Physiology Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
causes of hypocapnia
1)             Which of the following enter the duodenum?
a.     Pancreatic secretions
b.     Bile
c.     Chyme
d.     Both A and C above
e.     All of the above
behavioral drives/ controls homeostasis by controlling endocrine and autonomic function
sunburn, but everything hurts
Intelligence, personality, thinking, perceiving, motor function, touch, sensation
a1 IP3
a2 down Camp
B1-3 up camp 
Organs of the GI tract
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Dual innervation
Parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions both act on the effector
Smooth mm of blood vessels and sweat glands are only innervated by the Sympathetic nervous system
anesthesia happens under ____ response
muscarinic receptor blocker, dilates pupils
Thickness of bloodControlled by hematocit-need large change to influence blood flowAbove 48 percent, RBC interaction with arteriole walls gretly increases resistance
an approach stressing individual personality as the central concern of psychology
what kind of tissue is multinucleated,bundled, and voluntary?
peptide bonds:
After dehydration synthesis, covalent bonds between the hydrogen from the amino end of one amino acid combines with the hydroxyl group of the carboxyl end of another amino acid.
Antigen Presentation
Primary Immune response 10 days
Active transport
Requires energymoves molecules agianst their net electrochemical gradient
protein that hydrolyzes the terminal phosphate group of ATP
Nicotinic neuronal (NN)
on ganglia
(sympathetic and parasympathetic)
adrenal medula
antagonists of this block transmission.
bloodstreamtakes sugar out of blood, puts into cells
Non-reactive temperament
minimal crying, easygoing and extroverted. 20% of infants are in the extremes. 80% of infants lie between the extremes. Biologically based temperaments predict later personality traits and stress responses, but depends on how extreme the trait was during childhood.
The chemical composition and reactions of living matter
Conversion of short-term to long-term memory
Copying DNA to RNA is called____
Intrapulmonary pressure is
pressure inside the lungs
Pacemaker currents
iF-funny current-inward mixed cation (Na+ and K+)iCa2+T- transient inwardiCa2+L- long-lasting inwardiK+-delayed rectifier outward
receptor for pain, stimulated by noxious stimuli
what secretes bile acids?
(and a lot of other stuff) 
a substance that when in water separates into electrically charged particles.
Erthrocytes are able to form bicarbonate because they contain the enzyme
carbonic anhydrase
Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence is an adaptive form of intelligence consisting of the ability to: 1. know one's own emotions; 2. regulate those emotions; 3. motivate oneself; 4. know how others are feeling; and 5. influence how others are feeling. Goleman posited that emotional intelligence is more strongly predictive of professional status, marital quality, and salary than traditional measures of intelligence and aptitude.
Glucose Sparing
Most tissues turn almost exclusively to other energy sources, primarily fatty acids, thereby conserving glucose for use by the central nervous system
Water channels are especially important in what two systems
digestive and urinary
What is pernicious anemia?
lack of B 12
what is TMP?
threshold membrane potential: minimal MP depolarization needed to cause an action potential. The value is abou 55 mV and it works about half the time
glucosuria (glycosuria)
condition characterized by an excess of sugar in the urine, typically associated with diabetes or kidney disease
slower type of conduction, every channel and gate must open
continuous conduction
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Promotes gamete production and stimulates estrogen production in females.Stimulated by GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone); inhibited by sex steroids and inhibin.
multiple projections of PM act to increase the surface area
come from sensory/stimulus receptors and inform CNS of the stimuli. What is their nickname?
Afferent Neurons; sensory
embryonic period
the second period of prenatal development, extending from the third week through the eighth week
produced by pancreas.
we have a basal level of insulin
in response to a meal--> insulin increases in blood
as plasma glucose decreases--> insulin will decrease
sacral contribution
  sacral contribution: S 2-4 supplying distal half of large intestine, urinary and reproductive organs
Coronary Circulation
Heart Rate Dependentdiastole at high HR filling time and coronary flow Coronary flow only occurs during diastoleHR > 18 decreases cardiac output, potential heart failure
structure of myocardium
fibers interlaced and arranged spirally around heart , during contraction diameter of chambers reduced and apex pulled upwards
_________, the only respiratory muscle recruited is the diaphragm.
At rest
a progressive wave of excitation over a nerve or muscle fiber that has a stimulating or inhibitory effect
What is the most important product of mono-saccharides?
what has more control over emptying of stomach, the stomach or duedenum?
