapyramidal and therefore perform background activities.
Facilitated diffusion and simple difussion similarities
Move materials from high to low concentration
What is the I band?
The distance between the ends of myosin
what is the most prominent example of a channel protein?
which direction do the molecules move through the channel?
Sodium/Potassium leak channel
Na moves into the cell
K moves out of the cell
Pathway for air during inspiration, and bodily changes as air moves in to the body
Medulla Oblangata (brain center + pacemaker for respiration)- spinal cord/phrenic nerve- external intercostal muscles diaphragm contracts- rib cage wall expands- pleural wall expands and pressure drops- alveoli expand and pressure drops- air flows into the alveoli
what is the relative amount of tension generated for each of the three muscle fiber types?
I: low
II: intermediate
IIb: high
addictive effects of steroids
risks are worse when you use steroids longer, many people are addicted, $1 billion in black market for selling steroids
What is chromatin made up of?
DNA and its associated proteins (histones)
Leukocytes are normally ____% PMNs, ___% lymphocytes, ___% monocytes, ___% eosinophils, ___basophils.
40-70% PMNs, 20-40% lymphos, 2-10% monos, 1-6% eos, &lt;1% basophils
Cytotoxic T cells are often referred to as CD8 cells and helper T cells as CD4 cells. Where does that reference come from?
Enter your back text here.
Describe the sensory pathway in regards to proprioceptors and pressure receptors from the skin to the postcentral gyrus:
This is a somatethetic sense; its pathway involves 3 orders of neurons in series. Sensory information from proprioceptors and pressure receptors is first carried by large, myelinated nerve fibers that ascend in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord on the same side. After the fibers synapse in the medulla with other 2nd order sensory neurons, information in the latter neurons crosses over to the contralateral side as it ascends via a fiber tract (medial leminiscus) to the thalamus. These fibers ascend in the anterior spinothalamic tract. 3rd order sensory neurons in the thalamus receive this input and in turn project to the postcentral gyrus. 
Low osmolarity of fluid entering the DCT allows us to generate a very
diluted urine when the plasma osmoarity is too low as in over-hydrated
The H band is what?
The distance between the ends of actin filaments,
When solute is actively transported across epithelium, what usually follows? 270) _____ A) water movement in the same direction B) water movement in the opposite direction C) passive transport of solute in the same direction D) passive transport of the so
A) water movement in the same direction
LIF Receptor
assoc protein? 
type of kinase
JAK kinase is assoc protein (not part of receptor)
TYR kinase
What is the anatomy of the ear?
Outer- Pinna and External auditory meatusMiddle-Tympanic membrane Ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)Oval window, Round windowInner- Cochlea and Vestibular apparatusEustachian tube
What is the difference between gray matter and white matter?
White matter is myelinated, gray matter is UNmyelinated
Why do these substances have the lowest TF/P's?
They are reabsorbed almost completely in the early proximal tubule
what forms together to form a cross bridge in muscle?
myosin heads with actin active sites
Distinguish betwen the parts of the pituitary gland, and identify the hormones secreted by each part:
The pituitary gland is divided into two parts- the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe consits of two parts, the 1) pars distalis (anterior pituitary) and 2) the pars tuberalis- thin extension in contact with the infundibulum. The anterior pituitary secretes trophic hormones (trophic = "feed") which are 1) Growth hormone (GH) 2) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 3) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 4) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 5) Luteinizing hormone (LH) 6) Prolactin (PRL).
The posterior pituitary (pars nervosa) stores and secretes two hormones, both of which are produced in the hypothalamus: 1) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and 2) Oxytocin.
What are the four stages of NREM sleep
1-theta waves replace alpha 2-theta waves are interrupted by sleep spindles and K-complex 3-delta and theta waves are seen4-mainly delta are seencycle through stages
what shifts the hemoglobin curve right , and where does this process happen!
- if @ tissues- HbA- Low Ph - High CO2 - 2,3 DPG
Where are neurotransmitters produced? What kind of communication is it?
either in cell body or at axon terminal, single cell to single cell
If patient presents with onset of chills (shivering, pale) it means _, while if patient presents with "crisis/flush" (sweating, red skin) it means _
Dangerous, set point is high, immune system did not cleal pyrogensPatient is getting better, set point has been reset to normal
What are two causes of increased PaCO2?
