Physiology Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Enhanced phagocytosis
increased heart rate
- potassium depletion
What are plasma proteins
What cells make lysozyme?
Major hypothalamic neurohormones:
Thyrotropin-releasing hormoneGonadotropin-releasing hormoneCorticotropin-releasing hormoneGrowth Hormone-releasing HormoneGrowth Hormone-inhibiting HormoneProlactin-releasing HormoneProlactin-inhibiting hormone
Factor initiating intrinsic pathway?
Cyclic AMP activates
protein kinase A
RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS: Pneumonias Identify the microbe that is the single most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia
S. pneumoniae
hormone secreted by adrenal medulla
Relating to the opposite side
Characterized by low metabolism, inability to adjust to cold, lost off hair, loss of vigor and thickening of the skin
what drives gas movement?
pressure gradients
What does increased progesterone indicate?
Nucleotides composed of Carbon, Oxygen , Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and .........
Hormones that increase in concentration in the plasma during exercise include
cortisol; catecholamines
stage 1
light sleep from 1-7 minutes
Houses DNA which dictates sellular function and protein synthesis
acquisition of new information or skills
antagonistic effect
two hormones have opposite effects
what happens between the proliferative and secretory phase?
a red iron-containing protein pigment in muscles that is similar to hemoglobin but differs in the globin portion of its molecule, in the smaller size of its molecule (as in the mammalian heart muscle which has only one fourth the molecular weight of the hemoglobin in the blood of the same animal), in its greater tendency to combine with oxygen
presynaptic membrane
encloses molecules that transmit chemical messages
In the calcium-troponin-tropomyosin complex, one troponin molecule via its tropomyosin connection can control what?
7 actin monomers
- enhances breast development in females- not entirely clear on Fx in males, but plays a role in refractory period after ejaculation
The adrenal medulla is a modified_______ ganglion?
Blood Clotting-2 systemsBoth lead to fibrinogen (soluble) fibrin- (self adhering) Forms mesh that traps RBC's
The contractile unit of skeletal muscle is the __________ , which is comprised of thick and thin filaments.
of, pertaining to, or characteristic of an umbilicus or umbilical cord.
what is produced in anerobic respiration in muscles?
lactic acid
The depolarization of the pacemaker action potential spreads to adjacent cells through
gap junctions
Cell membrane
composed of phospholipid bilayer. Everycell is surrounded by a plasma membrane (often with proteins embedded)
The legal term for actions by juveniles that violate the law.
-the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old info.
Emotional Intelligence
The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions.
expectations or demands of others that we behave in a particular way
Do levels of 2,3-BPG increase or decrease with decreased red blood cell glycolysis?
Plasma membranes of 2 cells are "buttoned"
together, by interactions between particular
desmosomal proteins
• Fats are large globules in the intestines. Bile salts breakdown the fat into little droplets.
Oxidation/Reduction reaction
A reversible chemical reaction in which one reaction is an oxidation and the reverse is a reduction
comparative psychology
researchers compare the behavior of different species (animals and humans) in order to understand the evolution, genetics and adaptiveness of behaviors.
Chemical energy
The energy stored in chemical bonds
Acteylcholineesterase inhibitors
Binds to AchE stopping degradation, Prolongs Ach effect EX Neostigmine (Myasthenia Gravis), Sarin(Warefare)
Sxs of DM1
- sudden- polyuria- polydipsia- polyphagia- blurred vision: hyperosmolar fluids in lens- weight loss despite eat
plasma membrane folds into the cell forming small pockets that pinch off to produce intracellular, membrane-bound vesicles
Which zone produces cortisol in adrenal cortex
Zona fasciculata
In Paget's (bone) what are the Phosphate levels?
___________ binding to actin is called a “cross-bridge” and is necessary for skeletal muscle contraction, movement, and force production.
