Physiology exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
SANGUINE
UMUTLU
Eosinophils
kill parasites
Hydrophobic is ....
non-polar
digitalis
inhibits NA/CA excahnger
One intracellular calcium-binding protein is
calmodulin
Prometaphase
muclear envelope breaks down
nucleolus is no longer visible
centrioles are at opposite poles of teh cell
chromosomes link at their centromeres to the spindle fibers
If [HCO3-]/[CO2] > 20
alkylosis
Righting reflex
Restoring upright position
Example of facilitated transport
glucose transporters
aquaporins
Qucturnary Structure
Chains of proteins  forming
What occurs when central chemoreceptors detect an increase in CSF pH?
Hypoventilation
Specific Resistance
– Immunity• Recognize specific foreign substances, bacteria (antigens) and the immune system will produce antibodies to destroy the antigens• Antigens – is the foreign substance (virus, bacterial, pollen, transplanted organ)• Antibodies – protein gamma globulin. Produced from plasma cells. Antibodies combine with antigens.
Tails are nonpolar
hydrophobic (water hating)
What is bradycardia?
slow heart beat
light (binding of proton), modality
Chemoreceptor
fatigue
temporary diminution of the irritability or functioning of organs, tissues, or cells after excessive exertion or stimulation
Potassium
most prevalent cation in the intracellular fluid
Lysosymes
digest particular matter that enters the cell
Tertiary Structure
3D Structure - Binding sites
Resting Potential
-70mV
Established and maintained by the Na+/K+ leaking channels
Na+/K+ pump is involved
ATP is required to establish and maintain Vrest
At Vrest, there is a very large inward electrochemical force on Na+
which mammalian organ generates the most heat on a heat per gram basis?
heart
relative size
 

•Object with smaller projection on the retina looks to be farther away
 
The Cell Membrane
 
The cell membrane:
Phospholipid Bilayer
Membrane Proteins
Dyslexia
Possible genetic defect in chromosome 6 causing difficulty in reading with intact auditory comprehension.
Cilia
move extracellular material across the surface of the cell:  nine doublets + central pairsprout from basal bodies
Ventricles
AP enters septum first, spreadsto apex, then up to ventricular muscle.
V muscle contraction spreads upward.
Hypotonic
solution with lower concentration of solutes.
Tube system to the lungs
Respiratory passages
the breakdown of glycogen into glucose.
glycogenolysis
Glucagon responds when blood glucose levels ________ (increase/decrease)
decrease
what are the muscle fibers called within the muscle cells called?
myofibrils
The term meaning programmed cell death is
apoptosis
In plumonmary capillary beds, carbon dioxide  diffuses from
blood to alveoli
Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy is a concept related to optimism developed by Bandura. This concept refers to the belief that one can behave in ways necessary to achieve some desired outcome. Self-efficacy also refers to the confidence one has in one's ability to perform the actions needed to achieve some specific outcome.
electrical synapse
Synapse where electrical signals pass directly from cell to cell through gap junctions
Leak Channels
nongated channels
found in the plasma membrane
always open
responsible for the resting membrane potential
What protein anchors myosin between M and Z lines?
titan
Anterolateral System
-Small diameter-Crosses in the spinal cord immediately-Neospinothalamic-fast pain-Paleospinothalamic-slow pain
chloride
what channel is affected in cystic fibrosis
peripheral div into two NS
autonomic and somatic
Endothelium
: an epithelium of mesoblastic origin composed of a single layer of thin flattened cells that lines internal body cavities (as the serous cavities or the interior of the heart)
OLFACTORY CORTEX
THE GENERAL BRAIN REGION THAT PROCESSES SMELL; CONSISTS OF THE PIRIFORM CORTEX, THE AMYGDALA-HIPPOCAMPAL COMPLEX, AND THE ENTORHINAL CORTEX
pressure gradient
gradient for filtration that pushes solute-containing fluid (filtrate) from a higher-pressure area to a lower-pressure area
GH causes:
Cell division and grownth, stumulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis; causes lipid breakdown and release from adipose tissue - slows glucose usage
genotye
the genetic makeup of an individual organism
Gastric Emptying
Material leaving stomach and entering the small intestine (SI-->absorption)
Decides when to emty foodstuff into Si
REGULATED
Fatstends to slow emptying
large particles slow emptying
pH stomach contents:
Bronchi - symp
Bronchiolar smooth muscle relaxation - beta 2
cranial nerve pairs. connect to brain
31 pairs
What are the thick filaments made of
Myosin
What are hair cells that don't pretrude?
Scolopidia
bile
a bitter, alkaline, yellow or greenish liquid, secreted by the liver, that aids in absorption and digestion
What percent of the body is skeletal muscle?
40%
Describe process/mechanism of action of secondary active transport
receives energy using an electrochemical gradient set up by another transporter as a source of energy
core body temperature (homeostatic set point)
37 degrees C
Since the size of an action potential is independent of the size of the stimulus which initiated it, how does a stronger stimulus cause a stronger effect on a post-synaptic neuron
synapse
Region where a neuron meets its target cell
Presynaptic neuron
releases a chemical messenger called a neurotransmitter that communicates with the dedrite or cell body of a postsynaptic neuron or other cell
Total Body Water
42 Liters
 
The volume of wate contained in all the body's compartments
hydration shell?
ions in h20 solution become surrounded by h20 due to it's polarity. this creates a layer around the ion and prevents its passage through the plasma membrane
increase of K+ plasma levels
what causes renal failure
Cell Mediated Immunity
• T lymphocytes – destroy antigens by direct attack (viruses that hide, and antibodies can not get to them)
Myosin
a fibrous globulin of muscle that can split ATP and that reacts with actin to form actomyosin
Huntington's Disease
degredation of the caudate & putamen (genetic)
Integral proteins
firmly imbedded in the PM; Most integral proteins span the entire PM
Temporal/Spatial Summation
Temporal is same time response Spatial is spaced out enough for each response to be separate
What contributes to resistance?
blood viscosity blood vessel lengthvessel diameter
Intrinsic gastrointestinal nervous system
Controls tract.
work in conjuction with autonomic nervous system
Describe damage to cerebrocerebellum
DYSMETRIA - voluntary movements overshoot or undershoot targetATAXIA - erratic gaitINTENTION TREMOR - tremor during voluntary movementFAILURE OF PROGRESSION - complicated fast movementsDYSARTHRIA - complicated fast speech
What does progesterone do to gonadotropins?
Inhibits (LH, FSH)
The main limitation of using the Siri equation to convert body density to body fat percentage is that it assumes that _________ has a density of the FFM that equals 1.1 g/cm3.
everyone
sensitive
having a low threshold of sensation or feeling
what is the function of cholecystokinan?
stimulates gall bladder contractions
-inhibit gastric contraction and emptying 
The sensory fibers of the muscle spindle organs synapse onto
alpha motor neurons
Four classes of organic molecules
Carbs, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Enzyme effector generates cAMP, which leads to
phosphorylation of target proteins
Ligand-gated channels
open or close in response to the binding of a chemical messenger
specific receptor
in the plasma membrane
in neurons located in the dendrites and cell body
How are proteins anchored in the membrane?
Peripheral, integral/transmembrane proteins. Glycolipids. Myristyl, farnesyl, and GPI anchors.
how many atp are made/replaced each second?
 
