Physiology One Flashcards

Terms Definitions
glycolysis diagram
mucous membrane
secrete mucus
basement membrane
noncellular material
The nerve impulse.
Action potential
low Seratonin/NE
lithium for bipolar
MAO inhibitors
Tricyclics (prozac)
water on the brain
Pineal Gland
- secretes melatonin
integumentary system
skinfunction: protection against injury and dehydration, defense against pathogens, regulation of body temperature
Organic molecules associated with living organisms: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleotides
Na+ voltage-gated channels close.
K+ voltage-gated channels open.
Eicosonoids are derived from
Arachidonic Acid
Ability of neurons to reform
endergonic reaction
where energy is absorbed
maintenance of balance,enhancement of muscle tone,coordination of muscle activity
T/F nicotic receptors are always exitatory?
The presence of two peripheral efferent neurons in a pathway is typical of the __________ division.
Responsibility Training
Life experiences that provide opportunities to learn to behave responsibly, such as having younger siblings to take care of while growing up. Moderates the gender difference in impulsive behaviors associated with need for power.
Thin, branched processes that receive and transfer incoming information to an integrating region within the neuron
Adrenal Cortex - Outer portionsecretes what
cell body, dendrites, axon hillock, axon, axonal transportsensory, motor and association neurons motor neurons can be somatic or autonomic ( and these can be sympathetic or
External Respiration
• Pulmonary gas exchange between alveoli of the lungs and the blood• Blood is deoxygenated  travels to lungs  CO2 removed and O2 picked up.• Both happen because of partial pressure differences• Junction between the alveolus and the capillary is very thin (2 cells thick)• In the lungs are an extreme large number of alveoli/lungs are highly vascular• Blood that is flowing in the capillaries flow very slowly
Functions of kidney
Reabsorption, secretion, excretion, and filtration
Describe emphysema
loss of elastic tissue>>decreased elastance and increased compliance>>alveoli are easy to open, but they can't recoil>>air gets trapped in the lungs>>air can't be pushed out all the way
Every sound argument is...
a valid argument.
What are ACE inhibitors called?
prils, Captopril
diabetes mellitus:
diabetes mellitus results from insufficient insulin secretion, or from the secretion of insulin that is ineffective results in high blood sugar, which produces high glucose levels in the urine; glucose in the urine produces polyuria (by osmosis), increase in urinary output and polydipsia, increase in water intake; two types of diabetes: type 1, usually starts in childhood; due to autoimmune destruction of the beta cells and resulting in no insulin production type 2, usually starts in adulthood; insulin is produced but the tissues are no longer sensitive to it
Phase 4 depolarization occurs during which phase of the cardiac cycle?
By contrast, the blood concentrations of oxygen are relatively low and the blood concentrations of carbon dioxide are relatively _____- in the systemic veins and in the pulmonary artery.
the ability to voluntarily control urinary and fecal discharge
cell membranes that seperate indvidual cardiac muscle cells are called?
intercalated discs
Describe the events that are occurring in a heart during each wave of an EKG
a viscous fluid that circulates around the body carrying substances to and from tissues
Interleukin 2
Cytokine secreted by Helper T-cells; cause killer T-cells to multiply
The Immune System in Early Adulthood Declines after age ___
Cerebral Cortex
Organized into lobes
Frontal - logic, planning, personality
Parietal - processing of somatic sensory informaiton
Temporal - auditory and olfactory
Occipital - task of processing visual information
Isula - emotional functions
0 mmHg
what is the right atrial pressure
Which of the following chemical messengers is lipophilic? 96) ______ A) prostaglandin B) histamine C) norepinephrine D) glutamate E) gamma-amino butyric acid
A) prostaglandin
Perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change
Myeloid stem cells produce
RBC, megakaryocytes (platelets), eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, monocytes (macrophages)
any of various compounds of glycerol linked to two fatty acids; they are triglyceride and phospholipid degradation products and are second messengers in calcium-mediated responses to hormones.(DG); The second messenger that activates the protein kinase C, which then phosphorylates a large number of other proteins
During expiration, describe pressures during maximal forced expiration:
intrapleural: very elevatedintra-alveolar:very elevated-slightly higher than intrapleural**narrow airways
Atoms of an element that have differing amu because of different numbers of neutrons.