The interior cavity of a hollow organ or vessel is generally referred to as the
the study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience
Absorptive State
3-4 hours after a typical meal, nutrients are absorbed
rate of energy input generally exceeds energy input
body is in postive energy balance
glucose serves as the primary energy source for cells, while fats amino acids, and excess glucose are takin up by the liver, muscle, and fat cells and converted to energy storage molecules
Refractory Period
During and immediately after an action potential, the membrane is less excitable than it is at rest
Cuneatus receptors are through what nerve?
Vagus (CN X)
Fast Response Phase 1
Initial repolarization occurs through i-to channels.These channels don't close until end of P2
Calcitonin…decreases renal tubular reabsorption of calcium.
increases bone breakdown
is essential to survival.
stimulates calcitriol production.
none of the above.
decreases renal tubular reabsorption of calcium.
If neuron gives off ACh, it is ____
Tight junction
tight junctions formed by the fusion of integral proteins of the lateral cell membranes of adjacent epithelial cells, limiting transepithelial permeability.
Frontal lobes
Contains the motor cortex and premotor cortex that initiate voluntary muscle movement. Also involved in short-term memory and speech production.
Microfilaments (thinnest)
  strands of actin responsible for cell movement and shape changes.
Types of sensor receptors
photo, chemo, thermo ,and mechanoreceptors
- flared, articulating knob at end of long bone- growing bone; diaphysis separated from epiphysis by layer of cartilage called the "epiphyseal plate" which is where growth occurs
(Components of E.S)
Hormones/signal factors
signal molecule stimulates target tissue
Nicotinic receptor vs Muscarinic receptor
Nicotinic - chemically mediatedMuscarinic - mediated by G proteinBut both activated by Ach
What is the intracellular enzyme that converts CO2 into H2CO3?
Carbonic anhydrase
The _____________ that account for the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) include persistent post-exercise elevations in circulating hormones (especially thyroid hormones and norepinephrine), the heart rate, the rate and the depth of breathing
major contributors
Facilitated diffusion
Moving from high to low concentration with help from a transporter
what is the predominate type of receptor on cardiac muscle?
beta 1 receptor
In a simple endocrine reflex, the endocrine cell is the
sensor; integrating center
How many nephrons are there in two kidneys
2.5 million
Nodding off and waking oup not a short nap but brief instant of falling asleep.
What is an example of an Excitory transmitter?
Glutamate (depolarization)
What is Synergism?
two hormones enhancing the effects of each other
Muscle Metabolism and Fiber Types:
Oxygen Consumption Elevated During Recovery from Exercise...
Oxygen Debt:
1. contractile energy debt from nonoxidative ATP sources needs to be repaid during recovery
     a. creatine phosphate resynthesized
     b. lactic acid metabolized
     c. replenish glycogen stores
Recovery from General Metabolic Disturbance:
1. all chem reactions still speeded up
2. still high levels of epi
Which of the following ions binds to calmodulin to ultimately activate a protein kinase? 138) _____ A) potassium B) chloride C) calcium D) sodium E) magnesium
C) calcium
Oxytocin: origin, function, purpose means
- released from the posterior pituitary - stimulates uterine contractions- in late pregnancy, estrogen- 100 fold increase in oxytocin receptors- powerful contractile effects on uterus - neurohormonal reflex: cervix dilates- stretch receptors- hypothal/post. Pit-oxytocin- Pulsatile release of oxytocin during labor bc of a positive feedback loop, terminated after fetal expulsion and relaxation of the cervix
Fluid Mosaic Model
A generalized model of the structure of cell plasma membranes. Demonstrating the free movement of proteins within the plasma membrane
Describe the pleural sac
double walled, fluid filled, visceral pleura is closest to lung, parietal pleura is closest to thoracic wall
Adrenergic receptor (general)
G protein coupled that are generally linked to second messenger signal transduction pathways
absorption of calcium
- active transport- approx 2/3 of ingested calcium absorbed; remaining 1/3 eliminated
fats contain: C, H, O2Used to make ATP & are found in fat depositsLipids:Fat DepositsCell Membrane Steroids (hormone)
What type of muscle has a modified striated appearance?