1. When an increase in CO2 production is not associated with a compensatory increase in alveolar ventilation2. When total alveolar ventilation is decreased
How does sound stimulate the hair cells of the organ of Corti?
Hair cells have sound receptors so the vibrations open and close potassium channels which send impulses (mechanoreceptors with hairlike sterocilia)
2 reasons for Na+ to come in once gates open?
diffusion, and pos is attracted neg
Gustatory AP go to brain through CN's . Name them
CN VII - facialCN IX - glossopharyngealCN X - vagus
Why does K+ exert a greater impact on RMP than Na+?
because the membrane is more permeable to K+ and the Na+/K+ leak channels conduct way more K+ than Na+
What is meant by the term non-specific immunity.
inherited as part of the structre of the organism
inactive enzymes
Oral Cavity
-mechanical digestion-mastication
-No nutrient absorbtion
Three pairs of glands in oral cavity
Three important element found in saliva and their function
Salivary amylase (carb/starch bd), Ligual lipase (lipid bd), lysozymes (anti bacteria)
Know GHK equation
Stable balance
Gain equals loss.
poikilotherm: fluctuating body temperature
homeotherm: relatively constant Tb
What inhibits Thromboxane?
Nitric Oxide
Intrinsic System
Inside plasma-collagen activatedCascade needs Ca++ and all factors in pathway
- movement out of cell
Inflammatory Response
Mobile Leukocyes - neutrophils
Chemicals Mediators - prostaglandins (blood clotting)
clotting proteins
complement proteins (C1-C9)
the concentrations of ions/electrolytes in blood plasma are similar to what other body liquid?
interstitual fluid
O2 carrying protein in RBC
diffusion of a solvent (water)
- tissue plasminogen activator- prevents inappropriate clot formation- derived from tissues- plasmin fxs continually to prevent inappropriate clot formation
Digitalis increases intracellular ---- ion.
temporary diminution of the irritability or functioning of organs, tissues, or cells after excessive exertion or stimulation
Paracrine Signaling
involves secretions of non-hormonal chemicals that act on near by cells only
Lower chambers
Receive blood from the atria
Pump blood out into arteries
1st to appear (develops the fastest)
Surface receptor on T-cell
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
osmoles: total quantity of solute particles in solution
osmolarity: osmoles/liter H20
blocking excesive Ca will
inhibit AV node
In physiology, the process of reproducing and spreading the action potential along the sarcolemma and down the T tubules.
arachnoid membrane
middle meninge (like a web)
channel between cells; allows passage of ions and small hydrophilic molecules
Follicle stimulating hormone found in?
Anterior pituitary
RBC Morphology
What type of RBC is characterized by spikes generated by alterations in the plasma environment?
arrangement of thick and thin filaments in a myofibril- one repeat of this pattern
Thyroid hormones __________ the number of sodium-potassium pumps on cellular membranes, and sodium-potassium pumps are driven by the metabolism of ATP to ADP and Pi.
The hormone ________ signals glucose transporters to change location in skeletal muscle.
T/F there are different patterns of lipids in the cellular membranes?
When adenylyl cyclase is activated,
cAMP is formed
regulates the rates of Na+ reabsorbion and K+ secretion
signal sequence
Initial segment of a newly-made protein that directs the protein to the proper organelle for processing, packaging, and delivery
If there is no signal sequence the protein stays in the cytosol
acetylcholine (ACh)
Neurotransmitter used by neurons of the central and peripheral nervous  system
During the depolarization phase of an action potential, is the membrane more permeable to sodium or potassium
How does the small intestine churn chyme?
where does most of digestion occur?
small intestine
addison's disease
also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces insufficient amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids).
In resting the heart repeats _____ times/minute
a compound C4H10N3O5P of creatine and phosphoric acid that is found especially in vertebrate muscle where it is an energy source for muscle contraction
aniport system
transported substances "wave to each other" as they cross the membrane in opposite direction
X. Vagus
Both, innervates glands, larynx and pharynx also acts on abdomen outside of CNS
- new glucose production- e.g the conversion of AA into carbs- occurs mainly in the liver
The release of___ at a chemical synapse is triggered by the AP.