Carbon12 g 6 protons  6 neutronsCarbon13 g 6 protons  7 neutronsCarbon14 g 6 protons  8 neutrons
NE to epinephrine, only located in PNS
typical sxs of GERD
- heartburn- water brash
What is the function of Norepinephrine?
affect, alertness
-Released into synaptic cleft bind to specific recptor proteins locatedo n the post synaptic membrane
What hormone is associated with the Maintance of the Endometrium
In an electrocardiogram (ECG), the ___________ is indicative of atrial depolarization (activation)
P wave
a pulsation of the heart, including one complete systole and diastole
the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus such as light
T/F the muscle fiber is the muscle cell?
Average TBW in males and Females.
Females- 60-65.males 65-70
End-systolic volume (ESV)
amaount of blood remaining after ejection
Facilitated Diffusion and Active transport similarities
Involve a carrier molecule
Development of epistemic cognition (3)
Dualistic thinking, relativistic thinking, commitment within relativistic thinking
Thyroid stimulating hormone
TSH- stimulated thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones (TH)TSH secretion is stimulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
active hypermia
increase in blood flow with the increase in tissue activity mediated by K+ phosphate
Equilibrium potential describes the membrane potential where the ________ gradient balances the ________ gradient.
C) chemical : electrical
patent ductus arteriosus
in this condition, systolic pressure will increase, diastolic pressure will decrease, end diastolic volume will increase, it is a left to right shunt and blood flow will go from the aorta to the pulmonary artery
how do interferons work?
prevent replication of neighboring uninfected cells
Hemoglobin and hemoglobin types
-The red, oxygen-transporting protein of erythrocytes, consists of a globin portion and four heme groups-Embryonic (embryos), fetal (fetuses and young children), hemoglobin A (adults), hemoglobin A2 (adults)
Phasic Receptors
Rapidly adapt to a constant stimulus and turn off. They fire once more when the stimulus turns off.
What cell types produce myelin?
schwann cells and oligodendrocytes
Which type of contraction needed to create force and move a load?
Isotonic Contractions
- black, tarry stool because blood not fresh; it has been acted upon by digestive enzymes
What appears in mylenated axons to jump form one node to the next?
action potentials
What organs are elastic in nature?
lungs and thorax
late follicular phase
increased rise in estrogen now stimulates GNRH to release LH,FSH finishes follicle development
Most highly developed in Insects, this vision is closely related to Higher Verts; these are also # of sm eyes, in a grp arranged on a raised part of body
Convex Retina
the period of life just prior to sexual maturation
What is the normal range and non lethal limits of Body temperature?
65-110 F 
Explain blood clotting:
When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets adhere to the exposed subendothelial collagen proteins. 1) Platelets that stick to collagen undergo a release recation in which they secrete ADP, seratonin and thromboxane A2. 2) Seratonin and thromboxane A2 cause vasoconstriction.
ADP and thromboxane A2 attract other platelets and cause them to stick to the growing mass of platelets that are stuck to the collagen in the broken vessel. In the formation of a blood clot, a soluble protein called fibrinogen is converted into insoluble threads of fibrin. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme thrombin. Thrombin is derived from prothrombin, its inactive precursor, by either an intrinsic or extrinsic pathway.
1) The intrisic pathway, the larger of the two, requires the activation of more clotting factors. 2) The extrinsic pathway, the shorter of the two, is initiated by the secretion of tissue thromboplastin. The clotting sequence requires Ca2+ as a cofactor and phospholipds present in the platelet cell membranes.
Coagulation is fibrin formation.
The three steps are: prothrombin activator formation (Xa), thrombin formation, and fibrin formation.
In certain personality instruments, the masculinity dimension contains items reflecting assertiveness, boldness, dominance, self-sufficiency, and instrumentality. The femininity dimension contains items that reflect nurturance, expression of emotions,
In certain personality instruments, the masculinity dimension contains items reflecting assertiveness, boldness, dominance, self-sufficiency, and instrumentality. The femininity dimension contains items that reflect nurturance, expression of emotions, and empathy. Those persons who scored high on both dimensions are labeled androgynous, to reflect the notion that a single person can possess both masculine and feminine characteristics.
allosteric modulator
Bind to an enzyme away from the binding site and change the shape of the active site
What does the thyroid gland secrete
tetraiodothyroning (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) as well as calcitonin
parasympathetics; sympathetics
this system has no effect on the vasculature system while this system does
What hormone peaks at the end of the follicular phase?