Cardiac muscle
Parasympathetic nervous system - Rest & Digest - examples (7)
constrict pupils,increase watery salivaenhance GI GU emptyingstimulate release of insulin and enhance storage of excess glucose as fat and glycogenslow heart rateconstrict airwaysopen resistance vessels of coronary circuit
vital function
any function of the body that is essential for life
location of beta-2 adrenergic receptor in body
smooth muscle of intestines
smooth muscle of bv's
What does urine production regulate
plasma ion concentrations
Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, C1-, HCO3, HPO4-

Blood Ph
Plasma volume
Plasma osmolarity
Removes wastes and foreign substances
Retains useful molecules
   Charles Darwin:
1859: The Origin of Species. Help us to see how parts of the brain evolved to what they did
What is gigantism caused by?
Hypersecretion of GH which causes large growth in children and acromegaly in adults
Histamine blocked by:Ach blocked by:Gastrin inhibited by:
-H2 Blocker-Atropine-pH lower than 3, secretin & GIP-Note atropin won't block gastrin
What percent of the body is made up of water?
Tidal Volume (TV)
• Volume of air that is inspired and expired at rest (500 ml ~)
what percent of oxygen is dissolved in plasma?
1.5 (very small)
intense thermal or mechanical, or chemical signals is detected by
nociceptor, polymodal free nerve endings
hemolytic anemia
- due to the rupture of many rbcs- sickle cell disease can make rbcs fragile and vulnerable to hemolysis- normochromic, normocytic, low hct, v. high reticulocyte ct
Temporal vs Spatial summation
Temporal - one neuron fires at different timesSpatial - two neurons fire at same time
What are the three major components of water in the human body?
Intracellular Fluid: 10/15thsInterstitial Fluid: 4/15thsPlasma: 1/15th
what are 2 examples of collateral ganglia in the abdomen?
superior and inferior mesenteric ganglion
Explain how inspiration and expiration are accomplished:
By contraction and relaxation of striated muscles. During quiet inspiration, the diaphragm and external intercostals contract, and thus increase the volume of the thorax. During quiet expiration, these muscles relax, and the elastic recoil of the lungs and thorax causes a decrease in thoracic volume. Forced inspiration and expiration are aided by contraction of the accessory respiratory muscles.
Insulin opposes the catabolism of energy stores by
inhibiting the breakdown of proteins, triglycerides, and glycogen
suppressing gluconeogenesis by the liver
What is the effect of Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ?
controls normal development of secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland
Which of the following statements about the Ca2+ pump is FALSE? 58) ______ A) Calcium is actively transported from an organelle into the cytosol. B) Calcium is actively transported from the cytosol into the extracellular fluid. C) It maintains low cytosol
A) Calcium is actively transported from an organelle into the cytosol
what is the Role of Inhibin?
from granulose cells inhibits FSH secretion
what are the relationships (equation) between
F, MAP, CO and TPR?
F is directly related to MAP
4 types of peripheral endocrine glands
- thyroid- adrenal glands- endocrine pancreas- parathyroid glands
What is an autoimmune disorder?
Immune response against the body's own tissue
Forces that move fluid into capillary?
Interstitial fluid pressure (Pi) and Plasma colloid osmotic pressure
How do pulmonary arteries compare to systemic ones?
They have thinner walls, less musculature, less connective tissue, and are more compliant compared to systemic vessels. They also have less capacity for vasoconstriction compared to systemic vessels.
Explain how the lymph and lymphatic system relate to the blood and cardiovascular system:
Plasma, leaving blood capillaries is called interstitial fluid and is reabsorbed into the lymphatic capillaries, where it is referred to as lymph. The lymph is is then carried to into lymphatic vesselsd called lymph ducts, where it is filtered through lymph nodes. It is then emptied into the thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct, which drain into the left and right subclavian veins, and then reentered into the circulatory system.
Compare the fate of pyruvate in aerobic and anaerobic respiration:
In anaerobic respiration, pyruvic acid is reduced by the re-formation of NAD in the cytoplasm (if there is not sufficient oxygen).
In aerobic respiration, pyruvic acid leaves the cytoplasm and enters the mitochondria, where CO2 is enzymatically removed from each 3-carbon long pyruvic acid to form a 2-carbon long acetic acid. This,, combined with coenzyme A, forms acetyl CoA, which activates the Krebs cycle.