The efferent system is responsible for ______ pathways
the deposition of lime or insoluble salts of calcium and magnesium
what type of muscle is clydrical and branched?
what is necrosis?
when pathological changes kill the cell
Negative feedback
responses that tend to move the variable in the opposite direction of original changeex: constriction of blood vessels to conserve heat, firing of thirst center in brain when body water is lost
Section of DNA near the starting end of a gene that must be activated to begin transcription
Cystic fibrosis
-It is an autosomal recessive disorder involving fluid secretion in the exocrine glands in the epithelial lining of the respiratory, GI and reproductive tracts-It is the most common fatal hereditary disorder of whites in the U.S. and the most common cause of lung disease in children
Nonassociative learning
becoming sensitized over time, due to repetition of a stimulus
increased positive or negative feelings
ex:  you might see someone cute walk by your house, and have a positive feeling about them.  If you keep seeing them walk by day after day your positive feeling might increase over time

habituated leaning over time, due to repetition of a stimulus
decreased positive or negative feelings
ex:  you might see an amazing movie, and have a strong positive feeling about it, but if you see it 10 times, you might have a decreased positive feeling about it
ventricular proxysmal tachycardia
- A SERIES OF PVCs- NO P-WAVES, treated with quinidine and lidocaine
What receptor is both voltage and ligand-gated?
NMDA receptor
how does one fight hot?
decreased muscle tone and activity
less thyroid hormone and epinepherine
decrease apetite.
Phases of coagulation
• Cascade of events, also positive feed back.1) Production of prothrombin activator2) Prothrombin converted to Thrombin3) Fibrinogen converted to Fibrin
Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial pressure
-95 mmHg
What is FEV1
forced expiratory volume in first second in a Vital Capacity determination
A muscle is extended by an external force or the muscle is lengthening in what type of contraction?
-botulinum toxin put to use as a cosmetic tool-helps to relax overly contracted muscles in the body, whether a disease or wrinkles, it wears off in 3-6 months and needs to be repeated-doses aren't enough to cause food poisoning or complete paralysis of the muscles
- sudden and severe or slow and chronic- coffee ground emesis (vomit that looks like coffee grounds)- hematemesis- melena- hematochezia (blood in stool; visibly red)
what are three inorganic molecules
minerals gases and water
How AP's originate
-in the HILLOCK-in skeletal and smooth muscle originate at MOTOR END PLATE-cardiac muscle originate at PACEMAKER CELLS
Conditions that cause edema by increased capillary permeability?
toxins, infections, burns
The RER is equal to _____ when metabolizing fats
noting or pertaining to a situation in which one organ performs part of the functions normally performed by another
ECF makes up what percent of fluid in body?
Explain how the semicircular canals function to provide a sense of equilibrium:
Kinetic equilibrium--The semicircular canals are sensitive to rotational acceleration. The endolymph provides inertia in that rotation acceleration bends the cupula (in which the sensory processes of the hair cells are imbedded). The inertia produces a changed pattern of action potentials in the sensory nerve fibers, maintaining equilibrium. Hair cells in the anterior semicircular canal are stimulated during a somersault, in the posterior semicircular canal are stimulated during a cartwheel and in the lateral semicircular canal are stimulated during the spinning of the long axis of the body.
Nearer to or at the front of the body
- a neural center that is located in the limbic system helps process explicit memories for storage.
Where is the somatosensory cortex located?
Parietal lobe of brain
sinus tachycardia
on EKG, normal p,qrs complex, t, but abnormal R-R interval (close together)
what does it mean to ave both a hydrophobic and hydrophillic part?
Fluffy the cat’s blood work is not looking so great.  His calcium levels are normal, but PTH is high.  Which of the following conditions would you predict Fluffy is suffering from?primary hyperparathyroidism
secondary hyperparathyroidism
secondary hyperparathyroidism
chemical digestion of the small intestine
• Acid chyme enters duodenum• Enzymes in the small intestine function at pH of 7 so the acid chyme must be neutralized• Neutralized by bicarbonate alkaline solution• HCl (pH 2) + HCO-3  H2CO3 (carbonic acid – weak acid close to pH 7)
Intrinsic pathway
-In this system, factor XII is first converted to factor XIIa following its exposure to foreign surfaces, such as subendothelial matrix. Factor XIIa initiates a cascade of events, including activation of factor X, subsequent conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, and, finally, fibrin formation
Compounds are classified as…
Organic (containing carbon except for CO₂) and inorganic (water, salts, no carbon)
functional atrophy
when the muscles you use for everyday function deplete because you don't use them anymore
two forms of hypercoaguable states
- conditions creating increased platelet fx- conditions causing increased clotting activity
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH).
ADH, targets kidney to reabsorb water from the urine to prevent dehydration
ADH is a peptide of 9 amino acids. It is also known as arginine vasopressin. ADH acts on the collecting ducts of the kidney to facilitate the reabsorption of water into the blood. This it acts to reduce the volume of urine formed (giving it its name of antidiuretic hormone).
