physiology test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
big liver
depolarizing postsynaptic potential
where is bile secreted?
inhibitory postsynaptic potential: hyperpolarizing graded potential that arises in postsynaptic neuron in response to activation of inhibitory synaptic endings upon it
made of smaller parts
body temperature is controlled by?
1.             What is the relationship of the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary?  How is it different from the relationship of the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary?
What are platelets derived from?
ALL PSNS neurons are _____
Middle Ear
Malleus, Incus and Stapes.
Mineralocorticoids, Androgens and Glucocorticoids are produced in the what?
Adrenal Cortex
Movement through respiratory passages to and from the lung into the lungs
Acetylcholine is an __________ neurotransmitter.
- cell volume is inversely proportionate to concentration of impermeable solutes- predicts how cell volume will change
Epithelial cells
selective secretion and absorption, protection
Brain chemicals, such as enkephalins and endorphins, that regulate the activity of neurons.
any chemical reaction that involves the transformaton of materials that enter the reaction
IPSP: Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials are an influx of negative charge that cause hyperpolarizations that inhibit APs
EPSP: Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials are influxes of positive charge that can initiate an AP at the axon hillock
Trancellular Transport
Moving molecules through epithelial cells
Type A has ___ antigens
A antigens
structural base of nucleic acid consisting of three components: a nitrogen-containing base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group
brain part that processes sensory information to coordinate movements
Active process. Diaphragm and external inter costal muscles  contract.
Lung volume increases----> lung pressure decreases
lungs contract (air rushes in)
volume increases in thoracic cavity
diaphram drop downward
The functional connection between a neruon and a second cell
basal nuclei- inhibit muscle tone, coordination of slow movement,suppression of useless movement patternsCerebral cortex- sensory,voluntary movement, language, personality, thinking-memory
Primary area responsible for the control of ventilation
What are poly-saccharides good for?
Starch and fiber
movement of molecules of a substance through a cell membrane from greater
Use the diagram of a branched metabolic pathway to show how end-product inhibition will affect the concentration of different intermediates.
    What is the stimulus for parathyroid hormone release?  If the parathyroid glands were removed, would it cause hypocalcemia or hyercalcemia?  Why?
Basis of specificity
Nervous System: Receptors on postsynapic target cellEndocrine System: Receptors on target celsl throughtout the body
Gray matter
cell bodies and unmyelinated portions of nerve fibers which have gray appearance
G protein
Membrane proteins that couple membrane receptors to ion channels or membrane enzymes
acid in digestive system that absorbs fat from food
pointed of central focus in retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.
Diabetes Insipidus:
characterized by large amounts of severely diluted urine, denotes kidney’s inability to concentrate urine. - caused by defiency or kidney insensitivity to ADH
cAMP (Cyclic AMP)
Intracellular second messenger that mediates the effects of the first (extracellular) messenger (hormone or neurotransmitter), formed from ATP by a plasma membrane enzyme (adenylate cyclase)
double helical protein that covers the myosin binding site on actin during the resting state
T/Fglucagon is often described as a hypoglycemic hormone
non-myelating Schwann cells that form supportive capsules around nerve cell bodies located in ganglia
Satellite Cells
variation from normal rhythym of the heart
- matures over 24-48hrs to mature rbcs- high reticulocyte numbers = increased erythropoiesis
Motor nerves are what kind of nerves?
Defense Mechanisms
Innate (non specific) immunity Defense mechanisms not influenced by prior exposureAcquired (specific immunity) B and T lymphocytes attack specific antigens
venous return
as venous capacity increases venous return decreases lowers effecting circulating volume
One molecule of __________ has the capacity to bind a maximum of 4 molecules of oxygen.
a person concerned primarily with the physical and social environment, a person whose attention is directed outward, not towards inner feelings
What is micturition?
Enter your back text here.
another important co-transport is?
sodium-potassium - two chloride
(all moving in same direction) 
How are smooth muscle contractions regulated?
Through excitation-contraction coupling; Ca2+ passes through voltage gated channels in the plasma membrane as it enters the cytoplasm and binds to calmodulin. The calmodulin-Ca2+ complex then binds with myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) by removing a phosphate group. The activated MLCK in turn, phosphorylates the myosin light-chains, thereby activating the crossbridges to cause contraction. Contraction is ended when myosin phosphatase becomes activated. Upon its activation, myosin phosphatase removes the phosphates from the myosin light-chains and thereby inactivates the crossbridges.
Pleural Cavities
each pleural cavity surrounds one lung and a small amount of fluid
Enzym-linked receptors
function both as enzymes and as receptors - the receptor side faces the interstitial fluid and teh enzyme side faces the cytosol
Water channels
also called aquaporins - allow only water to pass through - do not allow solutes to pass through
What do eosinophils do?
defend against parasitic worms, contain toxic molcules
substrate level phosphorylation
when adp is directly phosphorylated during glycolysis (refers to the 4 atp produced in glycolysis)
Define Microglia
which migrate through the CNS and phagocytose foreign and degenerated material.
 What are the approximate percentage values for water among the cytosol, interstitial fluid, and blood plasma?
What are the major intracellular and extracellular cations and anions?
Cytosol: h20=67%
Major Cation: K+
Major anion: proteins
Osmolarity: 300 mOsm
ISF/BloodPlasma : H20 = 33%
Major cation: Na+
Major anion: Cl-
Osmolarity : 300 Osm
any salt containing HCO3-. a salt of carbonic acid, containing the HCO 3 −1 group; an acid carbonate, as sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO 3
Molecular anatomy
Study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level (what cell is composed of: nucleic acid, proteins, carbs, fats, inorganic molecules)
all free nerve ending, PAIN, A delta and C fiber
throid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
- thryotropin- tropic- stimulates the secretion and growth of the thyroid gland
Your female friend recently got married and changed her last name to that of her husband. You are having difficulty remembering her new last name because of \ 
 pro-active interference.  
Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can damage the eye's optic nerve and result in vision loss and blindness. Glaucoma occurs when the normal fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises. However, with early treatment, you can often protect your eyes against serious vision loss.