What is the cause and effect of Addison’s Disease?
hyposecretion of both the mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, loss of weight, plasma glucose and sodium levels drop and potassium levels increase. Dehydration and hypotension are common
Describe the structure of the astrocytic processes
THey are interwoven at innner and outer surfaces of CNS, forming outer and inner glial limiting membranes
what is the relative tension of the 3 muscle fiber types?
I: low
IIa: medium
IIb: large
contribution of hormones to the complexity of endocrine system
- one endocrine gland can produce multiple hormones- a single hormone can be produced by more than one endocrine gland and have more than one type of effect (b/c it has more than one target cell)- a single target cell can be influenced by more than one hormone b/c diff. receptors allow diff. responses by tissue- rate of secretion of a hormone can vary over time (female repro. cycle)- same chemical messengers can be a hormone or neurotransmitter (e.g. norepinephrine)- some organs have exclusively endocrine Fxs.; others (e.g. testis) have endocrine and nonendocrine Fxs.
What is the mean arterial pressure?How is it measured?
the average arterial pressure during the cardiac cycleit's the diastolic pressure plus one-third of teh pulse pressure
It's usually 93mm Hg
1. Nervous tissue- found in spinal cord, brain, nerves
2. Muscle tissue- skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
what are nucleic acids made out of?
sugars with a P and N group
Describe the structure of the plasma membrane:
It is described by a fluid-mosaic model-- membrane is primarily composed of a phospholipid bilayer; it also contains proteins, most of which span its entire width.
How does high altitude affect the O2-Hgb dissociation curve?
Shifts to the right; increase in 2,3-DPG, increased P50, and decreased affinity b/t O2 and Hgb.
Trace the route that an erythrocyte would take as it passes from the renal artery, through the vasculature of the kidney, and then back into the renal vein. Include all vessels mentioned in class.
RBC flows into the renal artery which branches into arterioles-> afferent arteriole within the glomerulus-> our efferent arteriole-> into complex network of peritubular capillaries that surround a nephron-> out into a venules, veins, out the renal vein
how do lipophilic hormones stimulate a gene thus promoting protein synthesis?
- hormone passes through the target cell membrane- binds with an intracellular receptor that binds to DNA, turning on a gene- gene makes RNA, making a specific protein at the ribosome- this newly synthesized protein changes the physiological response in the target cell- STUDY FIGURE
Describe how T3 andd T4 are made?
Iodine enters follicle cells and is oxidized; goes into lumen as I2. Thyroglobulin (made from tyrosine) enters lumen and combines with I2 to form monoiodotyrosine and di-iodotyroside (2 of di makes T4 and one di and one mono makes T3). The T3 and T4 re-enter the follicular cell and are degraded by proteolysis, releasing the T3 and T4 into the bloodstream
Equation for determining osmotic pressure (van Hoff's law)
∏ = g C σ RT
g= number of particles per mole of solution
σ = reflection coefficient
What is the difference between CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) and ECF (extracellular fluid)?
CSF lacks the high protein level of the plasma, so its osmolarity is balanced by the increased concentrations of Na+ and Cl-.
what is the intrinsic mode of heart regulation?
1. frank starling law
2. the AV delay
What are the (6) functions of proteins in the Fluid Mosaic Model?
1) support structure of the membrane2) transport/form channels for polar molecules3) function as enzymes that catalyze reactions at the surface of the cell4) markers: identify cells5) receptor proteins6) neurotransmitter hormones
In active transport, the affinity of the carrier protein for the molecule being transported is greater on which side of the membrane? 45) ______ A) always the side facing the extracellular fluid B) on the side where the molecule is in lower concentration
B) on the side where the molecule is in lower concentration
What happens to the H zone, I band, A band, etc, for concentric muscle contractions.
H-zone: Where thin filaments do not overlap thick filaments (clearer area in the middle of thick filaments).I-band: Thin filaments do not overlap thick.A band: Length of thick filament.Z-line: Thin filaments of opposite sides attach.M-line: Keeps thick filaments centered.
abdominal cavity
hydrophilic, sweetmonosaccharide- glucosedisaccharide- sucrosepolysaccharid- glycogen
- gastric pain
relaxation - ventricular diastole
where is glucagon produced?
