Plant ID Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Gnetophyta
Gnetophytes
bryophyta
mosses
bloom
õitsema
apple tree
manzano
animals
scatters seeds
Angiosperms
(flowering plants)
gymnosperms
produces cones
Gardenia
gardenia jasminoides
phytochrome
light receptor pigment
MOA of Colchicine
Antimitotic
Spiraea japonica
Japanese spirea
evergreen
jehličnatý, stále zelený
r
respiration and reproduction
Viburnum carlesii
Koreanspice viburnum
Cape Weed
Arctotheca calendula
cornus stolonifera
red osier dogwood
rhizoids
root like multicellular anchors
what are icebergs from?
glaciers
chloroplast
The organelle for photosynthesis
Sapindaceae: Acer rubrum
Red Maple
pollination
the movement of pollen
tracheids
xylem cells: long and thin
Gibberellins
hormone; promotes germination by helping convert starch to glucose so it can be used for cellular respiration
palisades
part of mesophyll that's tissue
monocot
one embryonic leaf, parallel veined
Phloem
Transports sugars produced by photosythesis
Stomata
Tiny openings in the leaf
NO!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
do plants eats other plants?
Cyperaceae
monoecious. perianth bristles. florect with a bract. flaskshaped sac-perigynium. spikelet. remains intact. achene. herbs. leaces alternate three ranked. sheaths long and fused. linear .
Vicia species
Common and hairy vetch
ramo de flores
bouquet of flowers
transfer cell
increase surface area; enhance transfer btwn. apoplast/symplast
Monocots
Fibrous roots, parallel venation in leaves, flower parts in multiples of 3, scattered vascular bundles, and single cotyledon in seed.
Ovary
Swollen bottom w/ seeds & fruit
ethylene
The plant hormone __________ is produced in the cells of ripening fruit, which stimulates the ripening process.
Chitrid
Fungi phyla: Have flagellated spores, zoospores
chlorophyll
the light absorbing pigment in plants
sclerenchyma cells
support; lignified secondary cell walls; dead at functional maturity
mycorrhizae
symbiotic structures consisting of the plant's roots intermingled with the hyphae of a fungus that greatly increase the quantity of nutrients that a plant can absorb
biennials
angiosperms that complete their life cycle in two years
gamtangia
organs in which gametes are produced
deutermycota
ringworm + athlete's food, symbiotic relationships
cuticle
waxy layer that prevents water loss
Pholoem
The vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in some plants.
flower
a reproductive structure that produces pollen and seeds
dicot
an angiosperm with two seed leaves


-Extremely compacted growth
-Cupped leaves
-Will grow into a tree
-Simple leaves
-Peppery smell
Pittosporum tobiraC: PittosporumF: Pittosporaceae
loams
fertile soil; equal parts sand, silt, and clay; retain minerals and water and provide drainage
Epidermis
Surface of the stem; replaced by periderm in woody stems
Ferns
__________ are the largest group of vascular, seedless plants.
stamen
male reproductive part made of an anther and a filament
Plant cell walls are made of
Cellulose (sugar)
autotroph
a organism that makes its own food
flagellum
a long, whiplike structure that helps a cell to move
Day-neutral
_____ plants don't care about the length of the day and night
collenchyma cells
plant cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls
indeterminate
keeps growing and producing shoots and fruits
leaves
main food-maiking part of the plant through photosynthesis; contain chlorophyll, the green part of a plant
monocotyledons
class of anthophytes that have one seed leaf
diploid sporophyte
produces spores in fern life cycle
valley oak
large tree with deeply lobed leaves
Seed Coat
a layer that protects the seed
pistil
femal reproductive par to the flower consists or the stigma style ovary and eggs
protonema
mass of tangled green filaments in mosses that forms during germination
Parts of different origin that are fused together is termed
Adnate
Companion cell
a specialized parenchyma cell that the sieve tube member lies next to
microspores
produced by small male cones and will develop into male gameotophytes or pollen grains
accessory pigments
What is responsible for giving leaves their red, yellow, and orange color during the Fall?
