Physiology test 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
degrade proteins
Allergic responses
internal parasites
surrounds capillaries.
 Collecting duct (drains eventually into the ureter)
Nephron allows us to make a concentrated urine or a dilute urine
blood in capillaries (glomerular capillaries) never enters the nephrons
instead we form filtrate: watery "extract" from the blood.
previous research or logic
Glial Cells in CNS
Ependymal Cells
increases bladder contraction, parasympathomimetic agent binds to muscarinic receptors
These receptors detect pain
arterial pH (homeostatic set point)
structural proteins
Three major roles:
connect membrane to cytoskeleton to retain shape of the cell
create cell junctions that hold cells together
attach cells to extracelluar matrix
Diffusion of neurotransmitter to postsynaptic neuron, binding to receptor.
Commonalities of respiratory and digestive system
Microglia cells
Immune system of CNS
chemical attraction strengh of attraction of a binding site ofa ligand important at the active site.
responds to blood glucose levels
sensory neurons typically run in ____root ganglia?
Neurotransmitters are released from the
axon terminals
Self-Actualization need
Maslow defines self-actualization as becoming "more and more what one idiosyncratically is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming" (1970, p. 46). The pinnacle of Maslow's need hierarchy is the need for self-actualization. While Maslow was concerned with describing self-actualization, the work of Carl Rogers was focused on how people achieve self-actualization.
chemical messengers - molecules that bind to proteins reversibly
Three types of hormones
peptide/protein hormones
steroid hormones
amino-acid derived hormones
Aspirin decreases inflammation by inhibiting the actions of what enzyme? 120) _____ A) lipoxygenase B) protein kinase A C) cyclooxygenase D) phospholipase A2 E) dopa decarboxylase
C) cyclooxygenase
any single episode of demyelination may cause deterioration of affected nerves - T or F
incorporation of substances into a cell by phagocytosis or pinocytosis
what is the cause of acidosis/alkalosis if CO2 levels are off?
multiple stimuli more than additive; total is greater than the sum of the parts - does not have to act on same target tissue.
neurosecretory neurons
- release neurohormones- adrenal glands- also distributed by the bood to target cells- mix between nervous stimulation and endocrine hormone secreted
The semicircular canals and otolith organs are part of the_____apparatus?
Ventricular end diastolic volume is -----.
At rest, the ________ respiratory muscle recruited is the diaphragm.
a person characterized by concern primarily with his or her own thoughts and feelings
the impulse is carried from sacrolema to sacrolemic reticulum through what?
Polysynaptic reflex
Reflex emplying one or more interneurons in its reflex arc (crossed extensor reflex w/ reciprocal innervations)
Red Blood Cells are also known as
Can be a protein, fat, or carbohydrate.
Enzymes turns substrate into product.
One substance opposes the action of another
a group of axons, and associated supporting structures in the PNS
semantic memory
knowledge of language, including its rules, words and meanings
Primary active transporters are unique in their ability to couple the movement of ions directly to ________. 51) ______ A) a channel B) another ion's electrochemical gradient C) ATP D) a carrier protein E) its electrochemical gradient
which part of ear contains receptor cell generating electronic charges in response to sounds?
Extrinsic control - hormones (Histamine)
– causes vasodilation
a microscopic projection of a tissue, cell, or cell organelle ; especially : any of the fingerlike outward projections of some cell surfaces
when the forces resisting stress are decreased, compliance is___
Triple covalent bonds
Three pairs of shared e-
NitrogenN + N ® N2        (N º N)
Fast Pain
A delta, sharp pricking well localized
what results from GI bleeding
- hematemesis- melena
give the tissue tensile strength, the ability to resist stretching
Tubular Proteinuria
Beta-2 microglobulin in urine (and albumin). Endocytotic process impaired due to hypoxic or immunlogical damage.
What does estrogen do to the genitalia?
Calcium release from the SR increases the amount of calcium binding to _________, which in turn, causes tropomyosin to move, thereby exposing myosin binding sites on actin.
Alpha cells in the pancreas make _________
noting a structure for conveying an impulse that results or tends to result in sensation such as a nerve
large amounts of fluid in pericardial space is can lead to what?
cardiac tympanic
Autocrine Signaling
Cell secretes substance that acts upon themselves.
In systemic capillary beds, carbon dioxide diffuses from
cells to the blood
Index Crimes
Serious violations of the law, so called because they are included on official indexes of criminal activity.