Densely packed RER
Nissl Bodies
special senses
vision,touch, hearing,taste, smell
__________ postganglionic sympathetic neurons secrete __________ onto their target cells.
Most, norepinephrine
Sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings we are aware of at any instant.
What senses slowly-adapting pressure?
Merkel disks
Energy-requiring building phase of metabolism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances.
"upstream" of a cell body
Transient lower esophagial sphincter relaxation
hypoxia causes vasoconstriction (only organ in which hypoxia leads to vasoconstriction)
The nitrogen bases Purines and Pyrimidines in a deoxyribonucleic acid has Guanine connecting to Cytosine, and Adenine connecting to Thymine . True or False
The carrier protein that transports absorbed iron through the blood is
Describe the distinction between an ionotropic and a metabotropic receptor response to a neurotransmitter
Structure base on cholsterol
Some are components of plasma membranes
Some function as signaling molecules
Brainstem Functions
Many nuclei, with diverse functions
These nuclei are surrounded by tracts of white matter connecting brain and spinal cord
Processing centers for 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves (part of the PNS)
Many autonomic control centers often working in conjunction with the hypothalamus
Respiratory rate and force of breathing
Helps control sleep/wake cycles, arousal, attentiveness in brain
What hormone does ischemic renal tissue secrete a lot of?
OOgenesis summary
- 1 ovum/3 polar bodies (uneven)- Discontinuous- Receive cyotosol DNA- Receive mitochondrial DNA
the enzymatic breakdown of a carbohydrate (as glucose or glycogen) by way of phosphate derivatives with the production of pyruvic or lactic acid and energy stored in high-energy phosphate bonds of ATP
What is PO2 on humidification?
713 mmHg
A substance other than a neurotransmitter, released by a neuron that conveys information to multiple adjacent neurons, either enhancing or damping their activities
what causes endocrine disorders
- hyposecretion- hypersecretion
Medulla Oblongata?
contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic, involuntary functions, such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure
Benign tumors stay localized, no infiltration of surrounding tissuesMalignant tumors have transformed cells-cancerCan infiltrate nearby tissuesCan metastasize to other parts of the body
The anticipatory rise in ventilation just prior to beginning exercise is caused by cognitive-neural ____________ of the brainstem.
of or pertaining to the pelvis.
T/F muscarine will bind to nicotinic receptors?
The integrating center for neural control of blood pressure resides in the
medulla oblongata
chemical reactions that occur in a living organism
in the small intestine, the smooth muscle layers also perform segmentation, which mixes contents to ensure close contract between all portions fo the chyme and the nucosea (the inner layer of the GI tract wall)
- in psychology theory, the basic defence mechanism that banishes from consequences anxiety arousing thoughts, feeling, and memories.
The mental abilities needed to select, adapt to, and shape environments. It involves the abilities to profit from experience, solve problems, reason, and successfully meet challenges and achieve goals
life changes
big changes in ones living circumstances that require adjustments in ones life style
What molecule on platelets binds to vWF?
(EG) Diazepam
acts at spine/brain to enhance GABA
when Benzodiazepines bind to separate sites on GABAa, more Cl influx = stronger hyperpolarization occurs
treats muscle spasms
(acts at CNS to effect PNS)
– increase in H+ concentration in plasma.• PH will be less then 7.35. Up to 7.0 we can function, but at 6.8 death.• This situation depresses the CNS (brain and spinal cord). Can go into a coma, heart rate becomes irregular, blood vessels dilate, and enzymes can not function.
: the release of cellular substances (as secretory products) contained in cell vesicles by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane and subsequent release of the contents to the exterior of the cell
Wernicke-Geschwind Model
W's area, B's area, Arcuate Fasciculus, Angular gyrus
An atom with low e- attraction, usually 1 or 2 valence e-
What NT is made out of Histidine?