Excess of Lipids?
Acetyl CoA is converted into fatty acid;
Stored in liver and adipose tissue
Function of the Kidneys
• Regulate water balance and plasma volume• Directly regulate blood pressure• Function to regulate ion concentration in the blood  regulates the pH of blood (through H+ ion concentration)• Gets rid of toxic substances in the body• Gets rid of food additives and drugs• Produces hormone called Erythropoietin• Erythropoietin is secreted when oxygen levels in the blood are low (low PO2  erythropoietin is released and goes to the bone marrow to stimulate the production of more Red blood cells.• Release of renin when the blood pressure is very low (renin causes the conversion of angiotensin into angiotensin II)
consider and artery with .1mm radius. indicate whether blood pressure and blood velocity would be hi, low or intermediate under the following conditions:
intermediate for both
Glycolipids (5%)
found on the outer layer: (CHO + phospholipid)
hypersecretion (causes)
- can be primary (abnormal gland) or secondary (due to the deficiency of the hormone's tropic hormone)
cushings disease
- protein wasting and loss of tissue support due to excess cortisol; cortisol uses up proteins that make up vessel walls therefore vessel walls are weaker
Describe descending tracts
Converge on alpha motor neurons via interneuronsAlpha motor neurons can be excited by stimulation or disinhibition
What also stimulates follicle cells (pathological)?
TSI - Grave's disease
dendrites carry what kind of potentials? rememebr it is on the RECEPTIVE region
what is antiport?
two molecules move at some time in opposite direction
Distinguish between isotonic, isometric, and eccentric contractions:
Isotonic- When the tension produced by the shortening muscle is just greater than the force at each value, causing the muscle to shorten
Isometric- When the force opposing the contraction of the muscle is so great that the muscle can't shorten
Eccentric- When the force exerted on a muscle is greater than the force of muscle contraction. The muscle will lengthen despite its contraction.
Upper airway Infections:
Obstruction in upper airway due to infection exerts its greatest effect during inspiration, air movement through vocal cords during inspiration causes stridor; during expiration, causes wheezing.
Luteinizing homrone (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)are released in response to
release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus
Does emphysema accompany an increased or decreased compliance of the lungs?
Increase (inverse relationship b/t compliance and elastance).
A ________ is a subthreshold change in membrane potential within the cell body that decays as it travels away from its point of origin. 233) _____ A) hyperpolarization B) action potential C) depolarization D) polarization E) graded potential
E) graded potential
where do SNS synapses take place?
in paravetebral sympathetic trunk region
what are type IIa fibers used for?
used for intermediate activity
vastus lateralis (in thigh)
GH is released from _______ and stimulated by ______ and prohibited by _______. They are both secreted from:
pituitary; GHRH; GHIH; hypothalamus
What does NHE-3 do?
transport Na in H out to tubule
1.     Name and briefly describe the functions of the four tissue types in the body.
epithelial-consists of epithelia and glands; connective; muscle; nervous.
heart rate, blood vessel diameter, blood pressure
Medulla Respiratory Center- Medulla Oblongata
Physiologic role of AV node?
conducts electric impulses from atria to ventricles, delays impulse to allow ventricular filling, keeps heart stable r/t long refractory period.
law of mass action
the direction of reaction is from the side equation that is higher to side thats lower
Angiotensin convertng enzyme (ACE) located on certain endothelial cells in capillaries cleaves amino acids from angiontensin I to
form angiotensin II, which travels in the bloodstream to the adrenal cortex, where it stiumulates the release of aldosterone into the blood.
Events that generate an action potential at the axon hillock
threshold reaches -55mV by excitatory graded potential changes
positive feed back loop is generated
unleases the inward electrochemical force on Na+
Introduction to Circulatory System:
Circulatory System consists of 3 components...
1. Heart: acts as a pump for blood
2. Blood Vessels: passageways for blood
3. Blood: transport medium
Which of the following is true?    a.    Acromegaly can lead to development of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.    b.    Adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice for primary adrenocortical tumors.     c.    Glucocorticoids are produc
  d.    a and b
2ndry lymphatic organs - where fight happens?largest mass lymph tissue?
spleen, lymph nodes, lymphatic nodulesSPLEEN
Graded potentials spread from point of _______(_______) as they move ___.
original simulus, dendrite, down neuron
what are causes of hepatitis
- autoimmune disorders- rxns to drugs and toxins- secondary to other infections (malaria, monoculeosis, etc.)- hepatotropic viruses
Main action of growth hormone
Makes muscle and adipose resistant to glucose, increases gluconeogenesis
What is a layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrate animals that reflects visible light back through the retina, increasing the light available to the photoreceptors.