A group of axons traveling together in the CNS
Smooth muscle cell description
spindle-shaped cells with single nucleus, usually arranged in sheets within muscle, dense bodies containing same protein found in Z-lines, single-unit/multi-unit. less developed sarcoplasmic reticulum but it is in contact with plsma membrane. caveolae-membrane lipid rafts for extracellular communication.
2 reducing equivalents produces within the mitochondria during the Krebs cycle
Minute Ventilation
amount of air inspired each minute V(m)V(m) = V(t) x f = 500 x 12
oncogenes what are they?
genes that inhibit cell development can inhibit or promote cancer
Where is the epicardium found?
Outer layer of endothelial cells
Function of the Blood
Oxygen and carbondioxide transport
(5 milllion per cc)
Nutrient and waste transport
Tempature regulation
Maintains Osmotic Pressure
Acid/Base Balance
Clotting (hemostatsis) mechanism
Immune System
If the inside and outside of the cell have equal numbers of positive and negative charges, we say the membrane voltage is
What is Hypocalcemic tetany?
to little Calcium which causes membrane depolarization

Hypothesis 1:
- cold or over exercise causes afferent AP from muscle to spinal cord causing muscle reflex contraction
- the contraction further stimulates afferent AP's to the spinal cord = sets up a positve feedback loop
One way that membrane surface area is increased in absorptive cells is through increasing the ________ of the apical membrane.
D) folding
a raise in right atrial pressure, and right ventricular pressure =
pulmonic stenosis
Motor end plate
The folded portion of the sarcolemma in close contact with the synaptic ending of the axon terminal.
the gap junction- fused pre and post synaptic membrane that allows an action potential to pass directly from one neuron to the next
Somatic Nervous System
One neuron between CNS and effector organ Motor neuron Effector organ = skeletal muscle Voluntary controlNeurotransmitter = acetylcholine
GERD mortality
- 1,000 deaths (1984-88); rate is low (1/100,000) not very significant; morbidity bigger issue
RBC Morphology
What is the name of the cell that serves as the stem cell for all other RBCs
Ploripontent (uncommitted) stem cell
Type of arrangement that is found in blood vessels, GI tract, uterus
Visceral muscles
sensory pathway= i neuron longintegrated pathway= variablemotor= 1) somatic = 1 nueron 2) autonomic= 2 neuron long
How many neurons long?Sensory, integrated, motor
vital function
any function of the body that is essential for life
the submucosal plexus controls _____?
GI secretion and local blood flow
An increase in carbon dioxide concentration drives the reaction to the right producing
more hydrogen and bicarbonate ions
Significance of blood brain barrier
Selectivel inhibit what can get through endothelial cells to brain
What are the two types of memory?
declarative and procedural memory
acetyl coA is the precursor to many molecules such as.......
ketone bodies
fatty acids: phospholipids, glycerides
which of the following is most likely to produce the greatest increase in glucagon secretionamino acids
amino acids and glucose
glucose and somatostatin
amino acids and somatostatin
     amino acids
Inflammation response:
In a cut the area becomes red, hot, and can swell.• Cause by vasodilation from histamine• Mast cells produce the histamine• Neutrophils enter the injured area after about an hour. Remove dead cells dirt...etc. Prevents other microbes from getting into other areas of the body• Get macrophages wandering through the body looking for bacteria
Limits of Gene Knockout Method
• Most behaviors are determined by multiple genes• Eliminating one gene usually alters the expression of other genes• Gene expression is dependent on experience which may be altered by the absence of a missing gene. • Key assumption in mapping the living brain• During a cognitive activity, there are parts of the brain that are working harder in comparison to other parts of the brain. Therefore it will use up more energy (glucose), oxygen, and generate more activity (more electrical activity) in relation to other brain parts.
Sacral nerves do what
ssociated with the genitals and lower digestive tract.
pancreatic enzyme: lipase
- fat substrate- fx is to convert triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides
Ears: Hearing and Balance
pitch discrimination:
 pitch discrimination: high pitched sounds cause the basilar membrane closer to the oval window to vibrate maximally; low pitched sounds cause the basilar membrane closer to the apex to vibrate maximally
hair cells have "hairs" embedded in the tectorial membrane; when basilar membrane vibrates, the pull on the hairs opens ion channels à à neurotransmitter release à action potential in the associated sensory neuron à à à temporal lobe of the brain
Ventricular systole ST segment
aortic valve opens, blood ejected into aorta from ventricles , atria in dystole
How is methemoglobin formed?
When iron in hemoglobin is oxidized by nitriles or sulfonamides. Incapable of binding oxygen
Describe the components of monosynaptic muscle stretch reflexes:
1) Passive stretch of a muscle (produced by tapping its tendon) stretches the spindle (intrafusal fibers). 2) Stretching of a spindle distorts its central (bag or chain) region, which stimulates dendritic endings of sensory nerves. 3) Action potentials are conducted by afferent (sensory) nerve fibers into the spinal cord on the dorsal roots of spinal nerves. 4) Axons of sensory neurons synapse with dendrites and cell bodies of somatic motor neurons located in the ventral horn grey matter of the spinal cord. 5) Efferent nerve impulses in the axons of somatic motor neurons (which form the ventral roots of spinal nerves) are conducted to the ordinary (extrafusal) muscle fibers. These neurons are alpha motoneurons. 6) Release of ACh from the endings of alpha motoneurons stimulates the contraction of the extrafusal fibers, and thus of the whole muscle. 7) Contraction of the muscle relieves the stretch of its spindles, thus decreasing activity in the spindle afferent nerve fibers.
What are the common sites of metastasis of bronchogenic carcinomas?
brain, bone & liver
What hormones are produced in the hypothalamus?