how much to you make a day?
10 million
 
100 lbs
Which of the following is NOT an integral membrane protein? 142) _____ A) tyrosine kinase B) phospholipase C C) G proteins D) adenylate cyclase E) calmodulin
E) calmodulin
Expiration - is it active or passive?what happens to muscles? what happens to lungs, what happens to chest?
- passive processs- inspiratory muscles relax- diaphragm assumes resting position- lungs and chest wall return to former position and air is driven out of the lungs
Symport
The term symport is used to denote an integral membrane protein that simultaneouly transports two substances across membrane in the same direction.
what is a spirogram?
graph that records inspiration and expiration
relative refractory period
a strong enough signal can trigger another action potential
what does the motility by the mouth and salivary glands include?
- chewing
Which NTs fall into the classification as catecholamines?
Dopamine, Epinephrine, Norepinephrine
What kind of receptors are known as transducers that convert energy in the environnment into action potentials in the neurons?
Sensory receptors
Slow wave potential of single-unit smooth muscle cells
membrane potential alternately depolarizes and hyperpolarizes. when threshhold is reached, cell fires a burst of APs
sensitivity
the ability of an organism or part of an organism to react to stimuli; degree of susceptibility to stimulation
high permeabilities through membranes using simple diffusion
- hydrophobic (O2, N2)- small, uncharged polar molecules (H2O, urea, CO2)
Where does the blood return to after it has been processed by the kidneys
inferior vena cava
Evolutionary Psychologists belief on how the human mind evolved:
A collection of specialized modules that handle specific survival problems (for example: if you were going to be attacked by a tiger, you're immediately going to get an adrenalin rush, or babies and their initial need for food)
The Electron Transport Chain
Links chemical energy to H+ pumping from the inner mitochondrial matrix to the membrane.NADH feeds into the beginning of the ETC—3 complexes pump H+. FADH2 feeds into the ETC after complex I only II complexes pump H+. The final electron acceptor is oxygen; without it, the whole ETC backs up.
afferent neurons v. efferent neurons
afferent neurons relay sensory signals to the central nervous system
 
efferent neurons carry off sensory signals from the CNS
normal sleep architecture can be fixed by giving
delta sleep inducing peptides
Verticle Osmotic Gradient in the Kidneys
• See fig 25.13• Gradient produced by the loop of henle and the vasa recta• In the cortex NaCL is picked up by the blood. NaCL in the medulla remains in the medulla• This gradient allows the collecting duct to produce a concentrated urine.
total lung capacity?
max volume of air the lungs can hold(vital capacity plus the residual volume)
Alveoli- definition and function
Smallest region within the lung where air goes
Exchange takes place here between atmospheric air brought into the lungs and the lung capillaries
hemorrhagic anemia
- due to loss of significant amts of blood (acute or chronic)- normochromic, normocytic, low hct, high reticulocyte ct
Damage between cortical motor areas and brainstem leads to
DECEREBRATE RIGIDITY - decreased activity (input) to medullary reticular nucleiIf also have loss of voluntary control will have SPASTIC PARALYSIS
Single-unit (visceral) smooth muscle
gap junctions conduct Na+ and Ca2+. cells funcation as syncytium.myogenic (self-excitable)fibers contract as single unit.contraction slow and energy efficient
can negative feedback mechanisms levels change based on activity or environment?
yes, they would be different if working out for example
What does Boyle's Law tell us?
If temperature is kept constant, pressure and volume are inversely proportional.
Insulin and glucagon are antagonists, hormones whose actions oppose each other, what does what
insulin promotes processes of the absorptive state
glucagon promotes processes of the postabsorptive state
What are the hormones released from the anterior pituitary gland? (6)
1.) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)2.) Growth hormones3.) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)4.) Luteinizing hormone (LH)5.)Prolactin6.)Adrenocorticotropic hormone
If a negatively charged ion is more concentrated outside the cell, the forces required to balance the chemical gradient would be directed ________. Thus, the equilibrium potential for this ion would be ________ charged. A) outward : neutrally B) outward :
B) outward : negatively
during depolarization, which channels open/close?
V.G. Na+ channels open, Na+ rushes in
how does posi pressure breathing work? what animal uses it?
frog
 
air is pressurized in pharynx and then pressurized to be forced via posi pressure into the lungs
how does GH stimulate bone lengthening
- stimulates osteoblast activity and the proliferation of epiphyseal cartilage(condrocytes - these divide at epiphyseal plate)- new bone tissue replaces cartilage in this region for diaphysis- STUDY FIGURE
Name the four glial cells of the CNS?
Oligodendrytes, Astrocytes, Microglia, Ependymal
Section of the nephron that is impermeable to sodium?
thin descending loop of Henle
If there is decreased oxygen in blood where would you look?
lungs
-not being delivered
-not being absorbed 
(lungs filled with fluid so patient has pnuemonia) 
Why doesn't Palveoli continue going down the entire time that Valveoli is going up
Because during the second half of inspiration, n has increased and continues increasing so much that by the peak (end) of inspiration, Palveoli goes back up to Patmosphere
transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA that binds to an amino acid on one end and to ribosomal RNA at the other
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
volume of air in lungs at end of normal passive expiration
in fish, prolactin is responsible forparental behavior
nest building behavior
na+ retention, ability to live in fresh water
reproductive organ development
all of these
na+ retention, ability to live in fresh water
which vessels have pulsatile flow and which have smooth flow?
the aorta, arteries and some arterioles experience pulsatile flow
 
