Physiology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
HEURISTIC
BULUŞSAL
VICARIOUS
TAYİN EDİLMİŞ
Stimuli
Non-bacterial:pollen,bee stings,penicillin, mold, dust, IgE antibodiesMany in skin, eyes, lungs, GI tractSystem designed to attack parasitic wormsChemical triggers: Histamine, vasodilation and capillary permeability increaseSRS-A: strong bronchiole contraction, potentially lethal
law of laplace
pressure=2(tension)/radius
 
p=2t/r
 
if you had two different sized alveolus, due to LOL and the difference in pressure, they would want to equalize and be the same
 
small alveoli have more pulmonary surfactant produced by more type 2 cell. this reduces surface tension and pressure so it have the same pressure inside as in the large ones. this maintains alveolus shape to keep the hi surface area for gas exchange
- child birth
- parturition
Preganglionic neurotransmitter release
sympathetic: acetlycholineparasymapthetic: acetylcholine
dura mater
outer most meninge
RBC Morphology
 
RBC characterized by normal appearance or red/orange color
Normochromic
T/F smooth muscle has troponin?
False
Empathy
In Rogers's client-centered therapy, empathy is understanding the person from his or her point of view. Instead of interpreting the meaning behind what the client says (e.g., "you have a harsh super-ego that is punishing you for the actions of your id."), the client-centered therapist simply listens to what the client says and reflects it back.
What disorder are illusions, hallucinations, incoherent speech, and loss of emotions?
Schzophrenia
episodes of depression alternating with episodes of feeling normal
dysthymia
identify the amino acid-derived hormone that acts more like a lipid-based hormone in its mechanism of action:
***T4
conservation
Piaget's theory, the understanding that two equal quantities remain equal even though the form or appearance is rearranged, as long as nothing is added or subtracted
toponin
calcium-binding complex of three proteins
consensual
involuntarily correlative with a voluntary action, as the contraction of the iris when the eye is opened
passive transport
- simple diffusion- channel-mediated- carrier-mediated
If pH rises, solution
loses H+ ions
A chemical reaction can Proceed without an enzyme?
True
synaptic cleft
narrow extracellular space separating pre and post synaptic neurons at chemical synapses
What gas measures lung diffusion capacity?
CO
myesthenia gravis is cured my
ACE inhibitors
complex process that causes bleeding to stop
hemostasis
UMAMI
THE TASTE SENSATION EVOKED BY MSG
pyrimidines: single ring
cytosine, thymine, and uracil
Cell Processes
Long Extensions in nerve tissue
Thyroid hormone
Regulates or basal metabolic rate
produced by thyroid
increase secretion in response to cold
H.P -thyroid gland axis
tendons
The connective tissue that surrounds each fascicle conbine to form the _______.
Enteroreceptors
These receptors give information about the body's position in space
define afterload.
arterial diastolic pressure, the ventricular pressure required to open the SL valves.
Is the pulmonary or systemic circulation higher in resistance?
The systemic
PH Scale
(potential of Hydrogen) measure of acidity or alkalinity.
thin filament
An actin-containing filament of the myofibril
Implicit Motivation
Implicit motivation refers to motives as they are measured in fantasy-based (i.e., TAT) techniques, as opposed to direct self-report measures. The implied motives of persons scored, for example, from TAT stories, is thought to reveal their unconscious desires and aspirations, their unspoken needs and wants. McClelland has argued that implicit motives predict long-term behavioral trends over time, such as implicit need for achievement predicting long-term business success.
What activats a protein called G protein
GPCR
diffusion
the movment of molecules from one location to another
Convection
movement w/ respect to the observer, of the solute particle together with its immediate environment. (ex: movement of molecules in water—osmotic swelling/shrinking)(Convective flux = conc. * volume flow)
what system regulates co2/pH levels?
cardiovascular system
respiratory system
renal system
Prolactin…is responsible for brooding behavior in fish.
is inhibited by dopamine.
is not present in males.
stimulates milk letdown from the mammary glands.
all of the above
is inhibited by dopamine.
autonomic pathways always stimulate (3)
smooth musclecardiac muscleglands
Wernicke's Area
Parietal/Temporal lobe junction, it is for sounding out unfamiliar words, and comprehension of language.
what is flow
 