1.)oxytocin 2.) ADH (antiduiretic hormone) 3.) PRH (prolactin releasing hormone)4.) PIH(dopamine)(prolactin inhibiting hormone)5.) TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone)6.) CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone)7.) GHRH (Growth hormone releasing hormone)8.) GHIH (somatostatin) (Growth hormone inhibiting hormone)9.) GnRH Gonadotropin releasing hormone
Gas exchange
-PO2 in air is .21, CO2 is 0-PO2 in alveolar blood is 40, CO2 is 47-PO2 equilibrates at 100-PCO2 equilibrates at 40
Control of respiration (voluntary and involuntary control)
1. Voluntary control from the cerebral cortex2. Autonomic control from the Medulla/pons
during the cardiac cycle, when is intraventricular pressure the highest? lowest?
when are systolic and diastolic bp measured?
intraventricular pressure is the highest right before the semi-lunar valves open and blood is ejected from the ventricles
intraventricular pressure is the lowest after the ventricular blood is ejected and the ventricles are relaxing but blood has yet to start passively filling the ventricles yet
systolic blood pressure is measured during the ejection phase when the pressure in the arteries is at it's highest due to all the blood being pumped through it
diastolic blood pressure is measured right before the ejection phase and it is the arterial BP at this point
causes of acute adrenal crisis
- addison's disease plus exposure to illness or stress- adrenal hemorrhage due to trauma, anticoagulants, adrenal vein thrombosis, adrenal metastases, meningococcal septicemia
1.     Describe the steps in how the Na+/K+ ATPase pump works
Non phosphorated carrier is attracted(affinity) to Na. the carrier undergoes posphorylation which changes the conformation and decreases its attraction to Na and increase its attraction to K. P1 is removed (dephosphorylation) and the carrier returns to its original conformation and loses its attraction to K.
How does PTH affect phosphate levels?
Decreases them; it’s the Phosphate Trashing Hormone
Before the discovery that most gastric ulcers are caused by a bacterium (H. pylori), it was thought that they were caused by the oversecretion of HCl brought on by stress, spicy foods, and alcohol. A vagotomy (severing part of the vagus nerve) used to be
stong contractions of stomach-sweeps away large left overs that couldn't be over- when extremly hungry
What are the receptors which sense muscle tension?
Nuclear bag fibers (in muscle spindle)
CO = HR x SV
the rate at which the ventricles pump blood depends on the heart rate and the volume of blood pumped in each heart beat
What is the sequence to phosphorylate myosin?
1.) high Calcium2.) Calcium activates calmodulin3.) Calmodulin activates MLCK4.) which triggers the contraction
Which of the following statements best describes the release of a lipophilic messenger? 127) _____ A) Lipophilic messengers are stored in vesicles and released by simple diffusion in response to a stimulus. B) Lipophilic messengers are stored in vesicles
D) Lipophilic messengers are released immediately upon synthesis by simple diffusion
Adding particles to water leads to:
1.  An increase in Freezing point
2. An increase in boiling point
3. A decrease in Vapor Pressure
4.  An increase in Osmotic Pressure
overview of the thyroid gland
- lies over the trachea, below larynx- two lobes of endocrine - regulates overall basal metabolic rate- tissue "butterfly"- major secretory cells are the follicular cells- also contain C cells
What is total peripheral resistance?What causes the resistance?
TPR is the resistance to the ejections of blood from the ventricleTPR is due to the diameter of the arteries
Name Mechanisms that do not need a protein to enable their processes.
1) Diffusion2) Osmosis3) Endocytosis4) Pressure Driven Flow
If levels of potassium, sodium are low what could be happening?
action potentials not working, so muscles may not be working, nervous system not working etc.
Describe the nature of ionic bonds:
It is when one or more valence electrons of one atom are completely transferred to a second atom.  This is a weak bond, but not the weakest.
What is the end plate potential?
The binding of ACH reasulting in the graded depolarization of the muscle cell.
What mechanisms aid the young embryo move toward the uterus?
- the young embryo is propelled toward the uterus by action of the cilia of the mucosal lining and by contractions of the oviduct - 4 days to do this
Where are the 43 PNS nerves
12 cranial, 12 thoracic, 8 cervical, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
Calculation of Clearance
Cx = (Ux x V) / PxCx = clearanceUx = urine concV = urine flow ratePx = plasma conc
in order to be a true transporter what does it need?
a way to block the transport
What is the effect of low vitamin K on clotting factors?
they can not be produced
Blood flows from the atrium to the ventricles (P wave)
The AV valve opens, semilunar valves are closed.70% of blood flows passively (high to low) into the ventricles from the atria. Other 30% enters into the ventricles when the atria contract (30% atrial systole).
What is the effect of a carotid massage?
It increases the pressure in the carotid artery, increases the stretch of the baroreceptors, and leads to a decrease in heart rate.
What is neonatal respiratory distress syndrome?
It is a condition due to the lack of surfactant which causes atelectasis/difficulty inflating the lungs. Fetal synthesis of surfactant is variable, usually b/t 24-35 weeks.
what is a way with calcium that will cause tetani?
if calcium can't be pulled back into sarcoplasmic reticulum
decreased wbcs
• Proteins• Produced by transcription/translation• Speed up rate of reaction by 1010• Can be released in an inactive form – this form breaks down proteins and is called proteolytic enzymes (proteases) – inactive so they do not breakdown the stomach wall• Most enzymes end in “ase” – exceptions are pepsin, tropsin• Must have optimal conditions for enzymes to function  body temp 37ºC• If over 37ºC the enzyme breaks down, below this temp can not function• Must have optimal pH of 7 (exception – pepsin functions at pH of 2)
what stimulates gastric juice?
anatomically specialized junction between 2 neurons where electrical activity in one neuron influences excitability of second.
substance dissolved in liquid
when gastoesophageal sphincter does not relax satisfactorily it is called?
     What is the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis?
The major neurotransmitter for positive incentives is?
Where are SNS nerve roots?
what disease causes cor pulmonale?
Luteinizing hormone found in?
Anterior pituitary
Light sensing neurons become what?