capillaries, venules and veins have smooth flow
What si unique about oncotic pressure?
Stays the same throughout a capillary bed created by plasma proteins, made in liver
Give some characteristics of hypertension
A. increase in TPR is a universal characteristicB. the CO and the HR are elevated in many
C. secretion of renin, angiotensis II, and aldosterone is variable
D. sustained high stress and high sodium ion intake act to develop hypertension
E. the adaptive response to hypertension is a thickening of the arterial wall causing atherosclerosis
F. the kidneys may not be able to properly excrete sodium ion and water
The formula for calculating the alveolar ventilation is as follows:
_______________
(tidal volume - the anatomical dead space volume) x the breathing frequency.
Down-regulation may allow a target cell to
decrease its number of receptors for a ligand
Describe how glycolysis results in 4 ATP molecules:
The activation of glucose (needed to obtain energy) at the beginning of glycolysis requires the addition of 2 phosphate groups derived from 2 molecules of ATP (ATP-->ADP + Pi), this is phosphorylation.  It is an "upstairs" motion, which is like an energy investment. After glucose is phosphorylated (and glucose is trapped within the cell) into glucose 6-phosphate from 1 ATP, another ATP is used to form glucose 6-phosphate into fructose 1,6-biphosphate. Then, it splits and the 6-carbon molecule is split into 2 3-carbon long molecules, which is phosphoglyceraldehyde. Then, 2 pairs of hydrogens are removed, and a phosphate is added, reducing 2 NAD into 2 NADH+H. This turns 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde into 1,3 biphosphoglygeric acid. Then, a phosphate is removed, turning each 1,3 biphosphoglygeric acid into 2 ATP and 2 molecules of 3-phosphoglyceric acid. Finally, after some isomerizations, the last phosphate group is removed from each intermediate, forming another 2 ATP (net gain of 2) and 2 molecules of pyruvic acid.
Describe the effect of emphysema on the pressure volume slopes of the chest wall-lung system.
Emphysema is associated with loss of elastic fibers; this leads to increased slope of lunge volume vs. pressure. There is a higher FRC.
Arterial PCO2 = 40 + 3 mmHg
• The following is the most powerful stimulus for changes in respiration- ↑PCO2 (by 5 mmHg out of homeostatic range) ventilation will double
What happens in Pulmonary Hypertension ?
right side of the heart works harder, leads to leaky fluid into capillaries
What is the tidal volume (TV)?
air that moves into lung with each quiet inspiration (nl = 500ml)
what distinguishes a keritanized membrane?
a layer of dead cells on top of the tissue
What are the different states of K+ voltage gated channels?
Unlike Na+ voltage gated channels, K+ channels don't have an inactivation gate. So, they are either resting or activated based on whether or not the channel running through it is open or closed.
the sympathetic division input as a result of baroreceptor responses, includes what action?
secretion of NE and E by chromaffin cells
what is a chemical synapse?
what does it consist of?
what is separated by?
it is a point of closest contact between 2 neurons.

consist of:
axon terminal of PREsynaptic neuron
-and-
the receptive region of the POSTsynaptic neuron

separated by a synaptic cleft.
Role of Na/K Pump
 
in Maintaining the RMP
 
(resting membrane potential)
In maintenance of the RMP, 3 Na+ are transported
 
out of the cell for every 2 K+ that are brought in,
 
contributing the the negative intracellular charge
 
(or difference in charges).
What is residual volume? What is a typical amount?
The volume of gas remaining in the lungs after a maximal forced expiration; approximately 1,200 mL.
phosphatase
LDH4
 
Lactate Dehydrogenase
LIVER
Anion
negatively charged particle.
Example of photopigment
Rhodopsin
ph of intracellular fluid
7.0-7.2
Luteinizing Hormone(LH)
-Ant Pit-Glycoprotein-Female- maturation of ovum, maintains corpus luteum-Male- testes-> testosterone
pentose sugar
deoxyribose and ribose
U wave
caused by hypocalemia
Segmentation
unorganized churning of the stomach(help with mechan digestion) due to  the stomach's unique obique muscle
reticular fibers
very thin a branched
Growth Hormone(GH)
-Ant Pit-Secreted from somatotropes-Stimulates liver to secrete IGF-1-Directly increases metabolism, -Stimulated by stress
thrombopoietin turns pluripotent cells into ____ that splinter into ___.
megakaryocytesplatelets
Inclusions
various chemical substances; lipid droplets in fat cells, glycogen in liver cells, etc.
Circular Muscle
arranged around the circumference
contraction: tube diameter decreases
QT interval
mechanical contraction of ventricles
consensual
involuntarily correlative with a voluntary action, as the contraction of the iris when the eye is opened
Branches that sometimes occur along the length of an axon are called
collaterals
Planes
imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body [parts]; angles of cross-sectional cuts
adipose
specialesd loose connective tisse that stores fat in adipose cells
Consumers respond more positively to ground beef described as “75 percent lean” rather than “25 percent fat.” In this case people’s reactions were influenced by what?
Framing
Cushing's Syndrome
-Excess cortisol-Fat torso, skinny arms and legs
Ovary
Ovary: egg production, storage and release
Second Messenger
Intracellular molecule generated by the binding of a chemical (a hormone or neurotransmitter) to a plasma membrane receptor; mediates intracellular responses to the chemical messenger.
Varieties of Neurotransmitters
Small Molecule Neurotransmitters, Peptide Transmitters, Transmitter gases (nitric oxide and carbon monoxide)
nuchal rigidity
rigidity of the neck muscles
menopause
the natural cessation of menstruation and the end of reproductive capacity in women
RBC Morphology
 
Pale RBC with only a ring of deeply colored hemoglobin on the periphery (less color)
 