what is the equation
flow=perfusion pressure/resistance
 
flow is the quantity of blood that passes by a point per unit time
hormones may be broadly classified as belonging to TWO MAJOR CHEMICAL CATEGORIES. Identify the category that best describes hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
steroids
Fast axonal transport moves ______ /day
400 mm/day
chordae tendinae
thin, fibrous cords of tendinous-type tissue that prevent atrioventricular valves from being everted
Martin can’t remember who invented flush toilets because he was flirting with a classmate when his history professor described this monumental event. His forgetting is due to
 encoding failure.
What is ejection fraction?What is its normal value?
SV/EDV60%
Hyper T cells
Paracrines that regulate immune responsesIncrease proliferation, growth and functionWhen cytokine structure known, renamed an interleukin
Late ventricular systole T wave
repolorization of ventricles
Three molecules of NADH and one molecule of FADH2 are formed for ________ molecule of acetyl CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle.
every
presynaptic
being or occurring on the transmitting end of a discharge across a synapse
The end of the molecule toward which electrons are pulled is electrically negative compared to the other end the molecule is said to be....
polar
drugs such as aspirin that reduce the level of fever are called?
antipyretics
From which circulation does the right side of the heart receive blood?
Pulmonary circit
Superficial
toward or on the surface of the body
Vison works via a ________ called _______ recognizes photons of light
GPCR, rhodopsin
What cargo follows slow axonal transport (1-2mm/day)?
enzymes (neurotransmitter synthesis)
What is Heparin ?
anti-coagulant released from mast cells and basophils, increases antithrombin III also inhibits intrinsic pathway
what body part helps to regulate body temperature?
hypothalamus
PROPERTIES OF PANCREATIC LIPASE
Secreted in ACTIVEform
Inhibited by high concentration of Free Fatty Acids
pH optimum 6-7 (normal duodeno-jejunal pH)
Interfacial enzyme; inhibited by Bile Salts
Positional Specificity; removes fatty acid from the 1 and 1’ positions only 
Acid labile enzyme; inactivated at pH < 3
Secreted in great excess; safety factor
if there is an andregernic neuron, we know we are in ___ nervous system
sympathetic
Synapse
the place at which a nervous impulse passes from one neuron to another
Cerebellum
Involved in the sense of balance and coordinates the smooth and precise movement of muscles. Involved in remembering specific simple skills and acquired reflexes.
Non-polar molecules
Are electrically balanced and do not have (+) and   (-) poles
ANS effects on ciliary muscle?
Beta-1 receptors Para-Contracts muscles flatting the lens
transport of hydrophilic hormones
- peptide and catecholamines- dissolved in the plasma- solubility in aqueous environment therefore transported by the blood
Internal Respiration
Mitochondria (make ATP use O2 produces CO2)
Substantia nigra _ direct pathway, _ indirect pathway
stimulates, inhibits
pain receptor, respond to tissue damage, modality
Labeled Line Principle
when are leak channels open?
THEY ARE ALWAYS OPEN!!!!!
The adrenal gland is stimulated by the __________ system to secrete catecholamines
sympathetic
the inability to keep up with required acetylcholine levels is called?
neuro fatigue
Inositol triphosphate
binds to the calcium channel of the endoplasmic recticulum; is involved in the release of calcium into the cytosol
List the components of an atom:
nucleus, protons, neutrons, electrons
 RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS: Pneumonias Compare & contrast causes & signs and symptoms of S. pneumoniae & Legionnaire's disease
S. pneumoniae (Pneumococcal) Pneumonia:
cause
s/s
cause: S. pneumoniae
-It starts with attachment and colonization in the nasopharynx; depending on the age and health of the individual, it may spread to lower respiratory tract and signs and symptoms ensue
signs & symptoms: sudden onset, malaise, severe shaking chill & fever as high as 106 degrees; watery sputum, pleuritic pain, dry or productive cough; abnormal chest x-ray showing infiltrates in either a single lobe or may be diffuse; WBC count elevated to more than 10,000, breath sounds with crackles; elderly lose appetite & mental status deterioration
The human brain has how many neurons?
over 100 billion
What is pacemaker potential?
the contraction of smooth muscles without any influencing factors (swallowing )
TOPIC 17


 
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells):
 
Structure & Function...
 