Spatial summation
Multiple neurons firing simultaneously, bringing the next neuron to threshhold
Into, greater
Sodium moves ____ cell.Its concentration gradient is ____ outside than inside.
aggregation of single type of specialized cells (cellular fabric part of organ)
Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron.
involves the production of large molecules from smaller reactants
Cytosolic adenylate cyclase activity following increased adrenergic input  to a2 receptors.
increased adrenergic input to a2 receptors increases a2 receptor activity,
a2 receptors inhibit adenylate cyclase
Link sensory, somatic, and autonomic nerves within
process by which lymphocyte proliferates and differentiates in response to specific Ag
clonal selection
pinocytosis process
"cell drinking" endosome formed contains liquid
Autonomic Nervous System
Involuntary part of NS
Types of Hormones
Peptide or protein hormones
cholesterol-derived hormones
-Used by sympathetic neruons in PNS-Varied effect depending on organ- Involved in behavioral arousal in CNS (fight or flight)
temperature on arteriloes
local heat causes vasodilation
Primary function of renal system
filter plasma
What are examples of di-saccharides?
sucrose, lactose,and maltose
Stressors that are sensed by various body systems
What are the two phases of breathing?
In some places in the body norepinephrine can cause smooth muscle contraction and in other places it can cause smooth muscle relaxation.  How can the same neurotransmitter have opposite effects
Duration of effect
Nervous system: BriefEndocrine system: Long
Group of many nerve fibers traveling together in PNS
signal transduction
The transmission of information from one side of a membrane to the other using membrane proteins
two categories of cofactors
1. metal ions
2. coenzymes
Where is visual information transmitted from retina
Primary visual cortex
Uterus: site of development of a fertilized ovum, organ of pregnancy
Wave Summation
Phenomenon seen when another stimulus is applied to a muscle before the previous relaxation period is complete, resulting in a stronger contraction. In muscle physiology, also called wave summation. May be due to more calcium in stimulated muscle cells.
prepare a graph of treppe contraction, incomplete tetanic contraction and tetanic contraction
NOTE: in the diagram given the graph of "summation" is the same as a treppe contraction graph
high levels of physical activity beyond the anaerobic (ie without oxygen) threshold results in the production of this organic acid in the tissues
lactic acid
Pain is _____ compared to musles positioning.
myasthenia gravis
an autoimmune disease that causes severe muscle weakness-causes the destruction of ACh before it can be used-treat it by administering a drug that prolongs the existence of ACh long enough to stimulate a sufficient action potential
- substrate: fat- action: converts triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides
Sensory nerves are what kind of nerves?
Rapid response- move from blood t damaged tissue
histamine release
when tissue damaged histamine released causing vasodilation
Oxygen consumption is greater than energy demand during the post-exercise phase of ________.
oxygen debt
proceeding from or dependent on a conditioning of the individual; learned or acquired behavior patterns
When a protein loses it shape and hence its functioning , it said to be.....
the cell membrane of the muscle fiber is called?
Of the three, which has the greatest influence?
Body Cavities
spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support organs
G Protein-Linked Receptors
work by activating special membrane proteins called G proteins - G proteins are located on the intracellular side of the plasma membrane
If transport of molecules across a membrane requires energy is this active transport or passive transport
Active transport
What directs the emotions to approach or avoid something?
cerebral cortex
what metabolite does the liver run on?
fatty acids
Define Satellite Cell
which support and surround neuron cells bodies within the ganglia of the PNS.
Osmosis plays a role in the transport of water from the proximate convoluted tubule. Yet, the tubule, intersitial fluid, and blood plasma all remain at about 300 mOsm solution.
Explain this apparent contradiction in physiological rules that we have
Specialized branches of anatomy
pathology, radiology, and molecular anatomy
Graded potential
confined to small part of plasma membrane, magnitude changes and , three names; receptor potential, synaptic potential, and pacemaker potential
growth hormone (GH)
- somatotropin- [increased] even in adults- regulates overall body growth- important in intermediary metabolism- liver production of simatonedins- some consider GH tropic
An electrical potential that increases the likelihood that a post-synaptic neuron will fire is called an
excitatory post-synaptic potential.
rods: vision in low light; no color vision, images are fuzzy (low visual acuity)
rod photopigment is rhodopsin, consists of opsin and retinene
light causes 11-cis-retinene to become all-trans-retinene and dissociate from opsin (bleaching of the photopigment)
free opsin activates a G-protein which eventually leads to an ion channel closing à change in neurotransmitter à graded potential in bipolar cell à action potential in the ganglion cell, whose axon is part of the optic nerve; optic nerve à à occipital lobe of brain
also cause by Clostridium tetani neurotoxin (protease that destroy SNARE proteins in axon terminals that mediate exocytosis of vesicles from inhibitory neurons) prevents release of GABA and Glycine. rigid paralysis (lockjaw)
Nerve (PNS only)
Relaxation of smooth muscle
decrease in cytosolic [Ca2+]MLCK returns to inactive formenzyme myosin phosphate removes phosphate from myosincross-bridge reattachment inhibited
The ___________ system is used to help ensure homeostasis.
How do the pulmonary artery endothelial cells prevent blockages?
1. Fibrinolysis2. Activate inflammatory cascade3. Cause leakage of plasma into the lung's interstitial tissue
DNA to RNA is calledRNA to Protien is called
Describe the regulation of adrenal cortex secretion:
Mineralcorticoids (ex. aldosterone) regulate K+ and Na+ balance by stimulating the kidneys to retain Na+ and water, while excreting K+ in the urine. This increases blood volume and pressure and regulates electrolyte balance. Glucocorticoids- regulate balance of metabolism and glucose; stimulates gluconeogenesis and inhibits glucose utilization which helps raise blood glucose level and promotes lipolysis. Sex steroids- supplement the sex steroids secreted by the gonads; weak androgens.
Auto Immunity Occurs When?
1. T-Cells react with hidden tissues.
2. MHCI proteins become defective.
3. Body tissues "cross reaction" with old antigens and stimulate antibody production.
What types of passive transport are there
simple diffusionfacilitated diffusiondiffusion through ion channels
What does the zona fasciculata produce?
metabolic hormones called glucocorticoids.EX cortisol

Blood Pressure:
Short term regulation of blood pressure...