The ability of an enzyme or receptor to bind to a particular molecule or a group of closely related molecules
Bundles of axons in the CNS, generally with a common origin and destination
sinus bradycardia
R-R intervals are much loner; vagal stimulation
The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is also known as the ________. 161) _____ A) pineal gland B) adenohypophysis C) melanocyte D) neurohypophysis E) paraventricular nucleus
D) neurohypophysis
common fate
objects that move together are grouped together
ability of body to defend itself against specific Ag
adaptive immunity
Active transport
-The movement of solutes against a concentration gradient using energy-Sodium Potassium ATPase Pump-Most common; found on almost all eukaryotic cells-Maintain low Na and high K in cytosol for protein synthesis-Uses ATP ATPase to phosphorylate protein (P-type ATPase)-Calcium ATPase Pump-Found on ER and Sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells-Maintain low cystolic and high organelle concentration of Ca-P-type ATPase-Hydrogen Potassium ATPase Pump-Found in oxynitic glands in stomach, in colon and collecting ducts in kidney-Pumps H into stomach and urine and absorbs K-P-Type ATPase-Proton ATPase Pump-Found in lysosome and golgi membranes-Pumps H from cytosol to inside of organelles-V-type ATPase
Somatocensory Receptors: Simple Receptors
Neurons with free nerve endings.
closely associate with and serve neuronal cells, thier nickname is.....and their function is.....
glial, glue, support
atrial flutter
rapid but regular sequence of atrial depolarizations at rates between 200 and 380 bpm, one out of every two or three atrial impulses passes to the ventricles (2:1, 3:1 rhythm)-ventricles cant keep up because they cant fill that fast, if they did=death because of not enough blood flow to brain
alcoholic hepatitis
- intermediate stage bt steatosis and cirrhosis- inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes- acute phase mortality
What classification of disease is glomerulonephrits
immune system disease
Skeletal muscle structure
Connective tissue tendons connect the contreactile part of a muscle (body or belly) to bones. A muscle contains many groupings of hundreds of cells, each group called a fascicle. The connective tissue that surrounds each fascicle conbine to form the tendons. Perimysium - surrounds each fascicle Endomysium - surrounds each cellEndomysia - are connected to the perimysia
female sym sexual response
clitoris becomes erect, vasocongestion of vagina releases lubrication, reduces circumference, uterus lifts upward creating space for sperm
In the heat balance equation, if the skin temperature is greater than the ambient temperature, then the radiant, conductive, and convective components will be negative. By contrast, if the skin temperature is _______ than the ambient temperature, then th
Functions of the cardiovascular system
Contraction, Transport, Exchange, Regulation
What is the normal range and non lethal limits of sodium ion?
115-175 mmol/L 
fluid that is located outside cells
ECF - extracellular fluid
Recent researchers have developed specific locus of control scales for specific categories of events. This approach is referred to as specific expectancies, where the emphasis is on locus of control in discrete areas of life, such as health locus of co
Recent researchers have developed specific locus of control scales for specific categories of events. This approach is referred to as specific expectancies, where the emphasis is on locus of control in discrete areas of life, such as health locus of control.
Bronchial AsthmaWhat is the common denominator of all forms of asthma?
An exaggerated hypersensitivity response to a variety of stimuli
Hypothalamus location
Located near the center of the head below the thalamus Connected to pituitay by a stalk called the infundibulum
tissue hypercapnia
incraese in CO2 which causes the need to increase bloood flow and wash out extra CO2
Interstitial oncotic pressure
Pie-i: favors movement of fluid from interstitium to blood
phase 4
through what phase is the only way that you can influence the SA node?
Blood Pressure
– force exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessel (hydro static pressure in the arteries)
what kind of chronotropic receptor does ACh bind to? is this metabatropic or ionotropic?
M1 receptors
they are metabotropic
proteins in plasma membrane are...
...imbedded/attached to PM; Account for about 50% of the PM; Responsible for most specialized functions 
pre operational stage
Piaget's theory, the second stage of cognitive development (age 2-7); characterized by increasing use of symbols and pre logical thought process
von Willebrand disease
- VWF- autosomal therefore both men and women are affected- typically goes unnoticed- much more common than hemophilia
What does inner segment of photoreceptor contain
Organelles that synthesize photopigment
Where does the pacemaker action potential normally occur?