- hypersecretion of GH- most obvious in extremities (hands and feet) and face (jaws and cheekbones)- of course this also occurs with excress exogenous GH (athletes)
allosteric modulation
noncovalent binding to regulatory site alters the shape of the functional site
Location of primary motor area
Pre central gyrus
After prolonged exercise, CO increases as a result of an increase in ------.
heart rate
Skeletal muscle contractions increase blood glucose transport across the plasma cell membrane by translocating the _______________ from the cytoplasm to the sarcolemma.
glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4)
Norepinephrine is an example of a(n) _____________ neurotransmitter.
acting independently of or done or occurring without volition
what are 3 things that will cause sypmpathetic responses
what is mestasis
when the cell cant stop dividing
device to make change on body and carry out effects
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Cytoplasmic RNA where assembly of proteins takes place
Essentially, there is not enough OXYGEN (hypoxemia) and too much CO2 (hypercapnia)Causes:-Hypoventilation-Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatching-Impaired diffusion
Central Processing Components
Performs computations
Simple ones - reflexes
Complex ones - integration of sensory information, planning, emotions, and thinking
Stores memories
atrial fibrilation
Lead II abnormality, a bunch of abnormally distorted p waves
What binds tissue factor in the extrinsic pathway?
factor VII
beta 1 adrenergic
increase heart rate increase heart power increase thick saliva
Rectal Reflex (large intestine)
(defecation reflex) – eliminates feces from the rectumReflex Arc:• Stimulus – feces enters the rectum• Receptor – stretch receptors• Nerves from the sacral segments stimulate the effector• Effector – smooth muscles of the internal sphincter relaxes. We voluntarily relax the external sphincter muscles in order to eliminate the fecal matter.
two phospholipases that lead to prod of Arach Acid
what is hypercapnia?
having excess CO2 in arteriole blood
What is afterload?
the force a muscle experiences (exerts) after it has begun to shorten
actual death of heart muscle cells due to blocked or ruptured blood vessels that supply that area of the heart
dx of zollinger-ellison syndrome
- abnormal gatrin concentration- abnormal stomach acid concentration- scan for tumors
If the extracellular fluid of a cell becomes hypertonic, such as in dehydration, what will happen to the cell size?
Free water clearence
Positive = dilute urineNegative = concentrated urine
What is masked by the QRS complex?
atrial repolarization
A 4-component criterion estimate of body composition is determined from 3 different body composition assessment techniques. For instance, body density from either underwater weighing or the Bod Pod, _______________ from isotope dilution, and total body b
total body water
a muscle that acts in opposition to another
the glycogen stored in liver is designed to?
supply blood glucose
Describe sensory adaptation in olfactory and pain receptors:
Olfactory receptors would be considered phasic (fast adapting), because the initial stimulus would cause neurons to fire at a high frequency, and then quickly slow the firing rate, even though the stimulus is still there. This explains  why someone may smell something, but then quickly not smell it anymore, even though the odorant molecules are still present. Pain receptors would be considered tonic (slow adapting), because the initial stimulus would cause neurons to fire rapidly nd at a consistent rate, as long as the stimulus is there. This is critical for survival, because pain is an important perception.
on the opposite side of the body from another structure
- a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
Function of sensory association cortex
Gives meaning to sensation, interpretation, and perception.
sinus bradycardia
on EKG, normal p,qrs complex, t, but abnormal R-R interval(expanded)
rate of diffusion equation
rate of diffusion α = available surface area*concentration gradient
                                          membrane resistance*membrane thickness
High amino acid levels will cause secretion of…insulin
a and b
all of the above
a and b
Baroreceptor Reflex
i) Drop in MAP (short regulation – seconds to minutes) ex: getting up quickly – blood pressure drops• Baroreceptor puts BP back to homeostasis• Drop in BP does not stimulate the baroreceptor  reduction in AP propagation to the CV centre• Two things can happen a) increase of impulses from SNS and get decrease in PSNS activity• SNS - ↑HR, ↑ FC, ↑tPR (due to vasoconstriction) *example of negative feed back ↓BP ~~~ ↑BPii) Increase in blood pressure• Baroreceptors are stretched  increase in AP to CV centre• Increase in PSNS activity PSNS  ↓HR ↓tPR
What are G-protein coupled reactors?
Membrane spanning proteins that interact with an intracellular protein called a G-protein
central core of an atom made up of protons and neutrons
Which condition results in sustained powerful contractions by the skeletal muscles?
Tetanus or lock jaw
esophageal varices
P in portal vein increased due to obstruction, causing collateral channel development
Regulation of contraction
Calcium is stored in the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum;
What does the brain use in starvation when there is no glucose?
Ketone bodies
The barometric pressure at sea level is ____________.