-Baroreceptor Reflex-
(Location of 2 most important, Usual Reflex Arch, Baroreceptors constantly fire APs)
Location of two most important: (Fig. 14.27)
1. Aortic arch
2. Coratid sinus
Usual reflex arch:
1. receptor
2. afferent pathway
3. integrating center (cardiovascular control in medulla)
4. efferent pathway (autonomic nervous system)
5. receptor organ
Baroreceptors constantly fire AP's:
1. When BP goes up, AP frequency increases
2. When BP goes down, AP frequency decreases (Fig. 14.28)
The concentration of sodium is greater in the extracellular fluid compared to the intracellular fluid. If the membrane potential was equal to the equilibrium potential for sodium, then what would be the direction of the electrochemical force acting on sod
E) no force
a murmur of mitral valve regurgitation is what kind of murmur?
a systolic murmur
One of two major steps in the transfer of genetic code information, in which the information carried by mRNA is decoded and used to assemble polypeptides.
2 ways neurotransmitter can be derived
Axon Terminal and DNA
referred pain consists of....
visceral pain being perceived as somatic. EX heart attack
three segments of the small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
blood transfusion rxns are an example of ______
immune system diseases
When an action potential is generated in the muscle fiber, --- are released from the ----- and interact with the troponin
Ca ionsSarcoplasmic reticulum
1) sensory2) integrative3) motor (somatic/autonomic)
Divisions of autonomic motor neurons
Water lymphatic system
When exchanges occur in the tissues between blood and tissue fluid, water collects in tissues.
-water enters lymphatic vessels which start at the tissues and end at the cardiovascular veins under the clavicles collar bones
Do the slow waves cause flow of calcium?
no-hence no contraction
Where does hemoglobin tend to pick up O2
pulmonary capillary beds
How does myelin work
Myelin speeds conduction by keeping in electrical signal and thereby saves energy and has trophic function in that it is supportive and maintains health of axon
What does cocaine block?
re uptake of Dopamine at presynaptic cells
What happens to permeability and polarization when there is an action potential created?
Na+ permeability increased. This causes the MP to become more positive causing depolarization.
Which statement regarding parathyroid hormone (PTH) is correct?“Parathyroid hormone” is the same thing as “parathormone.”
Hyperparathyroidism typically results from tumors or adenomas of the parathyroid.
High blood Ca2+ decreases  parathyroid gla
All of the above are correct
Transcytosis – (includes Exocytosis & Endocytosis)
• Large lipid solids moving across (into and out of the IF)• Requires ATP
Identical twins (MZ)
Twins that share 100% of genes (One egg was fertilized by 1 sperm)
ANS effects on heart?
Beta 1 and 2 symp-increases heart rate, contractility, and velocity PAra-opposite
D cells
- in PGA; stimulated by acid- but more numerous in duodenum- fx is to inhibit parietal, G, ECL cells- secrete paracrine- somatostatin secreted
Ears: Hearing and Balance
ossicles in middle ear
vibrate (malleus, incus, and stapes)  
1. auditory tube (eustachian tube) for pressure equalization
2. stapes sets up pressure waves in the fluid in cochlea the pressure waves produce vibrations of the basilar membrane
smooth muscle contraction
Ca channels open Ca moves from ECF into ICF activates calmodulin which activates myosin light kinase which activates myosin binds with actin - cross bridge
What are 5 fluid forces that regulate movement into capillaries?
Hydrostatic pressureColloid osmotic pressureAlveolar Surface tensionCapillary permeabilityPulmonary Edema
What are the three major factors that affect stroke volume?
Preload-amount ventricles are stretched by blood before contraction. Contractility-^in cardiac cell contraction forceAfterload-back pressure exerted by blood in the large arteries leaving the heart that must be overcome to eject blood from ventricles
Changes in the quality and pattern of mental activity, with shifts in perceptions, emotions, memory, time sense thinking, feelings of self-control, and suggestibility.
Altered States of Consciousness
What is the difference between isotonic and isometric contractions?
isotonic shortens muscle, and moves load. isometric doesnt.
Frank-Starling Law of the heart
-Heart will pump all of its preload.-Only changes in Intracellular Ca will change contractility)
describe function of ProstateWHAT TYPE OF GLAND IS IT, Endo or Exocrine? What does it do?
exocrine gland that stores and secretes alkaline fluid that is a component of the seminal fluid, which is part of the semen. - contains smooth muscle that helps expel the sperm during ejaculation
what does the PR interval represent
time between atrial and ventricular depolarization
management of DM
- dependent upon type of DM- goal is to prevent long-term complications- diet- exercise- insulin always req. for DM1; may be req'd for DM2 depending on how well it is regulated- oral antidiabetic agents
1.     What is a metabolic pathway?
Sequence of enzymes mediated reactions a->b->c->d
What enzyme does ACTH work on?
Desmolase: convesion of cholesterol to pregnenolone
In order for absorption to occur, what do fats have to be broken down into?
triglercerides and fatty acids
Where is the spinal pattern generator located?
Found in neurons of reticular formation in spinal cord.
lub-dub heart sound
are due to the rush of blood as the valves close
What does hypophyseal portal system pertain to?
the direct blood vessel from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland
The ________ is the portion of a gene that is capable of being bound by a particular hormone-receptor complex that can stimulate alterations in that gene's expression. 130) _____ A) intron B) exon C) hormone response element D) promoter E) nuclear recepto
C) hormone response element
when someone starts running quickly, why does pH decrease then after a couple minutes go back to normal?
how does metabolic fuel change during that time?
initially the body is running on anaerobic glycolysis (not very efficient) this creates the byproduct of CO2 which decreases blood pH
after a while there they start breathing more heavily an increasing the O2 delivery by the CV/pulmanary systems. This switches the metabolic pathway to aerobic glycolysis and beta-oxidation
this also starts allowing the body to breath out all the co2 and then restore pH levels
2 sections that each adrenal gland has
- steroid secreting cortex (outer portion of gland)- catecholamine secreting (epinephrine and norepinephrine) medulla (inner portion)
With what does the strength of contraction vary directly with?