Effect of symp. system on adipose
Increased lipolysis
What stimulates PTH release?
Low free serum Ca+2
Adrenergic receptors (5)
a1- increase intracellular Ca2+a2- decrease cAMPb1- increase cAMPb2- increase cAMPb3- increase NO (nitric oxide)
2 sources of opsin
metarhodopsin and Vitamin A
conduct blood towards the heart; may or may not contain deoxygenated blood and may or may not appear blue.
when you block motor neuron causing atrophy in muscle could be
polio mielitus
If molecule L is transport against its CG, then transport is via: - primary active- secondary active- either
Conscious Goals
A person's awareness of what they desire and believe is valuable and worth pursuing.
flexion reflex
A polysynaptic reflex that causes an arm or leg to be pulled away from a painful stimulus
Flexibility of symbols
meanings of words change over time
reconstructive processes
the alteration of a recalled memory that may be simplified, enriched or distorted, depending on a person's experiences and attitudes
what molecule does histamine come from? how is it modified in order to become histamine?
comes from histidine
Functions of Astrocytes
Forms tight junctions = BBB
Provides energy to neurons by feeding glucose
Synapse Formation
Recycle Neurotransmitters
Recycle K+ lost by neurons
Differentiation of Glial Cells (assign job)
Inhibit/Activate Neurons
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
• Released in response to blood pressure being too high• Increases the excretion of sodium• Also functions to inhibit secretion of ADH• Filtrate is excreted as dilute urine• Prevents water from being added to the bloodAtrial Natriuretic Peptide• Released in response to blood pressure being too high• Increases the excretion of sodium• Also functions to inhibit secretion of ADH• Filtrate is excreted as dilute urine• Prevents water from being added to the blood
: a measure of acidity and alkalinity of a solution that is a number on a scale on which a value of 7 represents neutrality and lower numbers indicate increasing acidity and higher numbers increasing alkalinity and on which each unit of change represents a tenfold change in acidity or alkalinity and that is the negative logarithm of the effective hydrogen-ion concentration or hydrogen-ion activity in gram equivalents per liter of the solution
chemoaffinity hypothesis
neurons or their axons and dendrites are drawn toward a signaling chemical that indicates the correct pathway (goes with experience expected and experience dependent)
Reversibility of chemical reactions
All reactions are theoretically capable of running either way (reversibility)           
Krogh Principle
idea that states, "for a given scientific question, there is an animal for which that question can most conveniently be studied"
- secreted by parietal cells- low pH (as low as 2) in stomachconverts inactive pepsinogen into active pepsin, initiating protein digestion- denatures proteins (uncoiling from tretiary structure)- breakdown of connective tissue and muscle fibers- kills most microorganisms- mucus lining on gastric mucosa surface is protective- mechanical injury- self-digestion (pepsinogen)- alkaline, neutralizing HCL near gastric lining
Relate isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic solutions to blood plasma in osmolalities- what will happen to a red blood cell with each one?
isotonic-same as blood plasmahypertonic- higher than blood plasma, cell will shrinkhypotonic- lower than blood plasma-cell will inflate
Uterus contractions are mediated by _ nervous system, relaxation by _
Both, Sympathetic
In Vit. D intoxication what are the Phosphate levels?
During exercise, both the ______________________ are recruited as expiratory muscles.
intercostals and the abdominals
of, pertaining to, or situated at the back, or dorsum.
what is essential in washing the enzymes from pancrease into GI tract
bicarbonate alkeline fluid
The effector in a reflex is the
muscle or gland
Control of cardiac output
endocrine system control
several hormones affect heart rate
epinephrine has the greatest effect - it increases heart rate
A decrease in plasma glucose concentration does what
decreases insulin secretion
increases glucagon secretion
both of which cause an increase in plasma glucose
Predictive Validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. ( Also called criterion-related validity.)
What type of disorder involved a lass of interest in activities once loved, feelings of hopelesness, fatigue and a loss of appetite?
Major Depression
physiological setpoint for body temp of:
37 C
30.5 C
40-42 C
Where is Glutamatic acid found?(1)
in many central nervous neurons
synthesis, release, removal, receptor site - all can be enhanced or inhibited
ways to modify neurotrans effects
Hydrostatic Pressure
Pressure created by a fluid that is either moving or stationary
3 places of defense against pH changes
blood lungs kidneys
a bunch of animals in a very small space
what does the secretion by the pharynx and esophagus include?
