Plant Taxonomy Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pistil
stigma,style,ovule,ovary
Prickles
Epidermal extensions
FabaceaeSub:MimosoideaeCaesalpinoideaePapilionoideae
Bean/Pea/Legume FamilyFruits:Legumes- have two seamssometimes indihiscentsometimes loments- break into one-seeded piecesMimosoideae:leaves usually bipinnately compoundFlowers: reduced petals, conspicuous and many stamenCaesalpinoideae:Leaves usually bipinnate leavesFlowers are zygomorphic- distinct petals and upper petal is often different shape or color than other petalsPapilionoideae:usually simple leaves with modified tendrilsFlowers: zygomorphic: Upper large banner, lower petals are wings and keel-diadelphous stamen: 10 stamen- 1 distinct and 9 connate
Phenolics
Tannin, anthocyanins, lignins
Matrix
fluid filled space
Tubers
vertical runners (potato)
terminal sheething
 milky sap
Fig- (Ficus)
mulberry family
 
 
 
 
 
MORACEAE
Brassicaceae
Mustard family*Distinct flowers!*- 4merous flowers perianth with petals in cross shape-petals often yellow, white, purple, or pink-6 steam are tetradynamous- 4 long and 2 short filamentsFruits:sillques- long and slendersilicles- round and squat, sometimes heart shaped
Euphorbiaceae
Spurge familyMilky sapproduces poisonous secondary compoundsFlowers:-usually no petals-inflorescence called cyathium or a false flower-cuplike ovolucre of 4-5 connate bracts-sometimes bracts have flattened petaloid appendagesFlowers:-schizocarpic capsule fruit
Lamiaceae
Mint FamilyLeaves: opposite leaves*Square stems*Punctate leaves with strong scentsFlowers:*verticillate- arranged in whorls*zygomorphic flowers- 2-lobed upper lip and 3 lobed lower lipFruits:*4 lobed ovary*4 nutlet per flower
Geraniaceae
Flowers:-stamen are basally connate-one elongated style is slender beakedFruit:can be a capsule or an elastic dehiscent schizocarp
Hemicellulose
glue-like substance b/w cellulose
Mesophyll
middle portion of leaf
Sun leaves
thick and small
Fagaceae
Beech Family/ OAKSFlowers: staminate inflorescences catkinsFruits: *nut surrouneded by woody cupule*
Dennstaedtiaceae
-Bracken fern family-Key trait: marginal sori with revolute leaf margin
Caryophyllaceae
The Pink FamilyLeaves: opposite, simple, entire*Swollen nodes*Flowers:-flowers in cymes or solitary-5 petals, often formed as claw with blade-petals often notched, toothed (‘pinked’) or lobed at tip-10 stamen attached to receptacle-2-5 carpels-ovary has free-central or basal placentation(one locule)Fruits:-capsule or achene
Apiaceae
Carrot familyLeaves: alternate or basal*Sheathing petioles**hollow stems*-internal oil tubules causing strongly scented tissuesFlowers:*umbel*-stylopodia- enlargement above the ovary that secretes nectar-2 carpelsFruits:schizocarp w/ 2 mericarps, often strongly ribbed
Pith
internal of xylem and phloem
Phloem
transports material down the plant
Trace mineral needed by plants
Zinc,strontium,sodium,iron,aluminum,iodine
Endosperm
contains most of the nutrients
Plumule
embryonic plant in the seed
Cactaceae