-Flat, thin, disk shaped cells-
(Fig. 15.1)
 
(Shaped like a donut with an indentation instead of a hole)
 
1. Gives a large surface area for diffusion of O2
2. Thinness allows rapid diffusion of O2
 
**main function is to carry oxygen
Vesicles formed during phagocytosis or endocytosis often fuse with the membrane of which of the following organelles? 77) ______ A) rough endoplasmic reticulum B) mitochondria C) peroxisome D) lysosome E) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
E) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
what cell has the most negative resting membrane potential?
cardiac ventricular muscle
Osmotic Pressure
 A measure of the tendency of water to move into a more concentrated solution.
What are central chemoreceptors?
found in the brainstemmain driving force of respirationsensitive to CO2
Path of action potential
1.) Stimulous pushes toward threshold potential. 2.) Na channels open gate opens. 3.) Na channels closes fast 4.) K channels open 5.) K close slowly, hence hyperpolarization.
various causes of GERD
- impaired esophageal clearance (LES stays open)- transient LES relaxation- delayed gastric emptying- decreased LES tone - BIGGEST CAUSE- impaired tissue resistance- decreased salivation
What are examples of Atopic diseases?
hives, asthma, hay fever
When everything has turned to bone
Line in long bone
Excite (EPSP) small intestine and stomach
Inhhibit (IPSP) the heart
REM sleep
a period of sleep during which most dreaming occurs as the eyes move under closed lids and the skeletal muscles are deeply relaxed
examples of countertransport/antiport systems
Ca/Na exchanger in muscle cells (Ca out and Na in)
Describe the regulation of adrenal medulla secretion:
Secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine increases cardiac output and heart rate, dilate coronary blood vessels, increase mental alertness, increase respiratory rate and elevates metabolic rate. It is activated durin "fight or flight" and its effects are supported by metabolic actions of epinephrine and norepinephrine. A rise in blood glucose due to hepatic glycogenolysis and rise in blood fatty acids due to stimulation of lipolysis.
Factors related to sexual coercion: Cultural forces (3)
Men taugh dominance, competition, aggressionAcceptance of violenceAggressive pornography
What is hemorrhagic anemia?
loss of F(X) due to blood loss
Fast Response Phase 2
Plateau happens due to Ca entering through iCa and K entering through iK and iK.
High amino acid levels will cause secretion of…insulin
glucagon
somatostatin
a and b
all of the above
all of the above
Intestinal Phase (3 steps)
• Food enters the duodenum of small intestine• The acid chime is the stimulus in the duodenumi) Excitatory component:• Small amount of acid chyme enters duodenum, goes to the stomach causing it to increase gastric juice.ii) Inhibitory component:• Enterogastric reflex – reflex from small intestine to stomach which inhibits gastric secretion. Also stimulates the SNS and inhibits the PSNS to the stomach, causing a decrease in the production of gastric juice, and prevents churningiii) Secretion of hormones• Secretin and Cholescystokinin (CCK) – both inhibit gastric juice secretion• Endocrine cells of the intestine secrete the above 2 hormones
massa intermedia
piece in btw thalami; 30% of ppl don't have one
How does the sound receptor work?
liquid wave brushes stereocilia, aligned short to tall. mechanical gated channels open when tall hairs move(depolarize), close when short hairs move(hyper)
what does systemic fibrin formation mean?
- clots are formed EVERYWHERE
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH, corticotropin)
ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce hydrocortisone.
 
Adrenocorticotropic hormone, as its name implies, stimulates the adrenal cortex. More specifically, it stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids such as cortisol, and has little control over secretion of aldosterone, the other major steroid hormone from the adrenal cortex.
end of ventricular diastole QR interval
blood squeezed into ventricles, electric impluse enters ventricles from AV node begin to depol
How is resistance determined?
R = Delta P/QPressure gradient in the pulmonary circulation divided by flood flowR = (Mean PAP - LAP)/Cardiac Output
Explain the forces that act in capillaries:
Filtration results from hydrostatic pressure exerted against the capillary wall. Net filtration pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the capillaries minus the hydrostatic pressure of the tissue fluid outside the capillaries. Proteins in plasma is restricted from filtering out of capillaries into interstitial fluid, so the osmotic pressure exerted by plasma proteins called colloid osmotic pressure is greater than that of interstitial fluid. The difference between the two is oncotic pressure. Since colloid pressure is so low, the oncotic pressure is essentially equal to the colloid pressure of plasma. Since water moves by osmosis into the solution of lower to the solution of higher osmotic pressure, the oncotic pressure favors the movement of water into the capillaries. Thesea re all opposing forces that affect the distribution of fluid across the capillary, known as Starling forces. 
examples of hormone that acts as an intracellular receptor
aldosterone,k which stumulates sythesis of that Na+/K+ pump
What is Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
defect in Dystrophin was the first costamere protein discovered to be related to a muscular dystrophy,
Explain how glucose transport channels of skeletal muscle differ from the glucose channels of brain and liver cells.
 