What does estrogen do to the endometrium and the myometrium?
Growth and excitability
The functions of skeletal muscle include
locomotion, postural support, breathing, and heat production.
How can we measure dead space?
Bohr EquationBy using the concentration of carbon dioxide in expired gas and in the arterial blood. (Vd/Vt) = (PaCO2-PeCO2)/PaCO2
Second messenger molecules directly
change the regulation of ion channels; increase intracellular calcium concentration; change enzyme activity
dependent variable
the changes that occur as a result of that manipulation
Depolarization of a neuron to threshold stimulates
opening of sodium channels
delayed closing of sodium channels
delayed opening of potassium channels
Which effectors are acted on by the Sympathetic nervous system?
dialates pupils
ihibits digestion
relaxed airways of the lungs
accelerates heartbeat
stimulates sweat glands
Constricts blood vessels
stimulates an orgasm
slide 10
In chemical communication between cells, a ________ cell secretes a chemical messenger that binds to ________ on the ________ cell. 85) ______ A) gap : connexons : secretory B) secretory : connexons : target C) secretory : receptors : target D) secretory
C) secretory : receptors : target
Inspiration: what happens to the lung,and which muscle allows for this action to happen?
- thoracic cage enlarges, lung expands- air in drawn in - done by the contraction of the diaphragm and contraction of the intercostals muscles
Endocrine Gland
: a gland (as the thyroid or the pituitary) that produces an endocrine secretion—called also ductless gland, gland of internal secretion
receptor mediated endocytosis
receptor on PM binds with target and the entire complex is formed into an endosome; clathrin coated or non clathrin coated (caveolae)
Sxs of Grave's disease
- increased metabolic rate leading to increased perspiration and poor heat tolerance- decreased body wt. despite increased appetite and consumption- increased heart rate
Carbon Dioxide
CO2 will react with H2O of the blood and it will form HCO3 (bicarbonate) ~60%
Carbon dioxide is dissolved in water ~10% ish
carried by hemoglobin (~30%) CO2temporarily sticks/binds Hb
Inhibition of Monoamines stimulatory action
1) reuptake by presynaptic neuron2) degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO) released by presynaptic neuron3) degradation by catechal-O- methyltransferase in postsynaptic neron-MAO inhibitors are common drugs
What is Generator potential?
Graded potential is created when all ions move causing all or none response
What is the typical cause of hypernatremia?
lack of free water (dehydration)
Identify the glucagon-secreting endocrine cells of the pancreas, and describe the actions of this hormone:
The endocrine cells are the islets of Langerhans. The alpha cells secrete glucagon. Glucagon acts antagonistically to insulin- glucagon is stimulated by a fall in plasma glucose concentration and insulin secretion that occurs when a person is fasting. Glucagon stimulates the liver to hydrolyze glycogen into glucose, allowing the liver to secrete glucose into the blood (glycogenolysis). Glucagon, along with the glucocorticoids, also stimulates gluconeogenesis- conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose which raises plasma glucose concentration during fasting. Glucagon also promotes lipolyisis (hydrolyisis of stored fat) and ketogenesis (formation of ketone bodies from free fatty acids).
Location of Nn and Nm receptors
Found on postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia, at neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle
How oxygen transported in the blood?
Dissolved and bound to hemoglobin (increases oxygen-carrying capacity 70 fold).
related metabolic pathways (Chap 5)
excess glucose stored as glycogen, and then fat
acetyl Co A can generate fatty acids, two carbon atoms at a time fat can be broken down to provide energy as an alternative to glucose (except for the
brain (which can only use glucose)
protein can be used for energy, but is a last choice
fat is an efficient energy storage form
repolarization ( AP of ventricular myocardium)
• Na+ gates begin to close• K+ gates open (moves out)• Membrane potential drops slightly
which statement regarding the hormone insulin is correct
it stimulates the synthesis and storage of fats (lipogenesis)
aminopeptidases of the plasma membrane of the brush borders
- hydrolyze small peptide fragments into aa components
What can cause muscle spasms (cramps)
1. Local irritation - muscle contraction causes even more irritation2. Electrolytes (decreased Ca)3. Ischemia
Smooth muscle contraction when P is removed when actin/myosin are bound
myosin remains bound to actinlatch-bridge forms and detaches very slowly or not at alltonic level of tension with little ATP consumption
give 5 characteristics of fast muscle fibers?