760 mm Hg
Anatomic dead space
V(d) The air that remains in the conducting airways with each breath. 500 mL is the normal tidal volume. Of that, 150 mL remains in the conducting airways and does not take part in gas exchange. Approx. = to the body weight in pounds
Pain from one area of the body, such as in cardiac ischemia, can be felt in another area, such as the neck and left shoulder; this is called
referred pain
Job Components Inventory (JCI)
consitst of more than 400 questions covering five major categories: tools and equipment, perceptual and physical requirements, mathematical requirments, communication requirements and decision making and responsibilty it is th eonly job analysis method containing a detailed section on tools and equipment
a change to a less negative or to a postive potential membrane becomes less polarized
Thromboxane A2, prostacyclin, and leukotrienes have what effects in the pulmonary vasculature?
Thromboxane A2 and leukotrienes are both vasoconstrictors. Prostacyclin is a vasodilator.
What type of ion channels in the membrane of neurons allow ions to move across the membrane at rest, and thereby contribute to resting membrane potential? 202) _____ A) resting channels B) ligand-gated channels C) voltage-gated channels D) leak channels E
D) leak channels
what is Respiratory distress syndrome?
- happens in premature babies - they don’t have surfactant- leads to “stiff” lungs with collapsed areas breathing needs extraordinary effort
Calcium Induced Calcium Release
A mechanism by which local elevations of intracellular calium is released by ryanodine-sensitive Ca++(Unsure about this definition)
primary active transport
energy to do work comes directly from hydrolysis of ATP (ex: Na-K pump)
adrenal cortex (outer)
- consists of 3 layers- each secretes a different family of hormones- mineralocorticoids influence mineral balance- glucocorticoids
Blood filteration rate
125mL of blood per minute. (we only have 5 liters of blood)
Two sensory systems involved in proprioception
Golgi tendon and muscle spindles
What compensations actually have real values?
no compensation and Perfect Compensation
Structure of multiunit smooth muscle fibers
no gap junctions
each innervated by en passant bouton
Identify the insulin-secreting endocrine cells of the pancreas, and describe the actions of this hormone:
The endocrine cells are the islets of Langerhans. The beta cells secrete insulin. Insulin regulates plasma glucose concentration; after a sugary meal or drink, increased glucose stimulates the beta cells to secrete increased amounts of insulin. This causes insulin to bind to its receptors in the plasma membrane of its target cells, and through signalling molecules, causes intracellular vesicles containing GLUT4 carrier proteins to translocate to the plasma membrane. These proteins cause facilitated diffusion of glucose into the cells of insulin's target organs (primarily skeletal muscles, liver and adipose tissue). Insulin also indirectly stimulates activity of glycogen synthetase to promote conversion of glucose into glycogen for storage. This lowers blood glucose concentration.
The total force acting on the ions is the combination of chemical and electrical driving forces, referred to as
electrochemical driving force
How is fetal synthesis of surfactant tested?
Measure the ratio of lecithin:sphingomyelin in amniotic fluid. Ratio >2 reflects mature levels of surfactant.
1. The Myelin Sheath of the CNS are formed by___2. This process occurs mostly___
1. oligodendrocytes2. postnatally
Excitation-Contraction Coupling in the ventricular myocardium
1) AP from Purkinje fibres  stimulus for Ventricular Contraction Cells moves quickly through gap junctions (have channels – AP passes through). All ventricular cells contract at the same time.2) Ca++ released from Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (voltage gates opening for diffusion)3) Ca++ binds to troponin on thin myofilaments. Removes tropomyosin to expose the actin binding sites  get sliding filament mechanism
Granular Leukocytes (Granulocytes)
* Have lobed nuclei (Rounded nuclear masses connected by thinner strands of nuclear material. 
*Numerous granules in the cytoplasm- These granules differentially in hematological stains. 
*Give rise to three types
(Functionally they are all phagocytes:A cell, such as a white blood cell, that engulfs and absorbs waste material, harmful microorganisms, or other foreign bodies in the bloodstream and tissues)
by what mechanisms does bile secretion occur?
- chemical, hormonal, and neural
Describe corticospinal (pyramidal ) tract
Voluntary movements - motor (60%) + sensory (40%)Lateral tract - 85 % - cross at pyramidsVentral tracts - 15 % - do not cross
Connective- Connects, supports, and anchors body parts
What is positive and negative feedback control? How are they different?