abscisic acid
inhibits growth of seeds and other extremedies of a plant
What are seed plants divided into.
gymnosperms and angiosperms.
ovule
which part of the flower becomes the seed
dioecious plants
male and female flowers on separate plants
ovules
part of the plant that contains plant eggs, turns into seeds
Style
The middle portion of the pistil. Can be long, slender, short, or even absent depending on the species.
asexual reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
sieve tubes
the cells that make up the phloem
carbon dioxide
A waste gas produced during cellular respiration in animals. Plants use carbon dioxide during photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis
The prossesse by wich plants use light energy to make sugars
Apical dominance
terminal bud makes hormone to inhibit growth of axillary buds (grow up before out)
Xylem
Uses dead cells to conduct water and minerals. The two types of cells are vessel members (short cells joined end to end) and tracheids( long cells that overlap each other). Only goes up
embryo
A platn in its earliest stages of development
bulk flow
occurs as water evaporates from the leaf surface
shoot
the part of the plant's body that grows mostly upwards.
minerals
parts of rock and soil that plants and animals need
Adaptations for land plants
1. Obtaining resources from two different environments
2. Supporting the plant body (no support from air)
3. Maintaining moisture (cuticle)
4. Reproducing on dry land
carbon dioxide and water
The raw materials of photosynthesis are
Elaeagnus angustifolia - Russian olive
scalish twig, spines, weed tree
Guard Cell
one of a pair of specialized cells that border a stoma and regulate gas exchange
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
transpiration
adaptions to land
cell wall made of cellulose, cuticle, grow taller for sunlight, roots
What does suberin do
provide protection against water loss physical damage and pathogens
Annual
Plants that live for one year or less
CORN, WHEAT, PEAS
Repeated trials
a test or experiment that is done over and over
Is the joining of a female cell and a male fell in to one cell
Fertilization
fertilization
the joining of a sperm cell and an egg cell
A function of the stem
To support (hold up) the plant
What is a tuber?
An underground growth that is part of the stem of a plant.
Acer x freemanii - freeman maple
cross between silver maple and red maple,
protects embryo, source of food when seed germinates.
Seeds contain a sporophyte embryo and stored food within a protective coat. This does two things:
To allow oxygen and water to move in and out of a leaf
What is the function of stomata in a leaf?
strong
fuerte
anther
...
Il tronco
Trunk
angiosperm
flowering plants
Creeping Lilyturf
Liliaceae
to wilt
appassire (isc)
pedicel
flower's stem name
Philodendron 'Moonlight'
moonlight philodendron
Henbane
Alkaloid
Tropane (atropine, hyoscine)
Atropine like
Hieracium caespitosum
Yellow hawkweed
Dawn Redwood
metasequoia glyptostroboides
fronds
big leaves in ferns
gravitropism
plant's response to gravity
a haploid adult plant
gametophyte
Complete Flower
all 4 organs
bitternut hickory
Carya cordiformis
 
Juglandaceae
equisetum
only example of a horsetail
turgor (Turgidity)
water pressure in plants
roots
absorbs water and minerals;transports nutrients to stems; anchors plant in the ground
buds
can develop into new shoots
deliquescent stem growth
shorter, branching limbs
epicotyl
becomes the leaves and stem
seed
grows into a new plant
cytokinin
plant hormone that stimulates cytokinesis and cell division
work in concert with auxin to promote growth, but work against it for apical dominance
Shrub with opposite leaves, bilaterally symmetric
lowers with didynamous stamens, and an ovary of two
fused carpels each section containing one ovule
Lamiaceae
Define Tubers.
enlarged stem for specialized storage
Sporophyte
life span for plants-produce spores, mitosis process (diploid cells) cycle starts over meosis.
Leaf arrangement:
-Altenate= one leaf per node
-Opposite= 2 leaves per node
-Whorled= 3 or more leaves per node
spores
haploid cells produced in the gametophyte stage of a plant that can divide by mitosis and form structures or an entire new plant or can develop into sex cells.