What about the glucose and small intestine relationship?
Skeletal muscles get glucose from cappilaries which send out their glucose with insulin: Cotrasport
 
Brain and liver cells get glucose from glucose transporters that are continually working during feeding
 
Glucose into small intestinal walls=sodium/glucose symport
What hormone softens the pelvic tissues in preparation for work?
- Relaxin- secreted by the corpus leuteum of pregnancy and by the placenta
what are the resistance vessels and why?
 
what happens to the blood pressure at this point?
arteriole classes because the collective resistance of the tiny arterioles is MUCH greater than that of the stem arteries that they come off of. this is due to the big change in radius from a small artery to an arteriole.
 
compared to other vessel classes, going from small arteries to arterioles there is also less branching which also contributes to the high resistance.
 
bp drops significantly
site of action for sulfanilureas
- beta cell stimulators- DM2- increase insulin secretion- only effective when residual beta cell fx in pancreas
Describe the process of covalent modulation.  What is its importance for the functioning of enzymes?
Covalent bonding of charged chemical groups that alter the configuration of a binding site. It is important in the functioning of enzymes because when you change the shape you change the function and it speeds things up.
How is myosin light chain phosphatase involved in relaxation.
It dephosphorylates myosin light chain, making it less able to cross-bridge with actin--allowing relaxation
How is the rate of diffusion determined?
The diffusion capacity + Pressure gradient
Describe the structure of smooth muscle:
They do not contain sarcomeres, and contain a great deal of actin and some myosin (a 16:1 ratio). The thin filaments are very long, and attach to regions of the smooth muscle plasma membrane, or to dense bodies, which are analogous to Z discs. Smooth muscles are arranged in circular layers or longitudinals layers. Myosin proteins are stacked perpendicular to the long axis of the thick filaments, so they can bind to actin all along the length of the thick filament. Depolarizations are graded, and conducted from one smooth muscle to the next.
Describe the structure of nucleosomes:
DNA is wound like a spool around regulatory proteins called histones, which form particles called nucleosomes.
What is the major effects of the thyroid on cardiovascular system?
hyposecretion causes poor pumping efficiency, low blood rate/pressure
As a membrane's permeability to a particular ion increases, membrane potential will move ________ that ion's ________. 226) _____ A) away from : electrochemical gradient B) away from : electrical gradient C) closer to : equilibrium potential D) closer to
C) closer to : equilibrium potential
what is the cellular basis for contractility differences?
myosin isozymes are proteins with different capacities that accomplish a similary function. they vary in the rate at which ATP is hydrolyzed
 
=higher ATP hydrolysis,=higher crossbridge cycling=higher degree of sarcomere shortening=increased tension
role of glucocorticoids in adaptation to stress
- induced by the noxious stimuli- includes physical, chemical, physiologic, psychological, emotional, and social sources- e.g. if depressed of psychologically dependent on drugs, increased amt. of glucocorticoids- increased concentration of glucose in the blood is major response to these stressors
The flow of blood throught the vascular system is due to _______.
the pressure difference between the two ends of the system
Explain the sliding filament theory
Z lines make of alphatactinin serve as an anchor for thin filaments which are pulled by thick filaments to contract the sacromere (one z-z line unit)
what are the two types of smooth muscle?
multi-unit smooth muscle and unitary smooth muscle
Where is the juxtaglomerula appartus located
located where the initial part of the distal tubule passes through the fork between the afferent and efferent arterioles
What are two reasons why myelin increases the rate of conduction of an AP?
1. Causes a saltatory conduction which is much quicker than carrying charge in and out at every point along the axon
 