SA and AV nodes.
What can work as an anesthesia by knocking the animal out; this is a rapid external temp drop.
cold narcosis
Cells that line the GI tract are replaced how often?
every few days
Identify the major structures included in extrapyramidal system
Basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, globis pallidus, corpus striatum), thalamus, cerebellum, Brainstem structures (red nucleus, substantia nigra, dentate nucelus)
RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS: Pneumonias Acute Bacterial (typical) Pneumonia
What 3 conditions predispose someone to developing pneumonia?
1) Loss of cough reflex
2)Damage to the ciliated epithelium that lines the respiratory tract
3) Impaired immune defenses
Peripheral Nervous System
Neural and glial tissue outside of the brain and spinal cord
What structures are a part of the conducting zone?
Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
The all-or-none principle, associated with the action potential, states that ________. 258) _____ A) the positive feedback loop for the sodium channel is terminated by the inactivation gate B) all of the action potentials will be generated from the axon h
E) once membrane potential reaches threshold, an action potential will be generated and that action potential will always look the same
Explain the roles of fenestrated endothelium, basement membrane, and podocytes during the process of filtrate formation.
What are the major components of the filtrate within Bowman’s capsule?
Fenestrated endothelium filters RBCs (why you don't or shouldn't piss blood)
Basement membrane filters out large proteins
Podocytes ultrafilter supersmall proteins
The resultant Filtrate in the bowman's capsule consists of:
Na+, Cl-, K+
Some smaller proteins
what is homologous b/t all protein kinases regarding structure?
catalytic subunit is homologous
regulatory and autoinhib are diff 
What is the function of Titin?
Prevents overextension of the sarcomeres and helps maintain the central location of the A bands.
What are ARBs?
AT1 inhibitors, stop ANG II but no bradykinin
DNA transcription
process of making an RNA strand from a DNA template triplets are transcribed to mRNA to form codons by complimentary base pairing (uracil substituted for thymine
Arterial Pressure
Systolic P is 120 mmHg, Diastolic P is 80 mm Hg Pulse pressure is sys-dias 120-80=40 mm HgMean arterial pressure=dia +1/3 PP = 80 + 13= 93 mm Hg
explain the significance of chemotaxis to a person's inflammatory response.
Chemicals/proteins are released when antigens are found and it attracts neutrophils and macrophages to the antigen.
Digestive sytem consists of
A tract
accessory organs
-continuous tube from oral cavity to anus
       -the lumen of the tube is continuous external environment (donut)

accessory organs-salilaryglnds, exocrine glands, and biliary system(liver and gallbladder)
Why are ions and polar molecules soluble in water?
They are hydrophilic ("loves water") Hydrophilic molecules are water soluble because polar water molecules build up and surround certain ions and polar molecules because they give off a charge.  This forms hydration spheres around the ion or polar molecule.  These dissociate in water.
Where are Astroglia found? Where are they located?
-Found in areas containing predominantly nerve cell bodies, dendrites and synapses.
-Maintain healthy chemical environments for neuronal signaling. Control concentration of neurotransmitters
Molecular Basis of Smooth Muscle Contraction
(Fig. 12.34)
1. Ca++ channels on smooth muscle membrane open, and Ca++ from the ECF diffuses into cell (concentration gradient of Ca++is from ECF into ICF)
2. Entering Ca++ causes SR to release small amounts of Ca++, functionally not very important
     a. Because smooth muscle cells are so much smaller in diameter than skeletal muscle cells, SR & T Tubules are not needed to deliver Ca++ deep into the muscle
3. Ca++ activates enzyme called calmodulin

4. Activated calmodulin activates enzyme myosin light chain kinase
5. Activated myosin light chain kinase phosphorylates myosin by splitting a phosphate off of ATP
6. Phosphorylated myosin binds with actin and cross bridge cycling begins (contraction)
7. When Ca++ removed by active transport out of smooth muscle cell, calmodulin and in turn myosin kinase return to inactive form, and an enzyme called phosphatase removes phosphate from myosin. Hence myosin becomes unphosphorylated and no longer binds to actin, and the muscle cell relaxes
8. Mechanism of stimulation of smooth muscle depends on whether it is multiunit or single unit smooth muscle
Where is Norepinephrine found?(2 locations)
1. sympathetic nerve endings2. in CNS: hypothalamus
Blood flow directly proportional to blood pressure gradient:• if flow increases then ...• if ∆P decreases then ...