1.much larger fibers for great strength of contraction
2.extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum for release of calcium
3.large amounts of glycolytic enzymes
4.less extensive blood supply
5.fewer mitochondria 
Explain the nature of spatial summation at the synapse:
Results from the convergence (a number of axons synapsing onto one) of presynaptic axon terminals on the dendrites and cell body of a postsynaptic neuron. Since synaptic potentials are graded and lack refractory periods (unlike action potentials) this allows them to summate as they are conducted by the postsynaptic neuron.
PATHOGENESIS of Chronic Interstitial Lung Disease
It's initiated by some type of injury to the alveolar epithelium, followed by an inflammatory process that involves the alveoli and interstitium of the lungAn accumulation of inflammatory and immune cells causes continued damage of lung tissue and the replacement of normal, functioning lung tissue with fibrous scar tissueIt's usually associated with airway obstruction
How does high altitude and hypoventilation affect A-a gradient?
Normal A-a gradient; both PAO2 and PaO2 are similar in both situations.
Role of sperm number in fertility
- if 1/3 the normal count---clinically infertile
what is functional residual capacity?
volume of air in lungs after normal passive expiration (2200 mL)the residual volume + expiratory reserve volume
what does secretion by the small intestine include?
- succus entericus (mucus, salt, enzymes in brush border)
ACTH acts on two zones in adrenal cortex. What are they
Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis
What are the four parts of the heart's electrical system carryng the action potential which causes contraction?
T-Tubules, intercalcated discs, sarcolemma, conducting system
Describe some of the higher processing of visual information:
In the dark, ganglion cells discharge at a slow rate. When the lights turn on, the firing rate of many (but not all) ganglion cells increases slightly. With some ganglion cells however, a small spot of light causes a large increase in firing rate. A small spot of light can be more effective than a large area of light. When a spot of light is moved only a short distance away from the receptive field, the cell that was originally stimulated is inhibited by light in its periphery. The responses produced by light in the center and produced by light in the "surround" of the visual field are antagonistic. The ganglion cells stimulated by light at the center of the visual fields are said to have on-center fields; those inhibited by light in the center and stimulated by light in the surround are said to have off-center fields. The reason for this is that diffuse lighting gives the ganglion cell conflicting orders- on and off. Because of the antagonism between the center and surround, the activity of each ganglion cell is due to the result of the difference in light intensity between the center and surround of the visual field. This is a form of lateral inhibition, which helps accentuate contours of images and improve visual acuity. 
Give an example of airway obstruction and of lung compression leading to atelectasis
-Airway obstruction: mucus plug in the airway or by external compression of fluid; tumor mass; exudate or other matter in the area surrounding the airway-Lung compression: when pleural cavity is partially or completely filled with fluid, exudate, blood, tumor mass or air.
What happens to oxygen use as blood flow to the kidney increases?
increases because increased RPF leads to increased GFR, which means more work for the kidney
What are the four elements of protein structure?
1. Primary - Sequence
2.  Backbone Interactions
3.  Tertiary - Interactions between R-groups
4.  Interactions betweem protein chains.
convalescent period of acute viral hepatitis
- person begins to look or feel better, virus clears (mostly with hep A)
Explain how CO2 is transorted by the blood:
RBCs contain an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase that catalyzes the reversicle reaction whereby CO2 and H2O are used to form carbonic acid. This reaction is favored by the high PCO2 in the tissue capillaries, and as a result, CO2  produced by the tissues is converted into carbonic acid in the RBCs. Carbonic acid then ionizes to form H+ and HCO3- (bicarbonate). Because much of the H+ is buffered by hemoglobin, but more bicarbonate is free to diffuse outward, an electrical gradient is established that draws Cl- into the RBCs. This is called the chloride shift. A reverse chloride shift occurs in the lungs. In this process, the low PCO2 favors conversion of carbonic acid to carbon dfioxide, which can be exhaled. So, in summary, O2 is transported by the blood as 1) bicarbonate ion (described) 2) dissolved CO2, and 3) carbaminohemoglobin.
what is a growth factor? what is the most common example?
GFs induce cell growth and differentiation
ex. neurotrophins neurons influenced by neurotrophin grow and develop.