2. It also prevents positive charge leakage that results from the increase in inside posi charges that repel eachother
QUick Fact - when is a woman reproductive and when does it end
*A woman generally becomes reproductive around the age of 12 and reproductive function ceases around the age of 40-50 (menopause)
chain of command in hypothalamic hormones
- involved in a 3-hormone chain of command- mnay hypothalamic hormones have more than one effect- a single anterior pituitary hormone may be regulated by two or more hypothalamic hormones- rate of secretion in response to two or more signals depends upon concentraion of signals and intensity of other regulatory input- these hormonal chemical messengers are produced in many brain areas outside the hypothalamus- STUDY FIGURE
Class of drugs that can cause renal failure in high vasoconstrictive states due to inhibition of prostaglandin production?
NSAIDS. Prostaglandins are keeping the afferent arterioles vasodilated to maintain GFR. Inhibition of prostaglandin production leads to acute renal failure.
why is it important to keep ECF volume and composition normal?
carries nutrients for ICF and maintenence for cellular life
What is needed to have Myosin bind to action?
ADP and Pi bound to head
What are the points of Amplification in the G-Protein coupled receptors?
1. A single Adenylate cyclase leads to multiple conversions on ATP to cAMP
What are the steroid hormones?
I had a PET CAT who was buff because she took steroids. Progesterone, Estrogen, Testosterone, Cortisol, Aldosterone, Thyroxine
what allows e- to travel down the etc instead of just stay at the first e- acceptor?
each following protein has a higher affinity for electrons
Explain how the A and I bands change length during a muscle contraction:
As sarcomeres shorten in length, the A bands do not shorten, but move closer together. The I bands (which represent the difference between A bands of successive sarcomeres) decrease in length. In the process of contraction, The I bannds on either sides of the A bands slide deeper and deeper toward the center, producing increasing amounrs of overlap with the thick filaments. The I bands and H bands get shorter during muscle contraction.
Dorsal
Backside
Carbohydrates
polysaccharides
starch
cellulose

 
 
1)             The defecation reflex:
a.     Is initiated when mass movements force fecal material into the rectum, stimulating stretch receptors in the rectal wall
b.     Involves relaxation of the internal anal sphincter and contra
E
convex glasses correct
hyperopia
Plasma
20-25% of ECF, 3L
where does glycolysis occur?
cytoplasm
Cytology
 study of the cells
cGMP
less cGMP close it=hyperpolarization=more light intensity. low cGMP=hi GMP
(Na+) Sodium equilibrium
- +61 mV
Polysaccharides
Glycogen
 
Long chain of glucose linked togther
PLC,DAG,IP3
-uses Gq-Gq->PLC->IP3->Ca that binds to proteins-Gq->DAG->DAG->phosphorylation
adaptive immunity different than innate because it has memory and ___
specificity
Centrosome
microtubule organizing center contains centrioles
complication of ascites
spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
Factor I also known as?
Fibrinogen
histamine
a histidine-derived amine compound that is released mainly by damaged mast cells in allergic reactions, causing dilation and permeability of blood vessels and lowering blood pressure
Three types of muscle
Cardiac, Smooth, Skeletal.
Where does blood become oxygenated
pulmonary circuit
Metabolic Pathway
Tyrosine (AA) - Melania Pigment
 (determines eyecolor)
Semanticity
words/symbols mean something and that meaning is important
ParacrineNeurocrineEndocrine
Paracrine- comm. cells that are closeNeurocrine- neuron comm., special kind of paracrineEndocrine-long distance cell comm.
Acquisition
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phrase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response.
Broca's Area
Expressive language area, frontal lobe, formulates the words as they are to be spoken (example, the expression of language). Puts the words together in a meaningful sentence.
4. Axosynaptic
Axon synapsing onto a synapse
Which condition pervents release of ACh, and results in muscular paralysis?
Botulism
Red Cell Morphology:
 
What type of change in RBC includes large vairation in the size of RBCs?
Anisocytosis
contraction-relaxtion cycle
sliding filament theory of contraction
Calcium release from the ______________ is neurally stimulated, so the calcium-mediated activation of phosphorylase is fast.
sarcoplasmic reticulum
___________ system is responsible for voluntary contraction of skeletal muscle
Somatic
T/F all organs that have a parasympathetic innervation have a sypmathetic innervation?
TRUE
Cold receptors have been shown to respond also to
menthol
Medullary Osmotic gradient
makes extensive water reabsorption possible in the descending limb and collecting duct
 