• if flow increases, then ∆P increases• if ∆P decreases, then flow decreases
Where is the Calcium pump typically found?
Plasma Membrane (PM), Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Membrane, Muscle Cells, and Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) Membrane
dx of chrons/ulcerative colitis
- sigmoidoscopy with biopsy- CT scan w contrast to identify abscesses and fistulae
Describe projections of olfactory cortex
Frontal lobe + thalamus --> interpret and identify smellsHypothalamus and limbic --> emotional responseStomach --> gastric juice
In the operation of ______________, 3 Na+ ions are pumped out of the cell and 2 K+ ions are pumped into the cell for each molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that is metabolized to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi).
the sodium (Na+)/potassium (K+) pump
Equation for Fick's law of diffusion. What does it tell us?

J = PA (Ca-Cb)
P= permeability (cm/sec)
J= net rate of diffusion (mmol/sec)

This will tell net flux of a particular compound across a membrane
An increase in affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen causes what type of shift
leftward shift
indicate that a lower PO2 is required to achieve any give level of saturation
indicates that oxygen is loaded more easily onto hemoglobin
What enzymes catalyze biosynthesis of acetylcholine
It is synthesized from choline and acetyl coenzyme A in cytoplasm of synaptic terminals and stored in synaptic vesicles, concentrations builds up until acetylcholinesterase stops process
Introduction to Circulatory System:
Overall function...
1. Need to get nutrients and oxygen to all cells in body
2. Need to remove wastes from all cells in body
3. Blood is transport medium which does this
4. So need to get blood to pass by all cells in body
describe Vas deferens, what does it do? what happens in a vasectomy? )(remember root "tom" means to cut) apendectomy, etc.
made up of 2 tubes- during ejaculation, smooth muscle contracts to propel the sperm forward - are cut in a vasectomy
which on of the following statements is accurate regarding the endocrine function of the anterior pituitary
tropic, or stimulation, hormones are produced there
what does the absorption by the mouth and salivary glands include?
- no food; few medications
What happens if there is a change in Bowmans space hydrostatic pressure (PBS)
increase PBS: decrease GFR
How is O2 carried in the blood?
hemoglobin(main way) and dissolved in blood
Describe the acid-base balance of the blood, and how it is influenced by the respiratory system:
Carbonic is formed from CO2 and contributes to blood pH. It is a volatile acid because it can be eliminated in exhaled breath. Nonvolatile acids, such as lactic acid and ketone bodies are buffered by bicarbonate. Blood pH is maintained by a proper ratio of CO2 to bicarbonate. Lungs maintain the correct CO2 concentration. An increase in CO2 due to inadequate ventilation produces respiratory acidosis. Kidneys maintain the free-bicarbonate concentration. Abnormally low plasma bicarbonate concentration produces metabolic acidosis. Ventilation regulates the respiratory component of acid-base balance. Hypoventilation increases the blood PCO2, thereby lowering plasma pH and producing respiratory acidosis. Hyperventilation decreases plasma PCO2, decreasing formation of carbonic acid and thereby increasing plasma pH to produce respiratory alkalosis. Because of the action of chemoreceptors, breathing is regulated to maintain a proper blood PCO2 and thus a normal pH.
The nervous system is composed of what two types of cells? What are their functions?
Neurons (nerve cells): transmit info rapidly from one cell to another
Neuroglia (glial cells): help maintain the environment surrounding neurons and aid in their ability to transmit info rapidly
Pumps are different from carrier proteins in that they use energy to move ions ________. 52) ______ A) in a preferred direction across the membrane B) in any direction they choose across the membrane C) in the direction determined by that ion's electroche
A) in a preferred direction across the membrane
where are the somae and dendrites in the knee jerk reflex?
where is the ganglia?
sensory soma is in the spindle
sensory dendrite is in the gray matter of spinal cord
motor soma is in the gray of spinal cord
and the motor dendrite is attached to muscle
the ganglia is on the dorsal root/sensory side
what are the fxs of the plasma proteins
- albumins establish osmotic gradient bt blood and interstitial fluid- other proteins buffer pH changes- globulins (alpha, beta, and gamma): roles range from blood clotting to transport- gamma globulins: role in immunity as antibodies- fibrinogen: key factor in blood clotting
Define polycythemia and explain how it changes normal function of the body.
increased amounts of RBCs. increased blood viscosity, and may affect o2 delivery to cells bc blood is unable to pass through narrow capillaries because it is too thick. May even lead to tissue damage.