Hypochromic
B lymphocytes
Bind antigens-full activation requires T helper contactAntigen binding triggers cell proliferation into plasma (B cell clone) cells and memory cells
The ________________ responds to an increase in blood temperature by increasing sweat gland activity and by vasodilating skin blood vessels.
hypothalamus
continence
the ability to voluntarily control urinary and fecal discharge
T/F the sypmathetic pathway can take many different routes to get to organ?
True
A competitive inhibitor binds to
the active site
The __________ filtration rate is the rate at which filtrate is produced from plasma
glomerular
experiment
important to know whether one variable produces or causes another varialbe to change, then the _______ is theo nly method that should be used
muscle spindle
Muscle receptors that send information about muscle length
General Intelligence
A general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
14 Liters
 
fluid located outside cells
Adrenal Medulla
-Cells that secrete catecholamines are called Chromaffin cells-80% epi, 20% norepi
What percent of body water is extracellular?
33%
Passive Humoral Immunity
• Can come from another person/animal• Borrowed antibodies usually only good for 2 – 3 weeksa) Natural Passive Immunity – Ex: from mother crosses over the placenta and gets into the fetal circulation.b) Artificial Passive Immunity – Ex: Rabies Virus  can be injected into a horse. Horse produces antibodies against virus. The antibodies are collected from the horse and inject into a person.
Viscosity
the quality of being viscous ; especially : the property of resistance to flow in a fluid or semifluid In general, the resistance to flow or alteration of shape by any substance as a result of molecular cohesion; most frequently applied to liquids as the resistance of a fluid to flow because of a shearing force.
DNA-binding proteins
Controls the activation of operator genes. These are influenced by signals received by the cell form the environment.
isotonic
concentration equal so no net H2O exchange
cerebral cortex
afferent integration is turned into meaningful perceptual images
calcium metabolism
- endocrine system controlled- plasma Ca2+ must be tightly controlled- homeostasis- balance
substances are dissolved beause they are charged and water molecules can form ____ around them
hydration spheres
Describe iodide uptake
Requires ATP, concentration above blood level, released to colloid
What happens to stroke volume in pregnancy?
increases
1. Intercellular fluid compartment-inside the cell
Extracellular fluid compartment- outside the cell
The respiratory center is located in the _________
medulla
responsive
acting as a result to some stimulus
the ability of cells to communicate with one another is called?
cellular communication
False
T/F: A single EPSP always results in an action potential.
social psychology
The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
facilitated diffusion
when mediated transport is passive and moves particles down a concentration gradient and if net transport stop when concentrations are equal on both sides of the membrane.
One-word stage
the stage in speech development from about age 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words
10-55mg
what is the mmHg usually present in the capillaries
permissive effect
one hormone allows another to have it's full effect.
Ependymal Cells
Circulate CSF in ventricles by beating cilia
Loop of henle
Descending Limb:Water is diffusing out (very permeable to water) goes into the interstitial fluid then into the vasa recta. Filtrate becomes more concentrated.
Alveolar ventilation
Alveolar ventilation = the amount of fresh air that reaches the alveoli each minute (a much more accurate indicator of ventilation efficiency). It is calculated by multiplying ventilation rate by the volume of fresh air that reaches the alveoli: Alveolar ventilation = ventilation rate x (tidal volume – dead space)
How are the postsynaptic cells affected by the neurotransmitter?
Depolarization, Hyperpolarization, Modulation between the two
furschheimer spots
small red amcules on the soft palate
Capillaries
Diameter size
Wall permeability
Amount of exchange
Smallest diameter vessels
Permeable to water and small molecules
Tremendous amount of exchange between blood plasma and IS space
gastric phase
- stimuli in stomach (e.g. proteins)- initiate gastric secretions via intrinsic nerve plexuses and extrinsic vagal pathway- caffeine/alcohol are stimuli for gastric phase and a lot of HCL secretion is the result
Ligand
any molecule that is bound to the surface of a protein.
Heat retention is achieved via _
1. Vasoconstriction2.Clothing3. Shivering - break ATP by muscle contraction4.Increase thyroid hormone --> increase metabolism
Substances actively reabsorbed in the thick ascending loop of Henle?
Na+, K+, Cl-
The warning signs of ________ include pale and cool skin, whereas the warning signs of heat stroke include hot and dry skin.
heat exhaustion
personality test
an instrument, as a questionnaire or series of standardized tasks, used to measure personality characteristics or to discover personality disorders
The cell chooses what traits to be shown is called?
genetic expression
A viral infection involving the vestibular nuclei may result in
a sense of dizziness
Distinguish between mitosis and meiosis:
In mitosis, homologous chromosomes line up single file in the middle and are pulled apart, resulting in two cells with one pair of 23 chromosomes in each (equaling in 46 chromosomes in each).
In meiosis, homologous chromosomes line up side by side in the middle and are pulled apart, so that only one of each pair is pulled to each pole, resulting in two cells with 23 chromosomes.
Sympathetic Branch
Its general action is to mobilize the body's resources under stress; to induce the flight-or-fight response. It is, however, constantly active at a basal level in order to maintain homeostasis
Ganglion
a group of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS
Frustration (events that cause stress)
the negative psychological experience that results from the progress toward some expected goal being blocked, thwarted, or delayed.
Primary cortexSupplementary cortex
Primary- makes sure that was is suppose to happen happensSupplementary- organizing and planning a sequence of muscle activation
Blind spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot. No receptor cells are located there.
dual innervation
for almost all cells, tissues - can have opposite effects at same time
-Other reflex responses are ___ and ___
sneezing and coughing
definition of physiology
"study of the function of anatomical structures" or "now the structural components of the body FUNCTION to sustain life"the role of anatomy
Central Stump
Part of nerve attached to CNS
Can put a stimulating electrode to electrically stimulate central stump
two related inflammatory intestinal disorders
- chron's disease- ulcerative colitis
About how much of the total body water is within the intracellular compartment?
Two-thirds
Valium (Diazepam) and Xanax
used to treat anxiety, seizures, insomnia. GABA receptors agonists (bind to GABA receptors in brain for more stimulation) and Increase Cl- influx to produce sedative effects. chill out and make less anxious
The major contributors that account for the ________________ include persistent post-exercise elevations in circulating hormones (especially thyroid hormones and norepinephrine), the heart rate, the rate and the depth of breathing, and the body temperatur
excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
What are the four types of lipids?
Steroids, Neutral fats/triglyceride, phospholipids, and prostate glands
When acetylcholine is released into the neuromuscular junction,
the muscle membrane depolarizes, creating an end-plate potential (EPP); action potentials are triggered, which lead to activation of the contraction cycle; it binds to receptors that allow Na+ and K+ ions to cross the sarcolemma
What is meant by EPSP? How do K+ and Na+ channels contribute to it
Carrier in facilitated diffusion
a transmembrane protein that binds molecules on one side of a membrane and transports them to the other side by means of a conformational change, or a change it shape
circulatory filling pressure
a decrease in this leads to less venous return
A cell is placed into a solution that has the same osmolarity. However, one of the ions in the solution is able to move across the membrane (the cell does not contain this ion). After a period of time, the solution into which the cell was placed would bec
A) hypotonic
during a contraction, what zones?
Z line shortens
H band shortens
I band shortens
Absolute Refractory Period
The period of time following an action potential when an excitable cell cannot generate another action potential no matter how large a stimulus it receives.
Intermediate fibers (tough insoluble)
  act as cables/guy wires.  Attach to Desmosomes
risk factors GDM
- family history of DM- still births and spontaneous abortions leads to GDM in later pregnancies- previous large or heavy-for-date baby- obesity- increased age- more than 5 pregnancies
The ability to infer a cause and effect relationship is associated only with the
 experimental research method.
What is responsible for repolarization phase
close Na channels, open K channels
Ach binds to cholinergic receptors on the ________________, which in turn, depolarizes the sarcolemma.
sarcolemma (skeletal muscle membrane)
in order for alimentary tract to provide body with supply of water, nutrients and electrolytes what 5 things are required?
1.movement of food in tract
2.secretion of digestive juices
3.absorbtion of digestive products
4.circulation of bloood to carry away absorbed substances
5.control of all these fuctions by nervous and hormononal system 
At what body sites does the partial pressure of carbon dioxide exceed the partial pressure of oxygen
Cells
systemic veins
the right atrium and ventricle
What two processes during the formation of sperm and eggs help explain genetic changes within a population?
Cross over, and mutations (could potentially be a good thing, for example: giraffe's and long necks)
 Explain the difference between an m1 and an m2 receptor in terms of whether they are iontropic or metabotropic and whether they cause EPSPs or IPSPs
M1- muscarinic cholinergic receptor, receives acetylcholine, EPSP. Decreases K+ activity creating inside positive environment
 