The descending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to water, whereas the thick ascending limb is impermeable to water and contains trasnporters for Na+, C1- and K+
transcription
Transfer of information coded in DNA to mRNA
autonomic division
controls cardiac and smooth muscle. Also, exocrine and endocrine glands
Which forms myelin in the PNS
schwann cell
surfactants
reduces the surface tension of a liquid
Sympathetic adrenergic receptors
-Alpha 1-usually excitatory, Gq-Alpha 2- usually inhibitory, Gi-Beta 1-usually excitatory, Gs-Beta 2- usually inhibitory,Gs-Norepi for alpha, epi for both
What percent of body water is intracellular?
67%
heart sounds, Second “Dup”
• Associated with T wave• Ventricle - diastole and closing of semilunar valve• Turbulence against the semilunar valve.• Hear this to the left of the sternum, just below the clavicle
Antiport
A mechanism for the coupled transport of two different molecules or ions through a membrane in opposite directions.
SOUR
THE TASTE QUALITY PRODUCED BY THE HYDROGEN ION IN ACIDS
symport systems
when two transported substances move in the same direction
Substance P
induces Pain sensation, released be afferent neurons towards Brian Stem
primary hyperaldosteronism
- "conn's syndrome"- caused by hypersecreting adrenal tumor made up of aldosterone-secreting cells
What results from:-large cations trapped in a cell-Na+ high count outside the cell-K+ very permeable and high inside cell?
resting membrane potential
Describe abdominal spasm
Spinal reflex - peritonitis, appendicitis, surgery
Dilated CHF is associated with which extra heart sound?
S3
Mechanisms for increasing intracellular [Ca2+] in smooth muscle (4)
voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (single-unit only)ligand-gates Ca2+ channelSERCAIp3 gated Ca2+ channel
Extreme dense area of photoreceptors creating great resolution
Fovea Centralis
arteries
conduct blood away from the heart; they may or may not contain oxygenated blood and may or may not appear red
what is released when fattty acids and monoglycerides from the wall of duedenum and jejunum?
cholecystokinan
glucose
The transport of ____ is MOST likely to involve facilitated diffusion.- Na- urea- Glucose- Potassium
Alpha andrenergeric receptors
most common. Respond strongly to norepenephrine and only weakly to epenephrine.
Positive Regard
According to Rogers, all children are born wanting to be loved and accepted by their parents and others. He called this in-born need the desire for positive regard.
intrafusal fiber
Modified muscle fibers of the muscle spindle that lack myofibrils in their central portions
Multiple Intelligence
There are 3 types of intelligence associated with multiple intelligence.Analytical Intelligence, Creative Intelligence, Practical Intelligence
eidetic memory
the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short term exposure
what is the most common intermediate between cholesterol and steroid?
 
what steroids are derived from this molecule?
 