What is the mechanism by which the individual muscle cells of the heart function as if they were a single unit, all undergoing synchronous electrical and mechanical activity?
Cardiac muscles are joined by gap junctions that permit the conduction of action potentials from cell to cell.
The body is able to synthesize the amino acids glutamate, aspartate, and glycine from ________. 103) _____ A) the glycerol in a triglyceride B) the degradation of glucose in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle C) essential amino acids D) cholesterol E) the deg
B) the degradation of glucose in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
what are the signs and sxs of chrons disease
- diarrhea (if large intestine affected)- lower right quadrant pain- weight loss- low grade fever- malaise- less belling than ulcerative colitis
Describe the stimulus requirements of simple cortical neurons:
They are best stimulated by a bar or a slit of light located in a precise part of the visual field (of either eye) at a precise orientation.
What are the effects of ANG II in nephron?
enhance Na-K exchanger in Pt and TALenhance NCC in DT and ENaC in CD
What are some of the dangers of hypertension?
a. it is a silent killer as patients are asymptomatic until the damage has occurredb. atherosclerosis
c. increases workload of the heart
d. causes congestive heart failure
e. it damages the cerebral blood vessels
produces ATP
Secondary Structure
Helix/Pleated Sheet
Renal System
Urinary System
practical significance
"rules of thumbs"
Brain and Spinal Cord
Three Classes of neurons
These receptors measure temperature
arterial oxygen partial pressure (homeostatic set point)
- the loss of memory
gluconeogenesis: the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources
occurs in the liver
is a good source of blood glucose, especially as liver glycogen is being depleted
brain depends on glucose as its sole energy source
Be familiar with oxygen-hemoglobin curve (presentation online)
right and left cerebral cortex
liquid in which solutes dissolve
from hypothalmus stimulates ant pituitary to release LH and FSH
another name for gap junctions is?
These glial cells act as scavengers
Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences includes seven forms: interpersonal intelligence (social skills, ability to communicate and get along with other), intrapersonal intelligence (insight into oneself, one's emotions and motives), kinesthetic intelligence (the abilities of athletes, dancers, and acrobats), and musical intelligence. There are several other theories proposing multiple forms of intelligence. This position is in contrast to the theory of "g," or general intelligence, which holds that there is only one form of intelligence.
Fasting blood levels below 60 mg/dL
has widespread deleterious effects on nervous system function because the nervous system uses glucose almost exclusively as its source of energy
Signal molecule formed from tyrosine; includes epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
Typical responses to ________ messengers require a long time to develop because they necessitate transcription of mRNA and translation of that mRNA into a functional protein. 132) _____ A) peptide B) amino acid C) lipophilic D) lipophobic E) protein
C) lipophilic
descruction of neurons thru prolonged activation of excitatory synaptic transmission, caused by HI levels of glutamate in interstitial fluid in CNS- result of O2 deprivation to brain (stroke)
: destructive metabolism involving the release of energy and resulting in the breakdown of complex materials within the organism
Merkel Receptors
Sense steady pressure and texture.
Hypothalamic neurohormones are delivered by the _________ via a dedicated blood portal system known as the ___________to ________.
anterior pituitary, hypotalamo-hypophyseal portal system, anterior pituitary cells.
gestational DM
- glucose intolerance during pregnancy- females who have GDM have increased risk to develop DM2 later in life
What does the lacrimal gland produce?
What is normal EF?
greater than 55%
Oxygen consumption is __________ energy demand during the post-exercise phase of oxygen debt.
greater than
the coexistence within an individual of simultaneous positive and negative feelings toward the same person or object
effusion can be caused be what?