Broad Leaves
-Broad Leaves means more photosynthesis
-often decidous-drop leaves
-conserve water in winter, dry
dicot*
angiosperm whose seeds have 2 cotytedons
Tracheophytes
club mosses, horsetails, wisk ferns, true ferns
water
In nonvascular plants __________ is absorbed directly through cell membranes and cell walls.
Meristem Tissue
Undifferentiated plant tissue which gives rise to new cells. The primary growth of a plant shoot tip is due to the apical meristem.
Periderm
protective coat that replaces the epidermis in plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium
Vascular tissue that produces xylem and phloem cel
Cambium
Reproduce
to make more of the same kind.
Explain the Angiosperm life cycle.
Double Fertilization.
Pollination results in the growth of a pollen tube where two sperm enter the ovary, where each ovule becomes a seed. The zygote forms and the food supply is activated as well.
cotlyedon
seed structure that provides food for the developing plant
haploid
number of chromosomes in a single gamete
Carnivorous plants
Supplement diet with bugs, nutrient poor soil.
Cotyledons
Structures that either store food or help absorb food for the embryo in a seed
adventitious roots
roots that grow from uncommon places
Cereals
Grasses that contain grains; Ex: Rice, wheat, corn, oats, sorghum, rye, barley, millet
vascular tissue
tubelike structure used to carry water, nutrients and other substances throughout the cell
fruit
a specialized structure in which seeds develop
biome
a place of similar climate that similar plants and animals
Aggregate
-Carpels not enclosed on wall of hypanthium-Ovaries develop into drupelets-Borne on non-fleshy receptacle (Raspberry)
Seeds
are made by combining egg cells and sperm cells
extinct
when a species of an animal dies out
inside a seed
where the coty ledon is located
Roots: elongation
in the middle where cells get bigger
Zone of maturation/differentiation
Cell here begin differentiating and become one of three types of plant tissues
-Also the location of the root hairs= elongated epidermal cells that increase the surface area for absorption.
Identify which organisms are bryophytes
mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
photosynthesis equation
carbon dioxide + water -light energy- sugar + oxygen; carbon dioxide and water combine in the presence of light to produce sugar and oxygen
charophyceans
The green algal group that shares two ultrastructural features with land plants. They are considered to be the closest relatives of land plants.
tuber
swollen plant cell in which starch is formed
stigma
Small opening in the top of the pistil. It is sticky to help the flower collect pollen.
differentiation
cells in the meristems mature and have specialized functions
Cyclic
does not get electrons from water - PSII is not involvednot as efficient
Cotyledon
the 1st leaf or 1st pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant
seed leaf
part of a seed that has stored food
Explain Parenchyma Cells.
thin cell walls perform most metabolic functions, most common cell type, the "stem cells" of a plant
germination
stage when a plant sprouts from a seed and begins to grow
elongation region
place in root where newly made cells become larger, used to be meristematic region
examples of vascular plants
ferns, trees, roses, and other flowering plants
structures in a leaf:
cutin: waxy layer, Palisade Layer: photosynthsis, Upper epidermis: single layer of protective cells, Spongy Layer: photosynthetic cells, Air space, Lower Epidermis: protection, Stomata: CO2 in, O2 out, water in and out
Terminal Buds
buds that grow at the end of a stem
Young plant and stored food
These are found inside a seed.
Why is angiosperm diversity so high?
Coevolution with pollinators and herbivores has led to specialization
Still being discovered at a fast rate- high extinction rate in the tropics creates a race against time to classify and characterize them
Bordered pits
allow water to move from one xylem to another (around the embolism) but embolism cannot move around pits
Acer saccharinum - silver maple
silver bark, brown new growth, red cluster buds,
Life Cycle of Bryophytes
Depend on water as sperm must swim to egg.
Why oxygen is so imporant
-ozone layer, with out O2 in the atmosphere, the ozone (O3) layer would have not formed...and then the UV radiation wouldn't be shielded....this would have not have lead to the evolution of life into the terrestrial environment
What do plants need to live successfully on land?
For plants to survive on land, they must have ways to obtain water and other materials from their surroundings, retain water, transport materials throughout the plant, support their bodies, and reproduce successfully.
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