 
pregnenolone
 
testosterone, corticol, aldosterone
Carries signal from sensory receptors to CNS
Sensory (afferent) Neurons
Resistance
– as the blood flows through the blood vessels, the blood at the side of the vessel produces friction. This resistance hinders the smooth flow of blood.
Interstitial fluid
The fluid outside blood vessels that directly bathes most body cells
Chemical Synapses
more flexibility in neuron to neuron communication...
water's cushioning
in membranes around body organs (ex: fluid around brain)
Expressive Aphasia
damage to Brocca's area, leads to inability to process language output (input is okay)
parietal cells
- secrete HCL and intrinsic factor- line gastric glands- fewer- stimulated by ACh, gastrin, and histamine- fx is to activated pepsinogen, etc., vitamin B12
During an action potential, what ion flows in the cell during depolarization? And out during repolarization?
Na+, K+
Describe general features of diabetes
Frequent urinationIncreased thirst and appetiteWeight loss
What does renin do?
Cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
The ________________ in atmospheric air decreases with increases in altitude.
partial pressure of oxygen
femoral
of, pertaining to, or situated at, in, or near the thigh or femur.
What will bind to nicotinic 1 or 2 receptors?
nicotine
An exergonic chemical reaction
converts molecules into molecules that have less free energy; releases energy as the reaction progresses
Heart Rate (HR)
The rate of contractions of the ventricles
usually expressed in beats per minute
What happens to insulin secretion when plasma amino acid concentration decreases
decreased insulin secretion
Aptitude test
A test designed to predict a persons future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
What kind of test is a personality test used to infer motives, conflicts, and unconscious dynamics on bias of your interpretations of ambiguous stimuli?
Projective tests.
what part of the body produces the most heat in humans?
the head
Define Ependymal
which line the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.
one main dendrite and one axon, found in retina, inner ear and olfactory area of brain
bipolar neuron
Covalent Bond
The chemical bond formed when two or more atoms share electrons Stable chemical link between two atoms produced by sharing one or more pairs of electrons
Sending Sensory Info.
Spinal Cord to brain by ascending pathways or directly to brain stem via cranial nerves.
Phineas Gage
person that had rod shot through his head
what does the motility by the pharynx and esophagus include?
- swallowing
Edema may result from...
a. high arterial blood pressureb. venous obstruction (flebitis, blood clot)
c. leakage of plasma proteins into interstitial fluid (holds fluid in those spaces)
d. myxedema in hypothyroidism
e. decreased plasma protein concentration (caused by liver failure)
f. obstruction of lymphatic drainage in elepantiasis or cancer
may be specialized cell or a membrane at the branched peripheral end of an afferent neuron...stimulus causes a change in membrane potential of the receptor. usually epithelial
Receptor Potential
The partial pressure of oxygen in atmospheric air decreases with ______________.
increases in altitude
In non-pathological conditions, what substances in the blood do not become part of the filtrate?
blood cells and blood preteins
Negative feedback loops
When the output of a system corrects itself.
Explain the semiconservative replication of DNA in DNA synthesis:
The strands of the original DNA molecule gradually  seperate along their entire length, and through complimentary base pairing form a new complimentary strand.  This way each DNA molecule consists of one old and one new strand.
Activaties of NE
reuptake or metabolism by COMT or NAO, reuptake is used when difficult to make
turbulent
if Reynold's # is > 2000 blood flow is ?
The ________ in graded potential that occurs as current spreads along the membrane happens as a consequence of the ________ of current across the membrane. 237) _____ A) decrement : leakage B) elevation : blockade C) decrement : blockade D) elevation : le
A) decrement : leakage
relaxation of smooth muscle
1 decreased cytosolic Ca B/c returned to SR by ATP pump, extrusion of Ca by Na/Ca pump
2 MLCK returns to inactive form
3 myosin phosphitase removes P from myosin
4 cross bridge reatachment inhibited
how many hemoglobin molecules on RBC? how many O2 on each hemoglobin?
250 million; 4
oxygen debtaka excess post-exercise oxygen consumptions
after strenuous activity; extra oxygen is used in the processes to restore the body to resting state & adapt it to the exercise performed. ex.hormone balancing,replenishment of fuel stores,cellular repair,innervation,and anabolism.
PTH and the kidneys
PTH signals kidneys to conserve Ca2+ and eliminate phosphate - this effect adds Ca2+ to blood - inverse relationship bt Ca2+ and phosphate levels in blood bc they are in equilibrium w/bone cyrstals- product of their two concentrations must be constant
Miguel used to enjoy occasionally drinking a glass of red wine, but when he drank too much red wine at a friend’s party a few months ago he woke up with a terrible hangover. Since then Miguel refused to drink any red wine. In this case, Miguel’s hango
 punishment for drinking red wine.
Kidney - symp
Renin release + increase ADH - beta 1
What is a neurotransmitter?
a chemical molecule secreted from the axon terminals of a neuron.
the enteric nervous system has what 2 parts?
1.myenteric or Auerbachs plexus
2.submucousal or Meissners plexus 
Describe the relationship between dopaminergic neurons, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia:
Drugs used to treat schizophrenia act against the D2 subtype of dopaminergic receptor, which can cause side effects resembling Parkinson's disease. This suggests that overactivity of the mesolimbic dopamine pathways contributes to schizophrenia, which also helps explain why people suffering from Parkinson's disease could develop schizophrenia if they are treated with too much L-dopa (which increases dopaminergic transmission).
primary structure, of protein
The sequence of amino acids in the peptide chain
Higher arterial pressure
in ____ ____ ___ there is an increase in filtration, and as BP increases renal output also increase
The thyroid gland secretes what hormone? 174) _____ A) both thyroid hormones and calcitonin B) both thyroid hormones and thymosin C) thyroid hormones only D) thymosin only E) calcitonin only
A) both thyroid hormones and calcitonin
4 stages of AP in ventricular myocardium
a) depolarization b) repolarization beginsc) plateau staged) repolarization continues
Types of Synapses- 1. Axodendritic
most common, axon terminal of one neuron synapses on dendritic spine of another
how do nutrients immediately pass through the liver for processing
- venules leaving small intestine villi(and from rest of GIT) empty into the hepatic portal vein; hepatic portal vein carries blood and all absorbed contents to liver- products of digestion subject to metabolic processing- any absorbed toxic substances detoxified
Summary of Steps in Muscle Contraction:
 
5
 
 
 