lymph blockage
General functions of extrapyramidal
unconscious, associated with pyramidal, background activity
Leukocytes and platelets make up what percentage of blood
HCO3 - Bicarbonate
Major buffer in the body
A chain of 2-9 nine amino acids
Somatic Sensory Pathway
Primary somatoasensory receptor in skin
Relay to secondary sensory neuron in posterior portion of spinal gray matter
Relay in thalamus
Main information processing in parietal lobe
ex:  feeling of pain
Interventricular block
impulse transmission block in purkinje fibers and is an electrical alternate and pacemaker is normal to abnormal in this type of block
Molecules tend to move spontaneously ________ their chemical gradient. A) down B) around C) up D) over E) through
A) down
the strength, or amplitude, of sound waves
Vascular Shock
• Extreme vasodilation of all blood vessels  ↓BP Ex: anaphylactic shock – peanut allergy• BP ↓ drastically• Release of histamine (vasodilation)• Treated by injecting adrenalin (epi-pen – constrict the blood vessel)
Membrane potential
Voltage difference between inside and outside of cell due to an ionic concentration gradient
what is the diaphrag, innervated by
phrenic nerve
Covalent bonded molecules may be…
Polar of non-polar
Facts about Rhodopsin
G-coupled to Transducin, transmembrane protein
- muscular tube extending from pharynx to stomach- guarded at both ends by sphincters: pharyngo-esophageal sphincter and gastroesophageal sphincter
What cells release factors that increase blood flow and vascular permeability, bringing components of immunity to the site of infection?
Mast cells
Glomerular Proteinuria
appearance of large and negatively charged proteins in the urine. Suggests chaange in function of glomerular barrier.
What is the sorce of hCG
The syncytiotrophoblasts
The blood concentrations of oxygen are relatively ______ and the blood concentrations of carbon dioxide are relatively low in the pulmonary vein and in the systemic arteries.
The formation of lactic acid in glycolysis helps to recycle ______ in order for the cycle to continue
acting as a result to some stimulus
Is passive or active transport faster?
passive is faster
when solutions on opposite side of a membrane are equal
Where does hemoglobin drop off O2
systemic capillary beds
Lipids - Absorbtion
fatty acids and monoglycerides diffuse into the absorptive cells
inside they are re-assembled into triglycerides in the smooth ER
the golgi apparatus packages the triglycerides into chylomicrons
chylomicrons are secreted by exocytosis across the basal membrane of teh absorptive cell
enter the lacteal and eventually reach the blood when the lymh duct drains into a vein
expressive aphasia
Inability to speak coherently as a result of damage to Broca's area
bigeminal pulse
2 pulses are close together because heart beats are two times closer to each other
What cells secrete epinephrine from the adrenal medulla? 181) _____ A) chromaffin cells B) B cells C) A cells D) zona reticularis cells E) D cells
A) chromaffin cells
monocular cues
depth cues such as interpostion and linear perspective, available to either eye alone.
prostaglandins released by damaged cells, intensify what? also stimulate ___
kinins and histamine (pain-associated); may also stimulate emigration
Tyrosine kinase receptors
-High affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines and hormones.-Play pivotal roles in diverse cellular activities including growth, differentiation, metabolism, adhesion, motility, death-Composed of an extracellular domain, which is able to bind a specific ligand, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular catalytic domain, which is able to bind and phosphorylate selected substrates.
Sensory Receptors: Chemoreceptors
Oxygen, pH, and various organic molecules such as glucose.
Many hormones released from the ______ in response to the hypothaamic signal have another _____________ as their target.
pituitary, endocrine
complete heart block
when the conducting tissue between atria and ventricles is damaged and becomes nonfunctional
hormonal mechanism by which bile secretion occurs
- secretin- guadnanucosa
What is critical for the transmission of information between cells?
electrical charges
Muscle fiber contraction
a repeating systemWhen stimuli to muscle cell are removed:a. Ca++ is actively transported into S.R. by Ca-ATPase, decreasing Ca++ binding to troponin. b. Tropomyosin moves back over actin binding sites stopping myosin-actin interaction & sarcomere shortening
pineal gland
located in brain, produces melatonin - regulates bodys biological clock
Two molecules of GTP are formed for ________ molecule of glucose that undergoes complete aerobic metabolism.
small veins that drain blood from the capillaries and then join to form a vein
Break down food and absorb it into the body
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder
State Levels
A concept that can be applied to motives and emotions, state levels refer to a person's momentary amount of a specific need or emotion, which can fluctuate with specific circumstances.
