Plant Biology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
detects stimulus
Stablizing Selection
harden cell walls
pollen grain
plant spern
all plants reproduce...
Heavy Voule
Ripened mature ovary
reproductive organs for gymnosperms(coniferphyta)
duplication of a holotype
An important polysaccharide component of brown algal cell walls; used as a stabilizer and emulsifier for some foods and for paint
second transport tissue that transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
use of CO2 in plants
supporting structures that connect roots and leaves, carrying water and nutrients between them
photosynthetic organelle that converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules.
things falling off a tree
Organs modified for parasitic absorption of water and nutrients. (some roots have been modified to absorb water from other plants)
one nutrients storage area, parallel veins, flower parts in 3, many fibrous roots, vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem
formation of vascular bundles within the stem of a monocot
Solar navigation
Using the sun to navigate
adaptation for transport in plants
vascular tissue
long, thing structures that supports the anther
unicellular algae that have flagella, form red tides, produce toxins, and glow.
-one of the two prokaryotic domains[the other being Bacteria]. -consists of diverse group of prokaryotic organisms that inhabit a wide variety of
The major photosynthetic organ of vascular plants.
Inside contents of ovary, in pistil.
How does water enter the plant?
nonvascular plant
plant that has no vascular system
Companion cells
Cells containing nuclei that "control" the sieve tube elements
haploid generations
gametophyte- develops from spores by mitosis, produces eggs and sperms, fertilization results in diploid zygote,
the evaporation of water from the parts of a plant exposed to air
promote growth to make a plant taller
male part, composed of anther and filament
In organisms that have alternation of generations, the multicellular diploid form that results from the union of gametes. The sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis that develop into gametophytes.
-short found on woody limbs adapted for increase fruit produtions.
-examples: 1) apple 2) pear.
a kind of tissue through which relatively soft-walled cells transport organic nutrients
Photosynthesis can be divided into two parts: The light reactions, and the Calvin cycle. What are the products of each? Also, what is needed for each cycle to begin?
Vascular Tissue
Elongated cells in plants, which function to transport water and food
net venation
a nonparallel, branching network of veins that is typical of the leaves of dicots
The Male Reproductive System Of A Plant; Consists Of An Anther And A Filament; Produces Spores
cone bearing but have a vascular system more like angiosperms
Use sunlight energy to make food for the plant.
Root Cap-
Protect the growing region of the root; is constantly being eroded away; reproduction, absorbs water, end of the root, dead cells, protection
the leaf
the organ in most plants primarily responsible for photosynthesis
59. What do Bryophytes need to reproduce?
a. water
dormancy can allow seeds to germinate...
under ideal conditions
plant that flowers in the winter w/ short days
Embryo Sac
Female gametophyte within the ovule of a flowering plant
Which of the following are micronutrients?
vitamins and minerals
sugar sink
an organ that consumes or stores sugar. Phloem flows toward this.
portion of a carpel in which the egg-containing ovules develop
growth of portions of plants away from gravity
negative geotropism = shoots grow upward, against gravity
gravity increases auxin concentration of side of plant toward direction of gravity
aerial roots
roots that never touch the ground & take in moisture from the air
makes a ring around the base of the flower.
three main functions of leaves
gas exchange, photosynthesis, and transpiration
a capsule in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop
Which of the following involves collection of genetic resources for an organism?
Germplasm and seed banks
Lateral Meristems
Locations On The Stems Of A Plant Where New Stems Or Flowers Can Grow
What is etiolation?
Growth of plant in dark, when gravitropism controls direction of growth.
38. What is phototropism?
a. Response from a plant toward light
sieve tubes
"A series of cells joined end to end, forming a tube through which nutrients are conducted in flowering plants and brown algae"
How does auxin exit cell?
only where transport proteins can carry charged molecule accros membrane, carrier proteins are embedded in membrane at bottom only (basal end)
What are the two types of nutrients for plants?
Micronutrients: needed in relatively small quantities
Macronutrients: needed in relatively large quantities
What is the purpose of stomata?
opens and closes by guard cells; allows CO2 in and controls water loss
How does auxin affect cell wall?
- causes release of cytoplasmic cell loosening factor- proteins "expansins" modify H boding between polysaccharides in wall
What are the affects of abscisic acid?
- promotes storage in seeds- high conc in dormant buds- inhibits stem elongation- accumulates when plants low on water
What are the steps water takes as it enters the plant?