- mucus
What is the simplified equation that determines the "flow" of blood
Flow = P1-P2/TPR
ABO System
A factor, B factor, AB has both factors O has neither A or B antigen
The ________________ just prior to beginning exercise is caused by cognitive-neural stimulation of the brainstem.
anticipatory rise in ventilation
Differentiate between plasma cells and memory cells in terms of their role in the immune process.
plasma-effector cells produce antibodies for a particular antigen; memory cells-remain dormant and ready to respond rapidly to next encounter, continueto reproduce
Negative Feedback Loop
When the output of the system corrects the situation.
Describe "shuffling the deck"
At metaphase I, pairs of homologous chromosomes can line up with either member facing a given pole of the cell (keeping in mind, each member of a pair came from a different parent). Maternal and paternal members of homologous pairs are thus randomly shuffled. So when the 1st meiotic division occurs, each daughter cell will obtain a complement of 23 chromosomes, randomly derived from the maternal or paternal contribution of to the homologous pairs of chromosomes from the parent cell.
Somatic/voluntary nervous system functions
consists of a single neuron between CNS and skeletal muscle cells; innervates skeletal muscle and can lead only to muscle excitation
short term memory
memory that is limited in capacity to about seven items and in duration by the subject's active rehearsal
The opening of sodium channels causes a rapid ________ of sodium that ________ the neuron's membrane. 243) _____ A) influx : hyperpolarizes B) influx : repolarizes C) influx : depolarizes D) efflux : hyperpolarizes E) efflux : depolarizes
C) influx : depolarizes
Extra Diastolic heart sounds
sound 3
3:common in children, bad for adults.  during rapid ventricular filling, due to turbulent blood oscilation in ventricles.  in adults, S3 is due to increased ventricular volume b/c congestive heart failure or mitral/tricuspid heart "regurgitation"
immunological surveillance - what cells working together to target tumor Ags on cancer cells
cytotoxic T cells, macrophages, NK cells
what is the main function of the pneumotaxic center?
smooth transitional breathing
activity theory of aging
the psychosocial theory that the life satisfaction in late adulthood is highest when people maintain the level f activity they displayed earlier in life
Even though Eve was able to say all of her lines for the upcoming play without any errors at last nights rehearsal, her director insisted that she run through her lines at least 5 additional times before opening night. In this case, the director is recomm
Name two thyroid hormones
T3 - 25 %T4 - 75 %
the afferent sensory nerve fibers can be stimulated by what?
1.irritation of gut mucosa
2.excessive distension
3.presence of specific chemical substances 
Describe the different types of supporting cells in the PNS:
Schwann cells, which form myelin sheaths around peripheral axons
Satellite cells, which support neuron cell bodies in the PNS
Pulmonary Vascular Disorders--PULMONARY EMBOLISMWhere do these come from?Who is at risk?
- Most come from DVT in the lower extremities- People venous stasis, venous endothelial injury and hypercoagubility states, oral contraceptives, pregnancy, hormone replacement therapy, orthopedic surgery, prolonged bed rest, trauma, surgery, child birth, fractures of the hip and femur, MI, congestive heart failure spinal cord injury
abnormal pacemaker on L
p wave inverted, rate depends on how fast pacemaker is firing
What enzyme is activated by cAMP? 149) _____ A) tyrosine kinase B) protein kinase C C) phosphodiesterase D) protein kinase A E) adenylate cyclase
D) protein kinase A
Arterial Blood Pressure – Hypertension (Chronic High BP)
• Because blood pressure is high the ventricles have to work harder to push blood into the arteries (difficult to get blood out)• After ventricle systole, the ESV increase – eventual goes above normal.• Because the heart has to work so hard, it begins to enlarge. This can lead to heart failure.
Types of DNA mutations
Deletion: sections of the DNA code are removed.Duplication: sections of the DNA code are repeated. Inversion: sections of the DNA code are rearranged.Insertion: a section of DNA code is transferred to another chromosome.