The strength of contraction varies directly with the EDV
What is the 8 Angstrom rule?
Molecules that are polar and bigger than 8 Angstroms cannot move through the cell membrane via simple diffusion
what is a potential problem of bringing glucose into cell?
builds up concentration of glucose in cell, so could flow out
Explain the law of complimentary base pairing:
Adenine can only pair with thymine (through two hydrogen bonds) whereas guanine can only pair with cytosine (through three hydrogen bonds)
All panic attacks occur out of no where
False (they occur out of stress)
What are the signs of pregnancy in humans?
- presence of hCG in maternal blood- ceasing of menstruation
difference between cranial and spinal nerves
spinal are both E/A cranial are either A or E
Tells how much pull or stress a muscle is putting on a tendon
Golgi tendon organs located in juction of a tendon with a muscle
what is one of the problems related to flip-flopping cell membrane?
there is sideness to cell membrane
What is the pathway of action for Growth Hormone releasing hormone? or Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone?
made in hypothalamus travels to ant. p. causes release of of growth hormone (GH)This acts as trophic hormone by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) by the liver
what is fx of white pulp in spleen?red pulp?
white: immunologyred: RBC getting rid of
By using Ca++ current for phase 0 upstroke, the conduction velocity is slowed compared to the fast Na+ upstroke of the ventricular AP. What purpose does this slowed conduction serve?
The AV node then prolongs trasmission from the atria to ventricles, allowing for sufficient filling time.
Blood flow is driven by what in zone 2 of the lungs?
The difference in arterial and alveolar pressures.
why do you do the patellar tendon reflex test?
in order to see neuron and spinal cord pathways are in tact
belly side
beta andrenergic inh
What organ secretes erythropoietin
Varying degrees of light.
Hypothermia can cause
Ventricular fibrillation
examples of cotransport
Na-AA transporter
Na-glucos transporter
Steriods (cholesterol)
Testosterone - Anabolic
(builds muscle)
Cortison - antiflammitory
supress the immune system
What is dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline?
– digest protein (three types)• Trypsinogen activated by enteropeptidase to become trypsin• Chymotrypsinogen activated by trypsin to become chymotrypsin• Procarboxypeptidase activated by trypsin to become carboxypeptidaseProduction of proteases and enzymes stimulated by CCK.
strong aicds and bases
dissociate fast
- subjective sensation from stimulation of medullary vomiting center- often precedes or accompanies vomiting
to stimulate to functional activity
most prevalent cation in the extracellular fluid
Golgi apparatus
modifies and sorts proteins synthesized on rough ER and packages them into secretory vesicles
Most numerous type of glial cell
stimulate formation of the blood brain barrier
protects the brain from many kinds of harmful molecules that might be found in the blood
Helps maintain normal ion concentrations in the ECF in the brain
Other names for______ in muscle:-Plasma membrane-Cytoplasm-Endoplasmic Reticulum
-Sarcolemma-Sarcoplasm-Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Occlusion/ interposition

•Occluded objects look farther away
Types of Membrane Proteins
Transport Proteins
Receptor Proteins
Joining Proteins
Identifying Proteins
control over automatic body functions (e.g., heart rate, breathing)
electrochemical gradients
the combined deifference in concentration and charge; influences mthe distribution and direction of diffusion of ions
SA Node
In right atrium.
Depolarizes to threshold starts AP.
Fastest depolarizer- no stable vaseline membrane potential.
The internodal pathway connects the SA node to the AV node.
Premature beats occur if the heartbeat starts elsewhere--not usually harmful.
nucleic acids
form genetic material, DNA RNA
transfer energy
Merkel's disc detect ---
touch and pressure
The systemic vascular resistance (SVR) is at its minimum at maximal exercise, and the ________ is at its maximum at rest.
The neurotransmitter secreted by the parasympathetic nervous system is...
most polysaccarides function related to cell membrane are involved in what?
identification and recoginition
The intracellular effector in chemical signaling is often
protein kinase
What is the name of the parasympathetic nerve which innervates the heart?
Motives refer to internal states that arouse and direct behavior toward specific objects or goals. A motive is often caused by a deficit, by the lack of something. Motives differ from each other in type, amount, and intensity, depending on the person and his or her circumstances. Motives are based on needs and propel people to perceive, think, and act in specific ways that serve to satisfy those needs.
postsynaptic integration
Multiple signals in a postsynaptic cell combine to create a single integrated signal. If one is excitatory and the other inhibitory they cancel each other out.
Equilibrium potential
the membrane potential that counters the chemical forces acting to move an ion across the membrane, thereby putting the ion at equilibrium
What is Graves’ Disease?
hyperthyroidism, overactive thyroid, can be removed or treated causes bugging eyes
Cardiac Muscle Contraction-iNa-iCa-ito-iK1-iK
-iNa-opens briefly and initiates depolarization-iCa- allows slow influx of Ca-ito-allows slow efflux of K-iK1-Generally only open while resting, aids in repolarization-iK-mainly in charge of repolarization
the ability to respond to a stimulus
NS div into two categories
: a membranous cellular tissue that covers a free surface or lines a tube or cavity of an animal body and serves especially to enclose and protect the other parts of the body, to produce secretions and excretions, and to function in assimilation
Study of structural changes caused by disease (ex: tumor , pus, hemorrhage, hypertrophy)
GH also promotes _____ production of hormones and acts on multiple tissues to cause growth.
insulin stimulation
- increae in blood glucose concentraion increases insulin secretion (brings blood glucose don to a norm. level)- decrease in glucose below normal inhibits insulin secretion (shifts metabolism from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state)- elevated blood AA stimulate insulin secretion- SNS decreases insulin secretion- inadequate insulin action produces DM resulting in hyperglycemia- STUDY FIGURE
(4) Mucosa
Right next to the Lumen
(c) Epithelial cell layer lots of jobs!