What is present more in Fovea cones or rods
cones, rods are on peripheral area
how is the molecule accepted in a higher concentration of that molecule?
via active transport, ATP is used to transport and change the molecule so it can stay at the higher concentration
finish the progression...the more the CO2...
the more the H+ and the more Oxygen is kicked offcalled Bohr effect
A Decrease in normal blood oxygen, which causes relese of EPO is due to:    (EPO- Erythroprotein hormone. A small amount of this normally circulates in the blood. Whe
  1. Reduced #'s of RBC's due to hemmorrahge or excess RBC destruction. 

2. Reduced availability of of oxygen to the blood as might occur in high altitudes or during pneumonia.

3. Increased tissue demands for oxygen- common in those who engage in arerobic exercise.  
join bones
cytoplasmic fragments, granules
blood in vomitus
Upper chamber
Receives blood returning to the heart from teh veins
Pumps blood into the ventricles
where is adh made?
What inhibits prolactin release?
gray matter
cell bodies,dendrites,short interneurons,glial cells
The process of fibrinolysis
dissolves clots
Cell cycle
interphase and cell division
What is endostatin?
an anti-angiogenesis factor
 A transmembrane protein that changes shape to envelop and transport a polar substance across the cell membrane
1 axon and many dendrites
Are synthesized from small compounds
Norepinephrine (noradrenalin)
What converts HMWK to bradykinin?
In RNA the Nitrogen Base Purine(Guanine) matches with Pyrimidines (Uracil) . True or False
Glial cells
provide structural and metabolic support; guide neurons during growth and repair; help maintain homeostasis of the brain's extracellular fluid
Describe the process of gene activation.  What is the hormone response element?  What hormones primarily use the mechanism of gene activation?
What is the most common monosaccharide
What is the neurotransmitter for focusing your eye for far vision?
Is adeonsine a vasodilator or vasoconstrictor?
pelvic splanchnic nerves contain
preganglionic parasympathetic fibers
Ligand-gated channel
Intrinsic transmembrane ion channels that are opened or closed in response to binding of a chemical messenger
effects on bronchioles of sympathetic stimulation?
An action potential moves
down the axon
somogyi effect
- cycle of insulin-induced posthypoglycemic episodes- "hypoglycemia induces hyperglycemia" (CYCLE)- results from increased levels of catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, GH (counterregulatory hormones)
Decreased response to an irrelevant stimulus that is repeated over and over.
Chemical signals from damaged areas draw phagocytes
The hypothalamus responds to a decrease in blood temperature by ___________ skeletal muscle shivering and by vasoconstricting skin blood vessels.
of or pertaining to the head.
what produces amylase for primary role in digestion?
The flattening of the action potentials of myocardial contractile cells, called the plateau phase, is due to a combination of increasing Ca2+ __________ and decreasing K+__________.
influx, efflux
What type of blood cell are small bi-concave, no nucleus, no organelles
Accessory organs of the digestive system
Salivary glands
Obstructive airway disorders are caused by disorders that increase...???
Resistance to airflow
The widely used American revisions (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s original intelligence test
Frustration-Induced Aggression
hostility directed toward the object or person that has prevented us from reaching our goal.
What is the normal bone marrow myeloid:erythroid ratio?
what are muscle spindles
stretch receptors
nuclear chain fiber: monitors muscle stretch
nuclear bad fibers: monitors stretch rate.
muscle spindles wrap around intrafusal fibers
(rubber band)
Pulmonary VentilationForces Expiration
• Abdominal muscles contract (active process because the Abdominal muscles are contracting)• Contraction pushed up against the diaphragm (more dome shaped) and pulls the ribs down decreasing the thoracic cavity space.• Air rushes out.
Transcellular transport
Solute movement across an epithelial cell layer through the cells
Parkinson's Disease
reduced dopamine b/c of substantia nigra (tremors)
water's reactivity
hydrolysis- addind an H2O molecule to a molecular bond to break the bond
dehydration synthesis- extracting as H2O molecule to form a molecular bond
Conductive deafness
defect in outer/middle ear typically ear drum or M-I-S
epinephrine effects
- reinforce sympathetic nervous system and exerts add'l metabolic effects- fight or flight response- constricts most blood vessels raising total peripheral resistance- dilates the blood vessels supplying the heart and skeletal muscles- promotes glycogenolysis in the liver and skeletal muscles while stimulating glucagon secretion and inhibiting insulin secretion therefore overall increase glucose in the blood- promotes lipolysis- causes CNS arousal- decreased blood supply to systems not used- increased alertness
extracellular fluid
fluid that is located outside cells
Collateral of corticospinal tracts
vestibular and reticular nucleicerebellum and basal ganglia
In Osteoperosis what are the Phosphate levels?