3 major functions of stomach are? of food
2.mixing of food to form chyme
3.slow emptying of food into small intestine at proper rate for digegestion and absorbtion 
Explain the significance of glutamate in the brain:
They function as the major excitatory as neurotransmitters in the CNS. They produce EPSPs and research has revealed that each of the the glutamate receptors encloses an ion channel, similar to the nicotinic ACh receptors. There are 3 subtypes of glutamate receptors, named after the molecules (other than glutamate) that they bind: 1) NMDA receptors 2) AMPA receptors 3) kainate receptors  
List 5 mechanisms and examples that can cause pleural effusion
1) Increased capillary pressure--as in congestive heart failure2) Increased capillary permeability--in inflammatory conditions3) Decreased colloidal osmotic pressure--like hypoalbuminemia in liver disease & nephrosis4) Increased negative interpleural pressure--develops with alectasis5) Impaired lymphatic drainage of the pleural space--because of obstructive processes like mediastinal carcinoma
What constitutes physiologic dead space?
The volume of lungs that does no participate in gas exchange. There is no gas exchange that occurs within these alveoli.
Why more multiple births in recent years?
** MY ANSWER** invitro fertilization, science, etc.
what is vital capacity?
MaX Volume of air that can be moved out during a single breath following a maximum inspiration (take tidal volume add to it the IRV then add to that the ERV)
3 reasons why stomach is protected against acid
- impermeability to HCL- tight junctions between cells- cells lining gastric mucosa (including those lining gastric pits and glands)
Which hormones are bound to plasma proteins
steroid hormones - from cholesterol, hydrophobic - produced on demand
Explain how carotid baroreceptors are related to orthostatic postural hypotension.
located on carotid arters and detect bp changes. When BP is low, signal is sent to NTS to increase sympathetic outflow to increase BP. This is for short term (<20 min) control. When you stand up, pressure drops, baroreceptors increase pressure intil a different body system, i.e. kidney, can compensate.
Describe the banding pattern of a myofibril:
Each myofibril is striated, with dark (A) bands and light (I) bands. in the middle of each I band are Z lines. The A bands are composed of thick myosin filaments, and the edges of each band also contain thin filaments which overlap the thick filaments. The central region of the A bands contain only thick filaments- these regions are the H bands.  The I bands contain only thin actin filaments, composed of globular subunits known as G-actin, as well as the protein tropomyosin (located at intervals in the thin filaments). The protein troponin is attached to the tropomyosin.
How do neurotransmitters which remain outside of cell cause effects within cells that are not electrically excitable
Enzymes are used to effect those not electrically excitable
Sliding Filament Model of Cell Contration
(What are the steps of this process?)
1. Cell is at rest (uncontracted) free cytosolic Ca++ is between 10^-7 and 10^-9
2. Action potential causes free cytosolic Ca++ to increase (10^-6 to 10^-5)
3. Sarcomeres shorten (thin and thick filaments slide by eachother as a result of repeatedly binding to form actomyosin)
what are the causes of chronic hepatitis
- HBV, HCV, HDV, autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced hepatitis
Name the other type of voltage gated channel. Where are they located and what does it do?

located at AXON TERMINALS! They allow the influx of CA+2 t trigger neurotransmitter secretion.
Describe how a metabolic pathway is affected by end-product inhibition:
It is a form of negative feedback.  One of the final products of a divergent pathway inhibits the activity of the branch-point enzyme that began the path toward the production of this inhibitor.  This prevents the final product from accumulating excessively and results in a shift toward the final product of the alternate pathway.
what type of feedback results from glycogenolysis?
many PKA (which would indicate a NEED to break apart glycogen) results in:
1. + feedback of glycogen phosphorylase which cuts up glycogen into glucose
2. - feedback of glycogen synthetase which makes glycogen
-feedback of the phosphorylase that make gdp->gtp
role of hypothyroidism in goiters
- leads to high levels of TSH due do decreased negative feedback- TSH acts on the follicular cells to increase their size and number
T/F the latissimus dorsi is an example of a muscle fiber?
False, it is an example of muscle bundle
if there is low blood flow (perfusion) what are the oxgyen/CO2 levels like?
high levels of oxygen and low levels of CO2
The CNS is made up of and the PNS is made up of
Brain and Spinal Cord; Everything else
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