M2- muscarinic cholinergic receptor, receives acetylcholine, IPSP. Increases K+ activity creating an inside negative environment
 
Both use G protein IP3 pathway
Which of the following ions can act as a second messenger? 136) _____ A) sodium only B) calcium only C) both sodium and potassium D) potassium only E) both sodium and calcium
B) calcium only
Absorption in the small intestine
• In the villus are blood vessels and lymphatic vessels (close to the epithelial cells)• 90% of absorption occurs in the small intestine• Monosaccharides – enter first into the epithelial mucosa cells by active transport or facilitated diffusion. Then move out from the mucosal cells into the blood by facilitated diffusion.• Amino acids enter into the epithelial cells by active transport, enter blood by facilitated diffusion• Fatty acids and monoglycerides i)Short chain fatty acids• Less then 12 carbons in its structure• Fat soluble so they go into the cell by simple diffusion and then into the blood by simple diffusion.
What does COPD do to vital capacity?
decreases it (can't exhale enough)
what are some characteristics of ulcerative colitis
- micro-hemorrhages in mucosa develop into abscesses; may become necrotic, ulcerate- polyp-like projections from mucosa: pseudopolyps- bowel thickens- absolutely ulcerated, continuous, exudate
Ch. 11 Endocrine Glands and Hormones
 
9
growth hormone (GH) stimulates protein synthesis and growth of bones, indirectly, by stimulating the liver to produce IGF (somatomedin) which causes muscle and bone growth via cartilage growth; Laron dwarfism, lacking GH receptors in the liver
 
hyposecretion of GH in children results in pituitary dwarfism; hypersecretion results in gigantism; in adults hypersecretion produces acromegaly
What are the four structures of the Singer-Nicholsom Fluid Mosaic Model
1) phospholipid bilayer2) cholesterol3) integral proteins4) carbohydrates
in blood typing there are 3 types of alleles that are differentation of what?
one different polysacharide chain
Describe the nature of cofactors:
Some enzymes require ions that play an essential role in enzyme activity.  Cofactors include metal ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+.  In these enzymes that attachment of cofactors cause a conformational change in the protein that allows it to combine with its substrate.
Slow ligand-gated ion channels are regulated by
G proteins, which cause the channels to open or close in response to a messenger binding to its receptor
What are three different ways gases are carried in solution?
1) Dissolved gas (higher the solubility of the gas, the higher the concentration in solution; only dissolved gas contributes to partial pressure). 2) Bound gas- hemoglobin and plasma proteins. 3) Chemically modified gas (CO2 converts to HCO3- via carbonic anhydrase).
define
Z line
A band
I bands
M line
H zone
Z line: start and stop of a sarcomere
A band: overlapping of thick and thin filaments
I band: thin filaments only
M line: midline of a sarcomere
H zone: thick only
why is inspiration an active process, even at rest?
It involves muscle contractions, which require energy
when and where is bile stored
- stored in gallbladder bt meals- after a meal, liver and gallbladder secrete bile into small intestine for fat digestion
Identify test sensations and give examples
Sweet - organicSour - acidsSalty - Na, NaClBitter - coffee, nicotine, quinine, Ca, Mg saltsUmami - MSG
Explain the special significace of pulmonary lymphatics in the overall process of gas exchange across the respiratory membrane
Fluid in the pumonary lymphatic system is pushed out during inspiration--the mvmt of this fluid creates the negative pressure that helps keep the alveoli open and therefore allows gas exchange from the alveoli to the capillaries and vice versa.
Why is our sense of smell so keen?
Because the brain integrates the information from many different receptor inputs (each axon relates to 1 of 350 olfactory receptor proteins), and interprets the pattern as a characteristic "fingerprint" for a particular odor.
On entering cells, fatty acids may be oxidized fo energy or combined
with glycerol to form new triglycerides
which are stored in fat droplets in the cytosol
storage occurs mainly in adipocytes
what are PGI2 and PGE2? what do they do?
they are types of prostaglandins
 
 dialate bronchioles and arterioles
increase capillary permeability
pain/fever response
 