During exercise, increases in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and decreases in the pH of the blood cause the central and peripheral chemoreceptors to send neural stimulation to the _____________ of the brain.
inspiratory center
Asprin prevents the formation of ____________ but allows the formation of ________________.
prostaglandins, leukotrines
noting a structure for conveying an impulse that results or tends to result in sensation such as a nerve
what is it called when nerves are wrapped around muscle to asses how where the muscle is?
how many atps can a glucose mc make?
Organ System
a collection of organs that together perform an overall function
Bridge publications
are designed to "bridge the gap" between academia and the applied world.  Articles in these publications are usually written by professors about a topic of interest to practitioners, but they are not as formal or statistically complex as articles in journals
Cystic fibrosis: Clinical Features
-Respiratory manifestations are caused by: an accumulation of mucus in the bronchi, impaired mucociliary clearance and lung infections, airway obstruction-Pancreatic exocrine deficiency--pancreatic function is abnormal in 80%-90% causing steatorrhea, diarrhea and ab pain and discomfort
a group of axons running within the CNS
2.5cm^2, 2000cm^2
what is the cross sectional diameter at the aorta? what is the cross sectional diameter at the capillary area?
What's a normal effective renal plasma flow?
~625 mL/min
bipolar cells in vision
interneurob between photoreceptor and ganglion cells fires GP
ganglion first place to fire AP
axon of ganglia - optic nerve
Inspiratory Capacity =
Inspiratory Capacity = TV + IRV
GABA transmission
-This is released by neuron vesicles into the synapse-Binds to receptor on postsynaptic cell-It is removed from the synaptic cleft by uptake into the neuron and adjacent glial cells-Glial cells convert this to glutamine and transfer back to the neuron-Glutamine is used to synthesize this-Inhibition of this binding can cause seizures
which respiratory group is active during normal passive inspiration?
dorsal respiratory group
During skeletal muscle contraction which band stays the same length and which band shortens?
A band- maintains length
I band- shortens
acute myocardial infarction
"heart attack"-when the heart muscle becomes necrotic
presentation of autoimmune hepatitis
- fatigue, malaise, jaundice- middle-aged women with ANA- progression is variable- hight mortality
homeostasis requires cell to cell comomunication via 2 chemical messengers what are they
neurotransmitters and hormones
IgG in urine
size selectivity is lost, large plasma proteins in urine which escape through the RENAL TUBULES. Albumin also is released
What is Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
accessory conduction pathway from atria to ventricle (bundle of kent), bypassing AV node
In the heat balance equation, if the skin temperature is greater than the ambient temperature, then the radiant, conductive, and convective components will be ___________. By contrast, if the skin temperature is less than the ambient temperature, then th
having a low threshold of sensation or feeling
T/F a neural impulse will only flow in one direction?
Describe the structures of the eye, and how these focus light on the retina:
See table 10.4
play a key role in daylight vision and color vison
Source Amneasa
- attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
Referred pain
When visceral pain is referred or is sensed arising from a different somatic location. Why? Pain may be referred due to convergence on the same neuron due to neurons being at the same site or nearby.
premature atrial contraction
this tyep of contraction shows that the SA node is not the pacemaker, compensatory pulse, pulse deficit, and a bigeminal pulse and can cause an inverted p wave and the qrs complexes can be next to each other but period will be extended
net flux
movement of particles from hi to lo concentration
net flux is diffusion rate
Fluffy the poodle has never seen a veterinarian before but is showing signs of PU/PD, polyphagia, muscle weakness, lethargy, and distended abdomen.  Blood tests show high glucose, high cortisol, low CRH, and high ACTH.  Which of the following conditions
pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH)
Total peripheral resistance (tPR)
• Total resistance in all blood vessels of the system circulation.
What does PKG do?
Phosphorylates Serine and Threonine in proteins
substances move across th PM two ways
actively and passively
Which hormone is released by the anterior pituitary in response to hypothalmic TRH?