Atelectasis refers to:
Incomplete expansion of a lung or portion of a lung
Prolactin releasing hormone (PRH)
Stimulates the anterior pituitary to release prolactn, which stimulates mammary gland development and milk secretion in females
delayed compliance
if there is an initial increase in volume and pressure but then a gradual decrease in pressuredue to intrinisic behavior this is referred to as"
Law of Laplace
-Harder to keep small alveoli open, easier to keep large alveoli open. -This effect is reduced by surfactant
260 milliseconds
what is the excitation time for the posterior left ventricle
Arterial PO2
• ↓ O2 in the blood can stimulate the peripheral chemoreceptors  only sensed when below 60 mmHg• This is an extreme drop in the PO2 from 100 to 60. O2 is very low• O2 not sensed by the central chemoreceptors, peripheral chemoreceptors will sense this, but at this point the body is only left with about 4 minutes of oxygen  must give emergency O2
what is the QT segment?
time for ventricular depolarization and repolarization.
roughly the time for ventricular action potential.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) structure
adenine containing RNA nucleotide with two additional phosphates
concrete operational stage
Piaget's theory, the third stage of cognitive development, (7-adolescence); characterized by the ability to think logically about concrete objects and situations
pernicious anemia
- B12 deficiency- due to inability to absorb adequate amts of B12- low absorption of B12 due to "intrinsic factor"- macrocytic, normochromic- vegetarians
If hair cell in organ of Corti bends toward tallest hair you get_, while if it bends away from talles hair you get_
Osmolarity of the medulla can reach a concentration of -.
1200 mOsm
what are the three diff. wavelength light colors?
red, green, violet
abnormal collections of pleural space may be due to what and cause what?
excessive intravenous fluids, renal failure
-collapsed lung can occur 
How do pyramidal and extrapyramidal work together to produce coordinated, graceful, efficient movements?
Extrapyramidal refines activity of pyramidal.
Adequate Stimulus
The modality of a stimulus to which a particular sensory receptor is most sensitive.
What is FEV1?
The volume one can forcibly expire at 1 sec after a maximal inspiration.
When molecules are passively transported across a membrane, the direction of their movement is dictated by the molecule's tendency to move ________. A) from lower to higher energy B) from higher to lower energy C) out of a cell D) into a cell E) in both d
B) from higher to lower energy
Structure of the Capillaries in the Glomerulus
(inside to outside)
Fenestrated endothelial cell
basement membrane
General function of neurotransmitters
-Relay, amplify or modulate a signal between a neuron and another cell-Action potential causes influx of ions into the neuron-Vesicles move and bind to neuron terminal and release this into synapse-Reversibly bind to receptors on postsynaptic cell-Enzymes remove these and reuptake/recycle them
What do inhibitors of Acetlycholinesterase cause?
A depolarizing blockade which is caused from a long lasting end-plate potential that blocks subsequent action potentials due to the buildup of Ach in the terminal membrane.
What is an incompetent valve?
valve which doesnt close completely, so heart pumps same blood over and over
what are specialized cell junctions
tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions
spinal nerve pairs. connect to spinal cord
Division of PNS
What is best associated with the humoral or antibody part of an immune reaction?
B lymphocytes, opsonization, complement protein activation
In the brain the Wernicke's area effects what?
the Broca's area effects what?

If the storke happened primarily in the left hemisphere then what part of the bodie will be affected?


Wernicke's- connecting words to object, knowing meanings of the word. -Broca's- forming the words with your mouth

right side of body

What is a polar covalent bond?
In covalent bonds between two different atoms, the electrons may be pulled more toward one atom than the other, giving it a positive and negative "pole".
What is acetylcholinesterase (AchE)? Where is it located?
an enzyme that degrades ACh into acetate and choline. It is present on the post-synaptic membrane. The degradation of ACh into its inactive components results in the termination of the neurotransmitter action, thereby allowing the post-synaptic membrane potential to return toward resting level. Choline is taken up and reused by the pre-synaptic neuron to synthesize ACh.
Cardiac Output and its Control:
Control of Heart Rate...

(Fig. 13.23)
1. SA node sets baseline heart rate at ~ 70 beats per minute

Where is Dopamine found?(2 locations)
1. found in high concentrations in basal ganglia2. hypothalamus
Types of Immune Response
1) Cell Mediated Immunity2) Antibody Mediated Immunity/ Humoral Response
What are the agonists that bind to tyrosine kinase receptors?
Hormones and Growth Factor
migrating motility complex of the small intestine
- weak, repetitive peristaltic waves- move a short distance then die otu then picked up again- occurs bt meals, when segmentation ceases- "internal housekeeper": sweeps intestine clean bt meals after segmentation- motilin
What happens if you have excess GH
GigantismAcromegaly - bones, organs hypertrophyAlso insulin resistance and hyperglycemia
It is valid to use the ______________ to estimate cellular respiration at rest and during low-to-moderate intensities of endurance exercise
respiratory exchange ratio (RER)
What age demographic typically has hypernatremia? What pathology is associated with hypernatremia?