- ions transported in by root hair cells- water follows- enter APOPLAST, cell walls and intercellular spaces or SYMPLAST
Seedless vascular
Makes pollen
fibrous root system
food rich tissue
CA Sycamore
Plantus racemosa
venation of monocots
mono est
1 seed leaf
liverworts,hornwarts,mosses : nonvascular plants :: gymnosperms and angiosperms : ___________
vascular plants
seed-bearing stucture of an angiosperm
embryo's fleshy leaf like part
vegetative reproduction
asexual reproduction in plants
embryo surrounded by protective coat
Multicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose.Develop from multicellular embryos and carry out photosynthesis using the pigments chlorophyll a and b.
female part of a flower
A small, pigmented structure in flagellate unicellular organisms that is sensitive to light; also called a stigma
whisk ferns, horsetails, and ferns. Euphylls; blade-like leaves, branching veins.
the edible seed or seedlike fruit
What are the cotyledons?
Food (through photosynthesis)
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
structure in which microspores are formed
allows CO2 exchange between the surrounding air and the photosynthetic cells inside the leaf
vascular plants : sporophytes :: nonvascular plants : _________
parenchyma cells
A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differntiated cell type.
Reproductive cell with a hard outer coat that forms a new organism without the fusion of gametes
organism in its early stage of development
multiples of 3
floral parts of a monocot
a relationship between two species in which both species benefit
guard cells
control the size of stoma opening
coats the leaves and other above ground parts of most plants preventing water loss
mold family with no cross-walls in hyphae
The type of root foundin dicots.
Tap root
The _________ age is the period between 8,000 to 3,500 B.C.
Archegonial neck
The nipple-shapped external portion of an archegonium below the base of which the egg is located.
Promote cell divison; found in almost all higher plants
What tropism is a reaction to chemicals?
the smallest physical unit of an element or compound, consisting of one or more like atoms in an element and two or more different atoms in a compound.
In the ovules of seed plants, the opening in the integuments through which the pollen tube usually enters.
survival packet for life on land, seed coat around embryo & food supply, protect embryo, allow for dispersal
This route of water movement moves it through the cytoplasm of cells
Herbaceous Plant
Do not produce wood as they grow
pair of specialized cells that border each stoma
guard cells
A _________ has a thin exocarp, a fleshy mesocarp, and a hard stony endocarp that encases the seeds. Examples include cherries, peaches and plums.
primulaceae (of dilleniidae)
family: leaves basal and extipulate, flowers perfect actonomorphic, stamens opposite of petals. K(5) C(5)_A5 G(5). Fruit capsule or pyxis.
how much of the tropical forests were destroyed by the last third of the twentieth century
Are a class of related plant hormones that stimulate growth, in the stem and leaves, trigger the germination of seeds and breaking of bud dormancy, and stimulate fruit development with auxin
endoplasmic reticulum
a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface
Artificial distribution-
- A type of organization or pattern where the units are uniformly arranged throughout the area
Disadvantages of gropu behaviour
Competition for resources, disease can spread, parasites can spread more easily in group situations, increased conflict between members
Which of the following is a result of calcium deficiency?
what is a bryophyte?
byrophytes are all embryophytes ('land plants') that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. They neither have flowers nor produce seeds, reproducing via spores.
alternation of generations
haploid stage followed by a diploid stage
this tissue system takes part in the transport of water and minerals, as well as the transport of food.
vascular tissue system
Name three types of modified stems.
Tuber, rhizome, stolon, corm, bulb
What are the four key characteristics of Angiosperms?
Flowering plants
Seeds are enclosed in a ripe ovary, the fruit, which protects the seeds
Double fertilization occurs - unique
Sporophyte is dominant visible plant
Example: Oak
bryophyte life cycle part two
spore develops into male or female gametophytes by mitosis
Describe the signal transduction pathway for ethylene:
- binds to EIN2 receptor- activates messenger- activates CTR1- allowed to enter nucleus- stimulates gene transcription
(b) this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm
The reaction-center chlorophyll of photosystem I is known as P700 because A) there are 700 chlorophyll molecules in the center. B) this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm. C) it absorbs 700 photons per minute. D) there are 700 photosystem I components to each chloroplast.
What is the reaction of photosynthesis?
H2O + CO2 --> C6H12O6 + O2
Water + Carbon Dioxide = Glucose + oxygen
How do plants help to maintain the balance of gases in the atmosphere ?
Plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen.
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