Gas exchange within the lungs: where does it occur? Alveoli?
Gas exchange requires a large, thin, moist exchange surface; a pump to move air; and a circulatory system to transport gases to the cells. Alveoli are the site of gas exchange. The alveoli, clustured at the ends of terminal bronchioles, make up the bulk of lung tissue. Their primary function is the exchange of gases between themselves and the blood.
motility via segmentation in the small intestine
- mixes and slowly propels chyme- segmentation contractions: initiated by BER cells (lower contractions at the ileum)- circular smooth muscle responsiveness: influences by distension of the intestine, gastrin, and extrinsic nerve activity
In CNS, one oligodendrocyte wraps several neurons, outermost layer is myelin (no basement membrane)
What is the disease where the myelin sheaths are progressively degenerating?
Compare the architecture of the fovea centralis with more peripheral regions of the retina; and how does this architecture relate to visual acuity and sensitivity:
Since the fovea centralis is the point of the retina that provides the highest visual acuity due to the high concentration of cones that are each innervated by a single ganglion cell, the peripheral regions do not percieve images as acutely. This is because in the periphery, there are 120 million rods and 6 million cones, mixed. The ratio of rods and cones to ganglion cells is about 150:1. Visual acuity is greatest and sensitivity to low light is poorest  when light falls on the fovea. In dim light, only the rods are activated, and vision is best out of the corners of the eye when an image falls away from the fovea. The convergence of large numbers of rods on 1 bipolar cell and the convergence of large numbers of biplar cells on a single ganglion cell increase sensitivity to low light at the expense of visual acuity, so night vision is therefore less distinct than day vision. 
A pulmonary embolus will cause what kind of V/Q deficit?
There will be no blood flow, and therefore no perfusion, but regular ventilation. Therefore, PAO2 will be 150 and PACO2 will be 0.
Mechanism of succincholyine as a post synaptic blockade?
Binds to Ach receptors and causes the channels to open. prevents resetting of the inactivation gates of muscle membrane sodium channels near the endplate region and blocks subsequent action potentials
What is a bolus? What is chyme?
food moving down asophogus; food and gastric secretions are all mixed up
what is the twitch rate of each of the three muscle cell types? why?
type 1: slow
type IIa: fast
IIb: fast
where do the axons of a motor neuron come out of the spinal chord?
out of the ventral horn and ventral root
lkj
l
Mass
Remains constant
Multipolar Neuron
Many processes
T wave
ventricular repolarization
Nucleolus
Synthesis of ribosomal RNA
Liver:
• Produces bile• Production of bile is stimulated by the PSNS/Secretin• Also have bile pigment which are produced by the pigment from RBC breakdownBile contains water, bile salts (produced from cholesterol)
Longitudinal muscle
smooth muscle
Orientation
->contraction: tube shortens
Sarcoplasm
Intracellular fluid surrounding the myofibrils in the muscle fiber; contains K, Mg, PO4-3, protein enzymes, large number of mitochondria (high ATP)
Inspection
Noninvasive diagnostic technique in which the body is observed for changes that deviate from normal
cerebellum
devoted to movement and balance
 
law of conservation
PV=K is ???
Axoaxonic
Axon synapting onto a synapse
pacemakers and speeds
normal-SA node=70bpmabnormal-AV node=50 bpm-purkinje fibers=30 bpm (comatose)
Type C fibers
small, unmyelinatedPostganglionic autonomic
Skeletal muscle contractions increase blood glucose transport across the plasma cell membrane by translocating the glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) from the cytoplasm to the ___________.
sarcolemma
unheated air continually brought in contact with skin is called?
convection
varicosity
Swollen regions along autonomic axons that store and release neurotransmitter. The primary neurotrasmiters ACh and noroepenephrine and are synthesized in the varicosity and stored in the vesicle for later use. It is released through Ca2+ ions and exocytosis just like every other neurotransmiter.
dissertation
broader in schope, longer, adn requires more original and independent effor than a thesis
Heterosexual sexual activity in Early Adulthood:__% have intercourse by age 22
90
Health-Impairing Behaviors
people greatly increase their likelihood of disease or premature death by engaging in self- destructive behaviors.EX:Smoking Excessive Alcohol ConsumptionPoor Food Choices Lack of ExerciseRisky Sexual Activity
outside
during primary active transport should there be more sodium ousdie or inside the cell?
External Respiration
– Pulmonary gas exchange• Exchange of O2 andCO2 between lungs and blood
proteins that comprise the tough connective tissue sheath on a skeletal muscle
collagen
Reproduction
Cellular- for body growth or repairOrganismal- creating a new person (reproduction system)
Parasympathomimetic agents
Muscarinic Ach Receptors,mimics Ach, EX Pilocarpine (Glaucoma opens Aqueous humor pores) Bethanechol (Increased bladder contraction)
secondary polycythemia
- EPO-induced adaptive (appropriate) mxn to improve the O2-carrying capacity of blood
DA inhibits _
Prolactin from anterior pituitary
emotions
generated by limbic system, associated with survival behaviors
Optimum Range
Physiological, biochem, and behavioral works best; Ploikilotherms
What is the PGC pressure?
blood pressure
active transport
- can establish a concentration gradient
Informed consent
An ethical principle requiring that reasearch particpants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
 What general effects does a tropic hormone have on a gland?
Interphase
is the period between cell divisions; mitosis and cytokinesis make up the process of cell division
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
lack ribosomes
 
synthesis of fatty acids, steroids and lipids.
intelligence
the ability to learn from one's experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems
TOPIC 12
 
Factors Influencing Whole Muscle Tension:
 
Number of Muscle Fibers Contracting Within a Muscle
 
-Length of Fiber at Onset of Contraction-
(Fig. 12.18)
 
1. optimal resting length of muscle gives maximal tension
 
2. non-optimal resting lengths give sub maximal tension 
Define Astrocyte
which help to regulate external environment of neurons in the CNS
Thin Filaments
Actin:
Tropomyosin:
Troponin:
Actin: sphere shaped protein, has binding site for myosin.  makes double helix shape
 
Tropomyosin: threadike, blocks actin active site (mom)
 
Troponin: protein bound to tropomyosin, made of Tn-I, Tn-C, Tn-T
Concentration Gradient
The difference in the concentration of a particular substance between two different areas.
Meiotonic
-force of contraction decreases as the muscle shortens
frontal lobes
behind forehead. involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
What type of growth factor stimulates the growth of epithelial cells in the skin and other organs?
 
 
 
Epidermal
Depolarization
Closing of K+ channels, opening of Ca++ channels.
Little Na+ influence.
where is the site of erythropoeisis
bone marrow
Divergent pathway?
One presynaptic neuron branches to affect a larger number of postsynaptic neurons
relaxation
release of tension created by a contraction
taste buds
50 receptor cells - causes depoloraization can intiate APs in afferent neurons
__________ molecule of acetyl CoA is formed from every molecule of pyruvate, as pyruvate is prepared for entry into the Krebs Cycle. Pyruvate is a 3-carbon compound that is de-carboxylated to the 2-carbon compound acetyl CoA.
One
reinforcement
a procedure, as a reward or punishment, that alters a response to a stimulus
calcification
the deposition of lime or insoluble salts of calcium and magnesium
at very high temperatures what is the only way the body can shed heat?
evaporation
Most reflex movements are integrated by
the spinal cord
Define transport maximum and explain its significance: 
Transport maximum- carrier-mediated transport diplays the property of saturation. This means that when the transported molecule (ex. glucose) is present in sufficiently high concentrations, all the carriers become occupied and the tranposrt rate reaches a maximal value. Since the average Tm for glucose is 375 mg/min and normal glucose filtration is 175 mg/min, normall the carriers are not saturated and 100% of the glucose van be reabsorbed. If it wasn't, it would indicate a problem. 
 