Typically seen in the elderly and presence of severe diarrhea.
What function do the atria serve?
Atria receives blood from veins and passes it on to ventricle on same side of heart using pressure differences as force.
In simple diffusion the rate of transport is directly related to what
the size of the driving force
Electrical Activity of Entire Heart:
Autorhythmic regions of heart...
-Atrioventricular Node-
AV Node:
1. at base of right atrium near the septum, just above atria-ventricles junction
       a. AP/min = 40-60
       b. in normal conditions helps spread AP to venticles from right atrium
.If the interstitial fluid around the collecting tubule has an osmolarity of 300 mOsm, explain why water readily leaves the filtrate? 
What hormone is responsible for the regulation of water in the collecting tubule?
Water readily leaves filtrate because of ADH makes CT and CD permeable to H2O
ADH= a neurohypophyseal hormone
Plasma Membrane inner and outer layers differ...
... in lipid content and type
what classifies hepatitis as chronic
- chronic inflammation of the liver of more than 3-6 months- persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels- hep c most common- may or may not see signs and sxs
What two things burn it's glucose in the presence of oxygen?
Aeorobic metabolism and pyruvic acid
In general, what are the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system on the motility and secretion of the GI tract? What are the effects of the sympathetic nervous system?
para-contraction of sphinctors and blood vells inhibits digestive activities; sym- stilmulates degestive activities relaxation of "
explain how partial gas pressures are calcvulated:
According to Dalton's law, the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to to the sum of the pressures that each gas in the mixture would exert independently. the partial pressure of a gas in a dry gas mixture is thus equal to the total pressure times the percent composition of that gas in the mixture. Because the total pressure of a gas mixture decreases with altitude above sea level, the partial pressures of the constituent gases likewise decrease with altitude. When the partial pressure of a gas in a wet gas mixture is calculated, the water vapor pressure must be taken into account. 
What is the function of the somatosensory cortex
respond to sensations felt on the surface of the skin
The positive feedback loop that is involved in the generation of an action potential is terminated by the ________. 256) _____ A) closure of activation gates on sodium channels B) closure of inactivation gates on sodium channels C) opening of inactivation
B) closure of inactivation gates on sodium channels
considering an artery and vein of 1cm external diameter:
which is considered a capacitance vessel and what does that mean?
capacitance vessel refers to the vessel that holds the most of the bodies blood volume
that would be a vein
why are esophageal varices subject to rupture
- can result in massive, fatal hemorrhage- common in ppl who have cirrhosis- complicated by liver disfx (failure to produce coagulation factors) and splenomegaly (thrombocytopenia)
What are 2 factors most critical in raising CO?
venous return and beta adrenergic receptors.
Describe the structure of the thyroid gland:
Located just below the larynx, its two lobes are positioned on either side of the trachea and are connected anteriorly by a medial mass of thyroid tissue called the isthmus. It consists of numerous spherical hollow sacs called thyroid follicles, which contain a protein-rich fluid called colloid. The follicles are lined with follicular cells that synthesize the hormone thyroxine,and there are also parafollicular cells, which secrete the hormone calcitonin.
What is the main difference between primary and secondary active transport? 46) ______ A) One uses energy whereas the other requires no energy. B) The molecules that are transported access the binding sites differently. C) the form of energy (ATP vs. elec
C) the form of energy (ATP vs. electrochemical gradient) used to move molecules across the membrane
how are aa and small peptides absorbed
- secondary active transport (a lot of different carriers)
Why is an inverse image produced on the retina?
Because of the way light is refacted on the lens. The image is formed on the retina upside down and backwards, and the cornea and lens focus the right part of the visual field in the left half of the retina of each eye, and the left part of the image on the right half of the retina of each eye.
how are iron and calcium absorption regulated
- only part of ingested iron can be absorbed- some absorbed iron immediately transported to blood- transferrin carries some iron to bone marrow (RBCs)- excess iron stored in ferritin pool- unused iron lost in feces (excreted)
What is photopigment and where is it located
It is located in the outer segment of photoreceptorRods = rhodopsinCones = pigment sensitive to green, red, blue
/ 259

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online