S. Intestine--> absorbs nutrients, H2O
Stomach--> secrets digestive enzyme
Esophagus--> protective
Bronchi - para
Bronchiolar smooth muscle CONTRACTION - M3
serves as integrating center for both monosynaptic(ex: pateller reflex or \"knee jerk\") and polysynaptic(withdrawl reflex ex: step on tack or hand on stove) reflex arcs
All food, vitamins, and minerals go through _____ to both enter and exit the body
Structure in balance organ that rolls around determining gravity
a pulsation of the heart, including one complete systole and diastole
gap junctions
made up of connexions. allows 2 cytosols to be connected.Ephatic electrical connections.eletrotonic currents can go from one cell to another. and Depolarization also pass thru. found in cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. allows smooth coordination.
Binding sites within globular heads
site that hydrolyzes ATP
germ layer. muscles, skeletal and jaw aspects, epithelium.
What is calmodulin?  What is its role in the release of neurotransmitters
the ease with which ions flow through a channel
Neurons communicate via two differnt types of electrical signals that result from the opening or closing of gated ion channels
graded potentials
action potentials
chromosomes are aligned in a plane at the middle of the cell
iso: solution with no effect on cell volume
hypertonic: solution has higher osmolarity and therefore draws water out of the cell
hypotonic: solution has lower osmolarity and therefore loses H20 to the cell
50 milliseconds
what is the time for AV delay?
Vascular Spasm
– Blood vessels constrict causing a decrease in blood flow• Caused by chemicals released at the site of the injury
a chemical group or molecule (as a protein) on the cell surface or in the cell interior that has an affinity for a specific chemical group, molecule, or virus
spinothalamic tract (location)
anterolateral system, in front on sides
Two populations of proteins
integral proteins and peripheral proteins
Types of adapting receptors
slow (tonic) and rapid (phasic)
What is Hyperkalemia?
common side effect of potassium sparing diuretics
"Diffusion" of water, high to low H2O concentration
Compare rods vs cones
Rods are: -monochromatic-have high efficiency in dark-bleached in daylight-located in periphery-low acuity- many rods - 1 bipolar cellCones are :-trichromatic-have no efficiency in dark-active in daylight-located in fovea-have high acuity-1 cone - 1 bipolar cell
What does progesterone do for a pregnancy?
Maintains it
The new equation for estimating maximal heart rate from age is _____________.
208-(0.7 x age)
of or pertaining to a digit or finger.
What does cell use to interact with ECF?
cell membrane
A free radical is a
molecule with an unpaired electron
Endoplasmic reticulum (smooth)
site of lipid synthesis and calcium accumulation/release
Name the four functional classes of messengers
Paracrine, Autocrine, Neurotransmitter, Hormone
If the membrane potential of a neuron becomes more negative than it was at rest, then the neuron is hyperpolarized.  In this state, the neuron is what
less excitable
ADP1,3 diphosphate --> ATP+Pi. What is this?
Substrate level phosphorylation
how many atp produced per pair of e- going through the e.t.c?
Neuron vs. Nerve
Neuron: a cell that conducts impulses
Nerve fiber: extension from a neuron                      ie.. axons and dendrites Nerve:   a bundle of fibers, looks like a cord
F(X) of the nephron:(3)
1. filtration2. reabsorption3. secretion
Transverse tubule
any of the small tubules which run transversely through a striated muscle fiber and through which electrical impulses are transmitted from the sarcoplasm to the fiber's interior
What does restrictive/less complaint lung do to vital capacity?
decreases (can't inhale as much)
intense mechanical stimulus is detected by
nociceptor, mechanical free nerve endings
mild chronic ulcerative colitis
- most common, mild diarrhea, cleeding, minimal systemic signs
What NTs fall into the classification of monoamines?
Epinephrine(adrenaline), Dopamine, Seratonin, Melatonin..Monoamine is a broad category that includes catecholamines
2 proteins that help regulated the cross bridge / actin connection
Tropomyosin and troponin
Norepinephrine synthesis/degradation (presynaptic and target cells)/diffusion
tyrosine enters nerve terminal > DOPA > dopamine > NENE stored in vesicles complex with ATP and released when AP increases Ca2+ entry into nerve ending.binds to receptor.presynaptic: uptake by active pump mechanism (uptake-1) which is inhibited by cocaine and tricyclic antidepressants. NE metabolized by enzyme MAOtarget cells: uptake-2 pump that is not sensitive to cocaine. NE metabolized by enzyme COMT.diffusion-detectable in plasma (also metabolized in liver)
action in response to a stimulus of a system, a nerve or a muscle
Sodium and Calcium
Closing of ___ or ___ channels will create an IPSP response.- Chloride- Potassium- Sodium- Calcium
Filtration occurs where
in the renal corpuscle
it is the bulk of flow of protein-free plasma from the glomerus into Bowman's capsule
What kinds of cells have membrane potentials?
Electrogenic pumps create concentration gradients and thus membrane potentials (nerve cells have membrane potentials)
Do alpha and beta adrenergic receptors cause relaxation or contraction?
alpha contraction, beta relaxation
what is the breakdown of the 3 main compartments of body fluid?
intracellular/cytosolic: 63%
interstitual: 30%
blood plasma: 7%
distinguish between the two types of sympathetic ganglionic chains
paravertibral ganglia (sympathetic trunk) lie next to the vertibral column (one per side
prevertibral chain forms one plexus in front of the aorta.
Mechanical digestion in the stomach
• Churning that occurs in the stomach causes the food to mix with gastric juices• Mixture is called Chyme
when intra-alveolar pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure, what happens?
air is forced out = expiration
Direct Electrical Stimulation of the Carotid Artery
Implant electrodes near peripheral terminals
Electrically stimulate them directly
High frequency of stimulation on the peripheral terminals will stimulate parasympathetic and inhibit sympathetic
Some patients= decrease in bp
what are the two pathways of the clotting cascade
- intrinsic- extrinsic
Damage of spinal cord leads to
FLACCID PARALYSIS or weaknessAfter period of spinal shock you will see INCREASED reflexes because of decrease in net inhibitory input to spine by motor tracts
Lungs - reciprocal effects of PNS/SNS
bronchiolar smooth muscle:SNS (NE)- relaxPNS (ACh)- constrict and increase glandular secretions
prior to contraction ATP binds to what in muscle?
head of myocin molecule
How is blood pH regulated?