State of clear, organized alertness in which we perceive times, places and events as real, meaningful, and familiar.
Waking Consciousness
extra cellular matrix
material that is synthesized and secreted by a cell
Membrane potential
use Goldman equation (leaves out z term and adds permeability)
 




TOPIC 15
 
Cardiac Output and its Control:

Control of Heart Rate...

-Sympathetic can modify baseline rate-


 

 
1. Sympathetic cardiac nerves supply the atria, including the SA and AV nodes, and also the ventricles 
 
2. Increases heart rate by:
           a. increasing rate of depolarization in SA node
           b. reducing AV node delay
           c. speeding up spread of AP through Bundles of His and Purkinje fibers
secondary active transport
molecules are moved against a concentration gradient energy comes from a concentration gradient set up by primary active transportexample: kidney tubule cell reclaiming glucose from the filtrate, made possible by the inward diffusion of Na+ from the filtrate
describe function of Scrotum
external sex organ, contains testicles, keep testes as a lower temp than the rest of the body
Muscle Twitch
A single, rapid contraction of a muscle in response to a stimulus of adequate strength. In vivo, a muscle’s contraction is usually in response to multiple stimulations rather than a single impulse.
considering an artery and vein of 1cm external diameter:
 
which has greater quantities of protein and smooth muscle?
artery
Nuclear envelope  
–A double membrane with fluid between the layers–Outer nuclear membrane is continuous with RER–Inner nuclear membrane is lined with structural protein (nuclear lamina)–Nuclear pore complexes penetrate the membrane and allow large particle exchange between the Nucleus and Cytoplasm
Properties of Steroids as NT
Synthesized on demand(Lipophylic, Derived from cholesterol,
Sxs of DM2
- slow- polyuria- polydipsia- blurred vision: hyperosmolar fluids in lens- obesity in the upper body
what inherited disorder causes thrombocytopathia
- von Willebrand disease
What kind of hypertension do most people have?
essential hypertension
smooth muscle
primary muscle of internal organs and tubes
Nernst potential
Explain the Chemical gates and how they open.
Water vapor pressure at 37 degrees Celsius?
47mm HG
What are things that helps enzymes?
Cofactors(inorganic) minerals, and Co-enzymes (organic) vitamins
oligodendrocytes and schwann cells
- cell type in CNS- myelin
Receptors in the trachea or in the pharynx and nose recognize pollutants and some chemicals
irritant receptors
All parts of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord.
peripheral nervous system
Presynaptic autorecptors
Have sites for receptors to attach to which can limit the neurotransmitter being released
The length of myosin is referred to as?
A band
TOPIC 16


 
Capillaries:
 
Control of flow through capillaries...
 
1. Capillaries have no smooth muscle & hence cannot regulate blood flow
 
2. Precapillary sphincters contract & relax & control blood flow into capillaries; these sphincters are regulated by the same local factors that influence arteriolar radius
 
3. In resting muscle, only about 10% of precapillary sphincters are open
The jumping of an action potential from node-to-node is called ________. 267) _____ A) saltatory conduction B) electrotonic conduction C) nodal propagation D) propagation E) nodal conduction
A) saltatory conduction
essential hypertension
what type of hypertension do 90% of patients present with
how many RBC are created and dying every second?
2 million
Blind Sight
ability to see when in fact blind (e.g., aware of motion, but unable to describe shape. ability to detect things, but not be aware of them. vision is not entirely seeing (i.e., visual awareness is not synonymous with vision).
If the stimulus is strong enough it will result in ____
action potential
PNS effect on SA node?
Acetylcholine acts on muscarinic receptor opening K channel and closing Ca T type
Where and what inactivates acetylcholine?
acetylcholinesterase in the synaptic cleft
Overshoot
There are many more open Na than K channels, membrane potential becomes positive since E Na is positive
Though what does motor activity leave the cord?
anterior root (ventral)
tarsal
of or pertaining to the tarsus of the foot.
rythmical discharges cause what?
beat of heart, and rythmical control of breathing
Describe the effects of pH on enzyme-catalyzed reactions:
Each enzyme characteristically exhibits peak activity in a very narrow pH range-- which is the pH optimum for that enzyme.  If the pH is changed so that it is no longer in the opitimal range, the reaction rate will decrease.  The pH optimum of an enzyme usually reflects the pH of the body fluid in which the enzyme is found.
Long Term Potentiation.
- an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be neural basis for learning and memory.
What are the three periods of twitch contraction?
Latent, Contraction, Relaxation
TOPIC 14
 
Structure of Heart:
 
Heart as a dual pump...
 
-Each half divided into 2 chambers-
1. Each half divided into 2 chambers
 
      a. upper chamber is called atrium (atria is plural) and receives blood returning to heart and transfers it to the...
 