Voltage gated Ca 2+ channels open in the T tubules
Molecular basis of contractile cells
AP moves across cell membrance Ca enters from ECF, AP moves down T tubles, Ca binds to troponin to allow cross cycling, Ca eventually removed by active transport - long refractory period
what is the action of the tetris toxin?
block the production of GABA
Explain how lung compliance, elascticity and surface tension affect breathing:
The compliance of the lungs, or the ease with which they expand, refers specifically to the change in lung volume per change in transpulmonary pressure (the difference between intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressure). The elasticity of the lungs refers to their tendency to recoil after distension. The surface tension of the fluid in the alveoli exerts a force directed inward, which acts to resist distension.
RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS: Cancer of the lungSerious?
Causes?
-It is serious because it is the leading cause of cancer deaths for men and women in the United States
-Causes: smoking, asbestos exposure, exposure to dusts containing arsenic, chromium nickel & vinyl chloride
Diseases such as fibrosis, severe scoliosis, and pleural effusions can cause restrictive diseases and smaller-than-normal lungs. What effect do these diseases have on FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC?
FEV1: Decreased FVC: Decreased FEV1/FVC: Increased
it will go to 0
what happens to the venous return when filling pressure is increased?
How do stem cells know what to become?
chemical signal-turn genes on-specific proteins are made- specific cells
mixing in regards to gastric motility
- in antrum- peristaltic movements are much stronger bc walls are thick and muscular
Ch. 11 Endocrine Glands and Hormones
 
1
 
like the nervous system, the endocrine system is a regulatory system that releases effector molecules, but they are hormones rather than neurotransmitters
How do primary or secondary receptors work?
Receptor memb. located on microvilli or cilia, chem attaches to site, and either depolarizes or hyperpolarizes, specific protein isolate from diff. receptors
The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is important because
it represents the driving pressure for blood flow
Amine Messengers are they lipophobic or lipophilic
lipophobic - they dissove in water and do not cross the plasma membrane
in the case of anaerobic glycolysis, what is the benefit of creating pyruvate just to make lactate and NADH?
NADH goes back into glycolysis which makes 2ATP. So, even tho there is no ATP production from the electron transport chain (due to lack of oxygen) the cell can still make some ATP.
where does hemopoiesis take place? what kind of stem cells does it work with? what influences end product?
made in red bone marrow; contains pluripotent cells; responds to specific hormones to form all bl cells
what does absorption by the large intestine include?
- salt and water, converting contents to feces
Functions to break down Norepi and epi neurotransmitters (4)
1) reuptake with reuse2) diffusion away from synapse3) reuptake with degradation: achieved by MAO enzyme (monamine oxidase)4) uptake by post-synaptic structure with degradation by COMT enzyme (high in liver)
Explain how movements of the basilar membrane affect hair cells:
The hair cells are located on the basilar membrane, and their stereocilia project into the endolymph of the cochlear duct. There are two categories of hair cells, inner, which extends the length of the basilar membrane, which relay information regarding sound to the brain, and outer, which aid the sensory function of the inner hair cells. The stereocilia of the hair cells are imbedded in the gelatinous tectorial membrane, which overhangs the hair cells in the cochlear duct. The basilar membrane, hair cells and tectorial membrane forms the organ of Corti. When the cochlear duct is displaced by pressure waves of perilymph, the shearing force created by the basilar membrane and tectorial membrane causes stereocilia to bend, mechanically opening ion channels in the tops of the stereocilia. This causes a depolarization releasing glutamate as a neurotransmitter. The greater the  displacement of the basilar membrane and bending of the stereocilia, the greater the amount of neurotransmitter released by the inner hair cell, and therfore a greater receptor potential. By this means, a greater bending of stereocilia will result in a higher frequency of action potentials, which will be percieved as a louder sound.
What is the result of a forced expiration on the pressure-volume curve of the chest wall-lung system?
Lower FRC; b/c the collapsing pressure is less, the expanding force on the chest wall is greater and the system 'wants' to expand.
What happens to nitrogen when breathed in and why?
it's breathed back out bc it is insolubile in water at pressures and temps associated w human body
What are the intestinal crypts? What is their function?
pits next to he villi; secrete bicarbonate rich fluid
Red blood cells – what is the average life span / function
Red blood cells live for about 120 days (give or take 20 days).Their primary function is to facilitate oxygen transport from the lungs to cells, and carbon dioxide transport from cells to lungs. (p553-554)
Spermatogenesis - how long does it take, how many sperm per cycle...remember (genesis = creation, or birth)
- takes about 10 weeks, over 500 sperm cells per/cycle
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