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
secondary disorders affecting coagulation components when there is an increased clotting activity
- acquired- stasis: immobilized or postsurgical pt- MI- CA- hyperestrogenic states, oral contraceptives
Regulation of contraction
use of a transducer, stimulator, and chart recorder to record the contractions of muscles muscle twitch, and the phases of contraction and relaxation.
 threshold voltage, the lowest voltage to produce a twitch
What does plasmin's action on fibrin produce?
fibrin split products
The beta-oxidation of fatty acids, the Krebs Cycle, and the ______________ all occur inside the mitochondria.
Electron Transport Chain
What are the causes of hypoventilation?
Airway obstructionRestriction of the chest wall or lung parenchymaRespiratory depression by drugs, alcohol, or neurological diseaseNeuromuscular diseases producing weakness of th respiratory musclesSpinal cord injury resulting in paralysis of the respiratory muscles
The ciliary muscle helps to
control the shape of the lens
Recreational substance use
Taking a drug in order to experience the effects of the drug.
Voltage-gated channels
open or close in response to chanes in membrane potential
located throughout the neuron but more densely in the axon and in greatest density in the axon hillock
initiation and progagation of action potential
What occurs in the pulmonary vasculature in the case of decreased PAO2?
Hypoxic vasoconstriction (for better V/Q matching).
In order to generate an action potential, the magnitude of the inward sodium current must be large enough to overcome the ________. 255) _____ A) outward potassium current B) inward chloride current C) inward potassium current D) outward sodium current E)
A) outward potassium current
what are the Lower structures of respiratory system ( say it in order)!!!
Larynx trachea- bronchi- bronchioles- alveoli
any one of a group of proteins in cell membranes that allow the passage of water across the membrane
Unsaturated phospholipids
make up most of the PM; structure of unsaturated phospholipids causes the molecules to be loosely packed
metabolic acidosis in ketoacidosis
- contributed by ketones and AA utilized- low pH- low bicarbonate (bicarbonate is a regulator)- hyperkalemia- kussmaul breathing
What 2 factors is RMP dependent upon?
concentration gradients and permeabilities of K+ and Na+
Acts like the 2 moveable walls of the sarcomere
Z disc
Fur, feathers, and, fat and blubber are examples of what two insulations?
external and internal insulation
Gross anatomy structure of skeletal muscle
attach to skeletal system by tendons
made of many individual muscle cells called muscle fibers aranged in parallel fashion to maximize their effectiveness
Explain how the hypothalamus regulates the anterior pituitary gland:
Anterior- Hypothalamic control of the anterior pituitary is acheived through hormonal regulation rather than neural regulation. Releasing and inhibiting hormones are produced by neurons in the hypothalamus, and transported to axon endings in the basal portyion of the hypothalamus (median eminence). Venules that drain the median eminence form a hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary, and the regulatory hormones secreted by the hypothalamus regulate the secretions of the anterior pituitary. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates secretion of TSH, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates secretion of ACTH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates sectretion of FSH and LH, prolactin-inhibiting horrmone (PIH) stimulates secretion of prolactin, and somatostatin stimulates secretion of growth hormone (GH).
If the inside of a cell has more negative charges than the outside the membrane voltage (Vm) is
negative or Vm
What is Fick's law of diffusion?
Vx=DAdeltaP/deltaX Vx=volume of gas transferred per unit time; D=diffusion coefficient of the gas; A=surface area; delta P= partial pressure difference; delta X= thickness of the membrane
____ and ____ are excluded from the CSF because of their large molecular size.
Protein and cholesterol
Intrinsic control: Arterioles respond to stretch
In brain – arterioles sense change in Blood Pressure.• If Blood pressure increases the blood vessels would sense an increase in blood pressure and then they would constrict and blood flow to brain would decrease. Opposite is true.• This is called myogenic response.
protein kinase A (cardiac related)
activates L type Ca channels and phospholamban, which increases SERCA activity, INCREASED HEART CONTRACTION
what occurs in the small intestine
- most digestion and absorption- before this only slight digestion of carbs, proteins (stomach) and NO fat; absorption has slightly occurred but not absorption of nutrients
Name cell layers of retina
Outer - rods + conesInner - interneurons, amacrine, horizontal, bipolarGanglion - axons from optic nerve
What are the characteristics of Cytoplasm?
- Contains organelles in cytosol (semiliquid)
where do calcium ions go after causing actin and myosin to interact in muscle fibers?
pumped back into sarcoplamic reticulum
How can the inactivation of monoamines at the synapse be clinically manipulated?