1. The carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system resists blood pH changes2. If [H+] in blood beings to rise, escess H+ is removed by combining with bicarbonate ions3. If [H+] drops, carbonic acid dissociates, thereby releasing H+
What does the central nervous system acquire the ability to use for energy
The production of ketones is important because during prolonged fasting, the central nervouls system acquires the ability to use ketones for energy, thereby freeing it from some of its dependence on glucose
What are the three ketone bodies?
Acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta hydroxyk buteric acid.
If a negatively charged ion is more concentrated inside the cell, the forces required to balance the chemical gradient would be directed ________. Thus, the equilibrium potential for this ion would be ________ charged. A) inward : positively B) outward :
A) inward : positively
all nerves affecting PSNS come from where?
craniosacral -- Cranial nerves nerves 2-4
Explain how medullary respiratory centers set the “basic rhythm”. 
What is the efferent pathway and what is the effector?
What is a typical respiration rate for a resting individual?
Medullary centers send bursts of APs to the diaphragm which causes it to contract, blah blah
efferent pathway = Phrenic Nerve
effector = diaphragm
12-14 per minutes
hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state of DM
- plasma osmolarity high (> 310 mOsm/L)- blood glucose high (> 600mg/dL)- usually result of insulin resistance in the periphery and increased carb intake and decreased fluid intake- hyperosmolarity draws fluid from ICF to ECF (tissues lose fluid, including brain)- often occurs in elderly b/c loss of thirst response
What does the ceruminous gland produce?
Modified sweat gland that produces earwax
Why does this substance have the highest TF/P?
Its both filtered and secreted
what is main role of renal system?
controls fluids, gets rid of waste
-produces arthrobrevin which signals blood marrow to make rbc's 
What is the only way air can enter the thoracic cavity
through the trachea
external validity or generalizability
saying that research must be done in a labortory
water hammer pulse
this is a high pulse then a no pulse sequence and is seen in patients with aortic regurgitation
a 2-year-old guinea pig has alopecia and is lethargic.  his plasma tsh is low, and increases markedly following trh.  what is the most likely diagnosis
hyperthyroidism due to thyroid tumor
hyperthyroidism due to abnormality in hypothalamus
  hypothyroidism due to hypothalamic abnormality
what is the basis for pulsatile flow?
how is it related to diastolic and systolic bp?
pulsatile flow is the resultant variations in pressure due to the sytoles and diastoles of the heart during the heart cycle.
diastolic bp (max bp prior to ejection phase) is measured at the bottom of one of the pulses in an artery
systolic bp (max bp during ejection) is measured at the top of a pulse
How does SNS effect Ca for Contractility?
activates cAMP pathway, leading to opening of L-type Ca channels
Give two examples of paracrine regulation of blood flowWhat produces paracrine regulators?
1. nitric oxide diffuses into the smooth muscle of the and causes vasodilation2. bradykinin and prostacyclin also cause vasodilation
The endothelium produces several paracrine regulators
The pulmonary or minute ventilation is calculated as the _______________________.
tidal volume times the breathing frequency
The following is a list of several levels of organization that make up the human body: tissue, cell, organ, molecule, organism, organ system. Smallest to largest...
molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Describe aerobic cell respiration of glucose through the Krebs cycle:
Once acetyl coA is formed, the acetic acid subunit (2 carbons long) combines with the oxaloacetic acid (4 carbons long). This forms citric acid (6 carbons long). 2 hydrogens are donated from citric acid, and oxidizes NAD, forming NADH+H. CO2 is released as waste, which forms a-ketoglutaric acid (5 carbons long). Another CO2 is released, and another 2 hydrogens are donated from a-ketoglutaric acid, and oxidizes NAD, forming NADH+H. An H2O is added and GTP phosphorylates ADP into ATP, and 2 hydrogens are donated from succinic acid (4 carbons long) oxidizing FAD, forming FADH2. Succinic acid becomes fumaric acid (4 carbons long) which accepts H2O, becoming maltic acid (4 carbons long). This donates 2 hydrogens to oxidize NAD forming NADH+H, turning maltic acid into oxaloacetic acid (4 carbons long) completeing the turn of the Krebs cycle.
What is compliance as it pertains to the lungs? What is the equation?
Describes the distensibility of the lungs. C=V/P. Compliance is a measure of how volume changes as a result of a pressure change.
Inside the Epithelial Cell of the small intestine
• 2 fatty acids interact with the monoglycerides to form a triglyceride. The triglyceride is coated with a protein to form a structure called a chylomicron (lipoprotein)• Chylomicron diffuses into the lacteal. Lacteal is a lymphatic capillary. Chylomicron will become part of the lymph system (makes lymph look white)• Lymph flows into the thoracic duct and drains into the left subclavian vein
What is the bodies reaction to high salt content?
constrict the afferent part of TGF
Equation for clearance?
Cx = UxV/Px; Cx = clearance of X; Ux = urine concentration of X; Px = plasma concentration of X; V = urine flow rate
what are the products of glycolysis?
2 pyruvates 2 ATP and 2 NADH takes place in cytoplasm
Gray and White Matter, Brain and Spinal cord
Brain: gray outside 6 layers of soma, white inside
Spinal cord: white outside grey inside
which vessels have the highest and lowest average flow velocity (AFV) values?
aorta and vena cava have the highest (aorta=33.33, vc=10.42)
the capillary beds have the lowest flow velocity b/c their cross sectional area is so huge
Leak channels allow what to pass through??
They allow diffusion of NA+ or K+ which sets up the resting membrane potential.
 What happens to the excess Acetyl CoA produced in Lipid Catabolism?
It is broken down into fatty acid and stored as lipids in adipose tissue and the liver
Blood flow is driven by what in zone 3 of the lungs?
The difference in arterial and venous pressures.
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