PLANT SCIENCE Flashcards

Terms Definitions
CryptomonadsPhylum Cryptophyta
CryptomonadsPhylum Cryptophytaunicellularsome are photosyntheticarose from fusion of two different eukaryotic cells some contain pigments only known from cyanobacteria and red algaeflagellatesno cell wallmarine and freshwater
DinoflagellatesPhylum Dinophytaunicellularabout half photosyntheticbiflagellatemay have cellulose platesmostly marine, many freshwatersome produce toxic compounds or harmful red tidesPfiesteria piscicidasome symbiotic with reef-forming coralssome biolumin
DinoflagellatesPhylum Dinophytaunicellularabout half photosyntheticbiflagellatemay have cellulose platesmostly marine, many freshwatersome produce toxic compounds or harmful red tidesPfiesteria piscicidasome symbiotic with reef-forming coralssome bioluminesce
EuglenoidsPhylum Euglenophyta
EuglenoidsPhylum Euglenophytaunicellular1/3 genera contain chloroplastssimilar to green algaeflagellatesno cell wallmostly freshwater, some marine
DiatomsPhylum Bacillariophyta
DiatomsPhylum Bacillariophytaunicellular or colonialmost photosyntheticsome have flagellacell wall of silica- Sand, glass: Two shells of Silicamarine and freshwater: important component of phytoplankton
Auxin is?
hormone; growth promoter
herbivore
animal which eats plants
Kingdom Protista
Kingdom Protista-Some Protist Photosynthetic (Autotrophs) and ingest bacteria (hetrotrophs)• unicellular, colonial, simple multicellular. Eukaryotic• protozoa, algae, water molds, slime molds• autotrophs, heterotrophs, myxotrophs• reproduction by cell division and sexual• relationships with plants-Terrible pathogens
Cellular respiration converts organic compounds into..
CO2
Strategy of Energy Metabolism
–catabolism: pathways–anabolism: pathways by which cells synthesize-life requires steady supply of organic moleculesmajor pathways of metabolism
Transport in XYLEM supported by...
TRANSPIRATION PULL
omnivore
someone or something that is omnivorous.
carbon
a widely distributed element that forms organic compounds in combination with hydrogen, oxygen, etc., and that occurs in a pure state as diamond and graphite, and in an impure state as charcoal.
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Fungi-Are hetrotrophic ( not plants)• unicellular and filamentous multicellular (Mushrooms)• lack plastids and photosynthetic pigments-More closely related to Animals then plants-Relationships with plants -Mycorrhizal: Symbiotic relationship with plant roots -Pathogens -Lichens: Fungus + green Algae/ Cyanobacteria• absorb nutrients from living or dead organisms• usually asexual and sexual reproduction• relationships with plants
What process starts seed germination?
Absorption of water
stomata
a mouth or ingestive opening, esp. when in the form of a small or simple aperture.
abscisic acid
a hormone that inibits plant growth, it causes the guard cells to close the stomata.
Transpiration
loss of water vapour from leaves and stems
Ch.6 [Step 3]electron transport chain
- electron transport chain
– electrons of NADH and FADH2 passed to low energy-level oxygen
– additional electron carriers involved in chain
– released energy drives proton gradient Fig 6-13
Ch. 6 [Step 4] oxidative phosphorylation



–  ATP synthase


–  chemiosmotic coupling


•  proton gradient established across inner membrane


•  potential energy in gradient generates ATP from ADP + P


•  chemiosmotic power important in other processes
Terrestial plants support by...(3)
1. Thickened cellulose2. Cell turgor3. Lignified xylem
3 factors needed for seed germination
1. WATER2. OXYGEN3. suitable TEMPERATURE
Explain "manipulation of length of darkness"
Manipulating type of light phytochrome can absorb
cotyledon
contains endosperm
fibrous
many fibers (roots)
cloning
producing genetically identical plants
petal
colorful part of the flower
non-seed producing plant
ferns, club moss
Plants
A multicelled photoautotroph, most with well-developed roots and shoots (e.g., stems, leaves), as well as photosynthetic cells that include starch grains as well as chlorophylls a and b, and polysaccharides such as cellulose, pectin, and lignin in cell walls. The primary producers on land.
Bladderwort
Underwater plant that catches insects.
xylem
tissue through which water and minerals flow up through the plant
pistils
center of most flowers, female parts
Pistil
Female reproductive organ inside the flower of an angiosperm; consists of a sticky stigma, ovary, style and ovules
vacuole
stores water,helps support the cell and has many other important roles in the cells function
holds and protects seeds
function of fruit
fiddle head
the baby plant of a fern
eukaryotes, autotrophs
All plants are ___________ and _______
root hairs
absorb water and minerals; anchor plant in soil
Gymnosperm
Plants that have unprotected or naked seeds.
Water
Critical to all living things for survival. Water helps obtain chemicals from their surroundings, break down food, grow, move substances within ther bodies, and reproduce.
Comsumer
Organisms that con't make their own food
fuctions of the stem
storage, support, and transport
roots
Absorbs water and minerals from the ground. Anchors plant in ground.
Stem
Part of the flower that provides support and a transportation of food.
eukaryotic
they have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
pollen
n. The fine dust-like grains or powder formed within the anther of a flowering plant.
true leaves
leaves that can make food through photosynthesis. True leaves replace seed (cotyledon) leaves.
Germination
Series of events that result in the growth of a plant from a seed
Monocot
An angiosperm having a single leaf in its seed
Rhizoid
Rootlike filament that holds a moss in place
seedling
a plant or tree grown from a seed.
nonvascular plant
use other ways to move water and nutrients through a plant bacuse of the lack of tubelike structures
growth hormone
a chemical that causes more cells to grow and helps cells to grow larger
tropism
A growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus
cuticle
a waxy layer that coats the surface of stems and leaves
Phloem Cambium Xylem
Layers of the stem (from outermost to innermost)
Vascular bundles in rings
Monocots have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT ______.
vessel elements- water through plant
wider than tracheids, stacked end to end to form a continuos tube in the xylem
The equation for photosynthesis
H2O + 6 CO2 ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
What adaptations do plants have to help them survive on land?
cell walls made of cellulose, a cuticle to keep water in, roproduce out of water, taller to get more sunlight and roots to help them stay in the ground and get water
What are the 4 parts of flowering plants?
1) roots 2) stems 3) leaves 4) flowers
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