By MAO inhibitors. These block monoamine oxidase, and enzyme primarily responsible for degrading monoamine neurotransmitters. The blocking of MAOs causes an increase of the amount of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft, promoting, rather than inhibiting their effect.
How do neurotransmitters which remain outside of cell cause effects within electrically excitable cells
Action potentials are used to cause effects of electrically excitable cells
What is forced vital capacity?
Volume of air that can be forcibly expired after maximal inspiration.
what does Estrogen Negative feedback control refer to
low levels of estrogen act via negative feedback stimulate hypothal to increase pulsatile output of GnRH increased levels of LH and FSH. Occurs at onset of ovarian cycle
name 2 respiratory control centers in the brain stem
pons respiratory centers and medullary respiratory centers
3 phages of manifestations of acute viral hepatitis
- prodromal or preicterus period- icterus period- convalescent period
Up regulation is _Down regulation is_
Increase # of receptorsDecrease # of receptors
When potassium channels open when acetylcholine binds to its receptor, what happens to the cell?
It becomes more negative and further from thresshold.
Explain the sliding filament model of contraction:
1) Shortening of myofibrils is caused by the shortening of sarcomeres- the distance between z discs is reduced 2) Shortening of sarcomeres is accomplished by sliding of the myofilaments- the length of each filament remains the same during the contraction. 3) Sliding of filaments is accomplished by asynchronous power strokes of myosin cross-bridges, which pull the thin actin filaments over the thick myosin filaments. 4) The A bands remain the same length during contractions, but are pulled toward the origin of the muscle. 5) Adjacent A bands are pulled together as I bands between them shorten 6) The H bands shorten during contraction as thin filaments on the sides of the sarcomeres are pulled toward the middle. 
Info carried by an afferent neuron
Info from tissues and organs of the body into the CNS, sensory info
Binding of acetylcholine to a nicotinic receptor on skeletal muscle will lead directly to a ________ at the cell membrane. 139) _____ A) slow influx of Na+ through its channel and rapid outward flux of K+ B) rapid influx of Na+ through its channel and no
C) rapid influx of Na+ and slow outward flux of K+
why is does muscle contraction take less time than relaxation?
to cause muscle contraction, the Ca++ channel is unplugged allowing Ca++ to initiate the contraction part of a muscle twitch
during relaxation that free cytosolic Ca++ is gathered up and put back into the sarcoplamic reticulum via a Ca++ pump mechanism
simply unplugging the Ca++ channel and letting loads of Ca++ out during contraction takes less time than pumping it all back during relaxation.
which of the two types of imflammatory bowel syndrome is most likely develop cancer
- ulcerative colitis because the bleeding is uncontrolled and may change the cell type which is more likely to cause cancer
During graded exercise, the increases in systolic blood pressure are explained by the increases in stroke volume and cardiac output, whereas ________________________ is explained by the increases in heart rate being offset by the decreases in systemic vas
the lack of change in diastolic blood pressure
Explain the law of mass action in reversible reactions:
It is the principle that reversible reactions will be driven to the side of the equation where the concentration of substrates are higher to the side where the concentration is lower. ex.
H2CO3--->H2O + CO2 and
H2O + CO2--->H2CO3 are the same as
H2CO3<---->H2O + CO2          
What does it mean for an insulator to have a larger space constant?
increased passive spread of electrical flow, which translates into a faster action potential for neurons
How do hydrophilic hormones produce their effects?
- bind to a receptors on the surface of target cells- a few hydrophilic hormones alter the permeability of the target cell's membrane- most activate second messanger which changes pre-existing activity in the target cell
an exitable membrane has what kind of direction of propogation
will travel both ways, even along all branches of nerve fiber until entire membrane has been polarized
Explain the crossbridge cycle that drives muscle contraction.
1) ATP is bound to myosin at rest. 2) Ca activation leads to myosin-actin interaction. 3) ATP hydrolysis and product release. 4)Powerstroke. 5) Rotated and attached crossbridge is in a state of rigor. 6) Detachment occurs when a new ATP binds a myosin head. 7) ATP is again hydrolyzed. 8) process continues until ATP supply and continued Ca activation.
bone (what is it and what are the parts)
- bone is connective tissue- cells and extracellular organic matrix (collagen fibers in mucopolysaccharide-rich semisolid gel) aka the "ground substance"- osteoblasts- diaphysis- epiphysis
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