Tapetum Lucidum
What external stimulus will activate single unit smooth muscle?
contracts in response to stretch, so it can be activated in the absense of nerve activity through spontaneous pacemaker cells that produce phasic contractions through the muscle(myogenic activity)
What ionic events are responsible for how actino potentials are recorded from contractile heart cells differ from action potentials recorded from conductile heart cells?
Prepotential of conductile is from less potassium leakage and more retained in cell.
What is Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)?
The GABA receptor is ligand-gated Cl- channe, and its activation produces inhibitory post-synaptic potentials by increasing the influx of Cl- ions. This receptor is composed of 2 alphas, 1 gamma, 1 beta, and 1 delta. It causes IPSPs.
how much energy is stored in:
mixed lipids
mixed carbs
mixed proteins
(give in kcal AND kJ per gram)
kcal per gram; kJ per gram
lipids: 9.4; 40
carbs: 4; 17
protein: 4.5; 20
skeletal muscles have what kinds of receptors? What's the gate?
Cholinergic - Nicotinic receptors; ACh gated Na+ - Ligand channels
Polarity is a result of…
The shape of a molecule and a characteristic of uneven electron sharing
what drugs might induce thrombocytopathia
- aspirin and other NSAIDS bc they inhibit TxA2 production- clopitogrel/ticlopidine bc they inhibit ADP- GPIIb/GPIIIa inhibitors bc they block the receptor
What are they converted to in the kidney?
1,25-OH-vitamin D (biologically active form)
What is apoptosis? Why does it occur? How is the immune system able to use it to destroy cells?
programmed cell death, cascading effect, mechanism by which the organism rids itself of agin, infected, damaged,mutated, or excessive cells; controlled breakdown of cellular components, cytoplasm shrink with out membrane rupture
Describe the effects of temperature on enzyme catalyzed reactions:
At 0oC the reaction is immesurably slow, and as the temperature increases the rate of the reaction increases, but only to a cartain point.  A few degrees above 37oC it plateaus, and above that it decreases the rate of the reaction.
What is the Autonomic Nervous System responsible for?
Areas w/i the brainstem control the breathing and heart rate, blood pressure and flow, digestive system secretion and movement, and other function in which changes occur automatically and are not typically under control
Which of the following statements about glucose cotransport with sodium is true? 61) ______ A) Sodium moves out of the cell, but the movement of glucose will vary based on the type of cell. B) Glucose moves out of the cell while sodium moves into the cell
D) Glucose and sodium both move into the cell.
how do lizards or snakes attain tidal flow via negative pressure breathing?
expansion and contraction of rib cage
intrinsic pathway of the clotting cascade
- 7 steps: all elements found in blood; blood vessel damage- meets extrinsic pathway at factor x
Discuss the dual significance of tissue/interstitial Ca in cardiac tissues.
The NaCa pump causes an increase in the duration of the action potential. Ca also works with actin and myosin to facilitate muscle contraction.
How can carbon atoms bond with each other, and with the atoms of hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen?
They form single or double covalent bonds forming a "backbone" which allows them to bond with other atoms to form organinc molecules.  They usually form hyrocarbon chains or rings which attach more reactive functional groups, usually containing oxygen, nitrogen or phosphorous.
As an action potential is propagated away from the axon hillock, propagation continues in one direction only because ________. 265) _____ A) they will travel the path of least resistance B) the region just behind the action potential is in the absolute re
B) the region just behind the action potential is in the absolute refractory period
how is food prevented from entering wrong passagways
- closing of glottis by tilting of epiglottis: preventing food from entering respiratory tract- elevation of uvula: preventing food from entering nasal passages
Draw a graph representing the effects of changes in pH on the rate of enzymatic reactions:
Enzymes work in the pH optimum for the specific enzyme.  If pH is changed to where it is no longer in that range, its reaction rate decreases.
lamin propria of the mucosa in the GIT wall
- middle layer of connective tissue, small blood vessels, nerve fibers, lymph ducts
Correct order of conduction through heart.
SA node > AV node > Bundle of His > Bundle branches
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