      b. lower chamber, called the ventricles, which pumps blood out of the heart
Fluffy is a 5 year old unspayed female golden retriever showing signs of body weight gain, lethargy, decreased estrous cycling, and alopecia.  Blood T4 levels are low but return to normal following injection with TSH.  However, T4 remains low following
secondary hypothyroidism
Clot Retraction and Blood Vessel Repair
• Platelets contain actin and myosin. They can contract so the edges of the blood vessel draw closer together• Blood vessel repaired by connective tissue (epithelial cells)
CRANIAL NERVES
12 PAIRS OF NERVES (ONE FOR EACH SIDE OF THE BODY) THAT ORIGINATE IN THE BRAIN STEM AND REACH SENSE ORGANS AND MUSCLES THOUGH OPENINGS IN THE SKULL
Protein/peptide and amide hormones are ____________. (aquaphilic=________) They interact with _____ at target tissues. (some steroid hormones do too)
plasma soluable; lipophobic; tmembrane receptors.
pancreatic enzyme: pancreatic amylase
- polysaccharide substrate- fx is to convert polysaccharides into glucose and maltose
Discuss how the ANS regulates blood flow
1. sympathoadrenal stimulation increases cardiac output and the TPR2. Alpha-adrenergic stimulation causes vasoconstricition of arteries in the skin and viscera
3. cholinergic sympathetic fibers cause vasodilation of skeletal muscles
4. the parasympathetic innervation is limited. It promotes vasodilation in the digestive tract, external genital, and the salivary glands
Name 4 things that increase myocardial 02 demand
Increased: Afterload, contractility, heart rate, and heart size
The filtration coefficient is determined by what two variables of the glomerular membrane?
surface area and permeability of glomerular membrane
Explain how odorant molecules stimulate their receptors:
The axon from each olfactory sensory neuron conveys information relating only to the odorant molecule that binds to and activates its specific receptor protein (a G-protein-coupled receptor). Before the odorant molecule binds to its receptor, the receptor is associated with 3 G-protein subunits (a, B and y). When the odorant molecule binds to its receptor the subunit dissociates, and move into the plasma membrane and a subunit binds to adenylate cyclase and activates this enzyme. Adenylate cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cAMP and PPi. cAMP acts as a 2nd messenger, opening ion channels tha allow inward diffusion of Na+ and Ca2+, producing a receptor potential, which stimulates production of action potentials.
Internal Locus of Control
An internal locus of control refers to the generalized expectancy that reinforcing events are under one's control, and that one is responsible for the major outcomes in life.
What is the pathway of thrombomodulin ?
thrombomodulin is turned into thrombin, cleaving protein C which inhibits factor VIIIa and Va
What happens with pm increases permeability to Na+? K+
Membraine potential becomes more +, depolarization.Membrane potential becomes more MP becomes more negative and is considered hyperpolarized.
Types of Smooth muscle contractions
Basal Tone:
Phase contraction:
Tonic contraction:
 
Basal Tone: low lvl contraction in absence of extrinsic factors
 
Phase Contraction: brief stimulus results in rapid contraction and rapid relaxation. present in Gi & bladder
 
Tonic Contraction: continuous force as Ca falls (but still above basal lvl).  present in lungs, blood vessels, GI sphyncter
What is ΔG0?
The free energy at the beginning in a biological system
Endogenous Analgesia Systems
cover up real pain when the body needs to survive binds to secondary neurons
Features of Endocrine System
hormones are carried by blood to all targets in the body
only tissue with receptors to that particular hormone will respond
3. Dropped beats that are not preceded by a change in the length of the PR interval . These abrupt, nonconducted P waves result in a pathologic condition.
C. Mobitz Type II
How can the kidneys produce urine having a pH from 4.5 - 8.5, i.e., what ions determine the pH of the blood? Why is that important?
Enter your back text here.
All of these statements about carbohydrates are true except one. Identify the exception.
Glycogen is important both for energy storage and to provide structure for cells
Binding of aldosterone to its receptor also leads to opening of
ion channels, and stimulates ion channel synthesis.
 
diffusion of the ions across the apical membrane is more rapid
How can you treat liver dysfunction?
vitamin K injections, if severe it needs transfusions
The resistance to an ion's movement across a membrane is determined by ________. 213) _____ A) the ions present on either side of the membrane B) receptors on the cell membrane C) enzymes on the surface of the cell membrane D) ion channels within the memb
D) ion channels within the membrane
Hematocrits are used for?
The ratio of red blood cells to plasma is indicated clinically by the hematocrit. This test provides a rapid and inexpensive way to estimate a person's red cell count. (p553)
Ethics is the branch of philosophy...
that is concerned with the distinction between right and wrong
What role does specificity and saturation play in carrier transport?
they are specific to certain molecules and saturation means that it can only transport so much.
What are som common cuases of Hypercalcemia?
Malignancy, Intoxication with Vit. D, Sacroidosis, Hyperparathyroidism, Alkalie syndrome, and Pagets (bone). Remember: MISHAP
How is alveolar partial pressure measured?
PAO2 = PIO2 - PaCO2/RNote: if the subject breath 100% pure oxygen, the equation can be simplified to:PAO2 = PIO2 - PaCO2
What is the mechanism by which muscarinic (parasympathetic) stimulation slows the heart?
The slope of the pacemaker potential decreases due to a reduction in the inward current. Threshold is reached more slowly and heart rate decreases.
Troponin serves what purpose in muscle contraction?
once bound with Calcium it changes conformation moving tropomyosin out of the binding sites on actin
how we can locate the sound?
Sound waves strike one ear sooner and more intensely than the other. Using parallel processing, the brain analyzes the minute differences in the sounds received by the two ears and computes the source of the sound.
Glial cells are part of the _____. Name the six types of glial cells.
PNS; schwann, satellite, ependymal, oligodendrocytes, microglia, astrocytes
What three variable regulate stroke volume?
A. END DIASTOLIC VOLUME - the volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole B. TOTAL PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE - the frictional resistance to the blood flow in the arteries
C. CONTRACTILITY - the strength of ventricular contraction
Does a left shift increase or decrease oxygen loading in the lung?
It increases oxygen loading in the lung.
What is the function of the auditory cortex?
responsible for sounds detected by the ear
who secretes inhibin, and what does it do
- secreted by sertoli cells and acts on the Ant. Pituitary to regulate FSH release by negative feedback
What is septic shock?How does it occur?
How is it treated?
Dangerously low BP as a result of sepsisIt occurs through the action of baterial endotoxins that activate NO and cause vasodilation
It is treated with drugs that inhibit the production of NO
What are nodes of Ranvier and what is their significance?
They are located b/t the myelinated regions of the axon. The exposed axon membranes at these nodes contain a high concentration of voltage gated Na+ channels. Action potentials: electrical impulses are generated in these nodes and conducted along the length of myelinated axons.
-blind spot is a result of the optic nerve
Which neurons take the shortest route possible?
Prepare a diagram of the fate of CO2 and its derivatives after CO2 diffuses into an RBC during loading in the systemic capillaries. Include the very important enzyme that facilitates the reactions.
 
What is the chloride shift and why is it important
CO2 goes into the RBC -> CO2 + H2O + CARBONIC ANHYDRASE-> carbonic acid
 
later, when the RBC needs to rid itself of the carbonic acid:
carbonic acid + carbonic anhydrase -> H+ + bicarbonate-> H+ attached to hemoglobin, bicarbonate is released out of the cell
 
The chloride shift is important to the transport of CO2 because when you are releasing the negative bicarbonate it creates an electrical gradient, so the cell needs to take in a negative (chloride) to maintain homeostasis
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