What are extrinsic control of SV?
beta 1 receptor and thyroid hormone(contraction)
changes in myofibril during contraction
sarcomere shortens, I band shortens, H zone gets smaller, A band stays the same
what is the function of muscles, and differetiates animals from plants?
movement, movement in their environment
Explain how ventilation is regulated by the CNS:
The rythmicicity center of the medulla oblongata directly controls the muscles of respiration. Activity of the inspitratory muscles and expiratory neurons varies in a reciprocal way to produce an automatic breathing cycle. Activity in the medulla is influenced by the apneustic and pneumotaxic centers in the pons, as well as by sensory feedback information. Concious breathing involves direct control by the cerebral cortex via corticospinal tracts. Breathing is affected by chemoreceptors sensitive to the PCO2, pH and PO2 of the blood. The PCO2 of blood and consequent changes in pH are usually of greater importance than the blood PO2 in the regulation of breathing. Central chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata are sensitive to changes in blood PCO2 because of the resultant changes in the pH of cerebrospinal fluid. The peripheral chemoreceptors in the aortic and carotid bodies are sensitive to changes in blood PCO2 indirectly, because of consequent changes in blood pH.
made in bone marrow
goes to the thymus gland for processing
All take part in the most immune responses; antigen recognition; all form clone population
Killer Cells
Helper T-cells
Suppressor T-cells
What is functional residual capacity? What is a typical volume?
Expiratory reserve volume + residual volume. Approximately 2,400 mL.
why some people still believe in ESP?
because beliefs may stem from understandable misperceptions, misinterpretations, and selective recall.
Sensitive Period of Development
A sensitive period is a window of time in when development is maximized if an event occurs, and the constraints are less available.
what is the purpose of esophageal secretion?
- mucus- for protection- lubricates, preventing damage by sharp objects- protects esophageal wall from acid contents of stomach
What is a cataracts?
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Most cataracts are related to aging. Cataracts are very common in older people. By age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery.
A cataract can occur in either or both eyes. It cannot spread from one eye to the other.
3 types of receptor that can be classify on where \S/ is received
Interoceptors : Extroceptors : Proprioceptors
Homeostasis is the ability of the body to
quickly restore changed conditions to normal
How do G proteins get their name
from their ability to bind guanosine nucleotides, have three subunits alpha, beta and gamma

Mechanical Events in the Cardiac Cycle:
Stroke Volume (SV)...
1. The stroke volume (SV) is equal to EDV-ESV = volume of blood pumped by one ventricle per heart beat.
      a. this averages ~ 70 mL/beat when at rest
mechanical factors of skin as 1st line of defense
cilia, nose hairs, keratinized -tough cells, staggered cells,
what does absorption by the small intestine include?
- salt and water, converting contents to feces
1) sensory2) integrative3) motor a) somatic b) autonomic 1) parasympathetic 2) sympathetic
Physiological Divisions of Nervous System
Explain how the magnitude of a sensory stimulus is transduced into a receptor potential, and how the magnitude of the receptor potential is coded in the sensory nerve fiber:
When a tonic receptor is stimulated, the generator potential it produces is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus. After the threshold depolarization is produced, increases in the amplitude of the generator potential results in increases of the frequency with which action potentials are produced. In this way, the frequency of action potentials that are conducted into the CNS serves as a code for the strength of the stimulus. Frequency code is needed because the amplitude of action potentials is constant (all or none). Acting through changes in action potential frequency , tonic receptors provide information about the relative intensity of a stimulus.
What is Henry's law for dissolved gases?
It states that the partial pressure of a gas in the liquid phase is equal to the partial pressure of the gas in the gas phase. Cx=Px x solubility
if there is low ventilation in an area of the lung and there are low levels of oxygen, what happens?
vasoconstriction of blood vessels to lower the blood flow
What is anaphylaxis? Why is it life-threatening?
body wide response to an allergen; can cause life-threatening shock
At the arterial end of capillary there are 3 forces acting on the capillary:
a) BOP – draws in (35 mmHg)b) BHP – pushes out (28 mmHg)c) IFHP – pushes out (3 mmHg)
Why is Regeneration in the CNS very limited?
due in part to the absence of a continuous neurilemma which inhibit molecules produced by oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the injured CNS.
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