Shrubs and trees. Succulent and spiny.Leaves: alternate, simple, often highly reduced or absent, or modified into spines-have “areoles” =pad-like buds that bear spinesFlowers:-flowers generally solitary-ovary inferior (sunken in stem tissue)-tepals numerous, spirally arranged-stamen numerous, distinct, basally adnate to innermost tepals-2 to many carpels-multi-lobed stigma-ovary has parietal placentation (one locule)Fruits:-berry or fleshy capsule, surrounded by stem tissue
Lycopodiaceae
Club Mosses;
erect leafy stems, pair of strobili, rhizomes
Window leaves
cylindrical shape allows light penentration into leaf buried halfway underground
Procambium
gives rise to xylem and phloem
Annuals
grow, reproduce, and die every year
Nucleus
Stie of DNA replication, RNA synthesis, and transcription
Hydrolizable tannins
protects DNA from carcinogen attachment
Alkaloids
produced by high nutrient envir. plants, latex, morphine, works against general herbivores
Complex Tissues
Xylem, phloem, epidermis, periderm, secretory cells
Theophrastus
300 BC Greek heir of Aristotle
RosaceaeSub: SPiraeoideae
woody plantssuperior ovaryFruit is an aggregate of follicles or a capsule
Horizontal Leaf Architecture
broad, found in the woods
Sepals
green structures that house the flower before blooming
Carnivorous Plants
venus fly trap, sundew, pitcher plant
Monocots
grasses, parallel veins, 1 seed leaf, fibrous roots, petals and flower parts typically in multiples of 3, vascular bundles scattered in stem, descended from dicots
Vertical Leaf architecture
thick, small leaves, open fields
Asa Gray
Christian- appealed for a scientific explanation fro natural phen. w/o appealing to direct divine intervention
lignins
What makes wood hard (2nd most abundant wood chem.)add rigidity to cell wall
Root cap
responsible for pushing through the soil, epidermal cells can be lost
Pectin
used as a glue between cellulose molecules
Rays
conducting cells that are involved in the lateral conduction through the stem
L. Pasteur
spontaneous generation of life is disproved
Selaginellaceae
Spike Moss Family;can look like a fern or moss;
Stamens
attached to the base of the pistil, have anther adn filament on them
Turgor pressure
pressure up against sides of cell wall
Pendanius Dioscordides
Described about 600 species by related characteristics, not necessarily biological
Receptacle
part of the flower that the sepal, petals, adn ovary are attached to
Axil
angle between the leaf petiole and the stem of the branch
Haustoria
roots that have small pegs that wrap around another plant for parasitism
Vascular cambium
cells that exist between the primary cambium and primary phloem
Plastid
takes on the structure or function of a mitochondria or chloroplasts
Terpendoids and terpenes
strong odors, haze causings, nutrient poor envir.
A horizon
inorganic soil material w/ 50% or less organic processed material
Aggregate fruits
derived from a single flower with many pistils, tiny fruitlets (blackberry)
Apical Meristems
meristems from the tip of the plant, lengthen by the addition of cells
Clusiaceae Family
m or d?
Alt or Opp:
fruit:?
Simple or compound?
Stipules? 
anything special?
petiole?:
inflorescence:
uses:
Genera:

 
m or d: DICOT
Alt or opposite: OPPOSITE
fruit: DRUPE/BERRY, fleshy, 
Simple or compound: SIMPLE
Stipules: NO STIPULES
anything special: opp LEATHERY LEAVES
LATEX-yellow/orange
seperate male and female plants
fleshy yellow flowers

petiole: hidden apical meristem between petioles
inflorescence:
uses:eat fruits, timber, st. john's wort
Genera:
ferns
Phylum Pterophyta
gnetophytes
Phylum Gnetophyta
horsetails
Phylum Arthrophyta
Eurosids II
MyrtalesBrassicalesMalvalesSapindales
club mosses
Phylum Lycophyta
Peleoherbs
Aristolochiales, Piperales, Nymphaeales, Certophyllalesusually herbaceousleaves alternate, pinnately veined, flowers with numerous to few partsPerianth and androcieum in whorles of 3Filament well differentiated from antherConnective inconspicuous 

Morus
Moraceae, Mulberry, resembles rasberries (multiple carpels), same family as figs, food for silk moths, different lobing like sassafras but has teeth.
Passiflora
Passifloraceae, Passion flower, fringed corona, ornamental, juice, in malpighiales.
Androecium
All stamens collectivelyProduces pollen grainStructure of stamen- filament anthers connective contain pollen
Lolium
Poeaceae, rye grass, compressed spikelets in same plane.
Unicarpellate gynoceia
Composed of single carpelfabaceae
Characteristics of angiosperms
Flower=characteristic reproductive structureOvules enclosed in ovary (seeds enclosed in fruits)Double fertilization and endosperm developmentAnimals as pollinatorsPresence of vessels in xylem
archegonia
female reproductive organ which produces eggs in bryophytes, ferns and most gymnosperms
Mimosa
Fabaceae, leaves fold to touch, inflorescence of radial symetrical flowers, albizia genus is also known as this.
Toxicodendron
Anacardiaceae, poison ivy, 3 part leaflet, scrambling plant, birds eat berries to distribute seeds.
Calyx tube
cylinder formed by synsepalous calyx
bryophytes
phylum of green, nonvascular, seedless plants comprised of true mosses, hornworts and liverworts
fringed corona, ornamental, juice, in malpighiales.
Passiflora, Passifloraceae
What is endosperm
Specialized nutritive tissue for developing embryo
naked seed
ovules which are unenclosed, forming on cones or stalks
Leaves fold to touch, inflorescence of radial symetrical flowers, albizia genus is also known as this.
Mimosa, Fabaceae
All petals collectively and kinds
corollapolypetalous corolla= petals distinctsympetalous corolla= petals connate
Vegetative characters
Those that are not directly involved in the process of sexual reproductionOften quite variableUsed to delimit species and sub specific categoriesex. features of leaves, stems, and roots
vascular plants
plants with the vascular tissues xylem and phloem for transporting water and nutrients
Which group of plants is dominated by the sporophyte phase?
Vascular plants
big leafs, white flowers, smooth bark, ashy underside of leaf.
Magnolia macrophylla, Magnoliaceae
Axile placentation
Ovules are borne at or around the center of a compound ovary on the axis formed from joined septaRutaceae, solanaceae
What are the sources of characters?
Morphology- shape or formPhytochemistry- study of secondary plant compoundsMolecular biology- high weight molecules
gametophyte
sexual form of a haploid plant in the alternation of generations
What two groups make up the seedless, vascular plants?
Lycophytes & pterophytes
What were the ancestors of multi-cellular plants?
Multicellular algae that were completely immersed in water and dissolved minerals
Characteristics of ferns and fern allies
SporangiaCluster of sporangiaType of spore and gametophytesHomosporusHeterosporusFlagellated sperm producedVascular: sieve cells and tracheids
What is the largest plant group and the two classes recognized?
Division AnthophytaMagnoliopsida (dicots) and Liliopsida (monocots)
What is phylogenetic classification and a phylogony?
The arrangement of organisms into groups based on evolutionary relationshipsA phylogony is a diagram (hypothesis) of evolutionary ancestry of a group
What are the four major characteristics of monocots?
One cotyledon, parallel leaves in veins, flowers petals in multiples of 3's, and scattered vascular tissue
What are the characteristics of Tracheophytes?
has two types of transport tissues:
-xylem--transports water up from roots
-phloem--transports food made during photosynthesis and nutrients to where they are needed in the plant
Plant is tall because of vascular system
Has specialized organs: roots, stems, and leaves
Terms applied to plants with imperfect flowers
monoecious= both staminate and carpellate flowers on the same plantdioecious= staminate and carpellate flowers on different plantspolygamous= produces both perfect and imperfect flowers on the same plant
Heterosporous and examples of heterosporous plant families
Have male and female sporesExample is SelanginellaceaeSome ferns are like this
What adaptations did multicellular adopt to help solve these problems?
1. Having body parts that extend into both air and soil
2. Develop a vascular system to transport resources within the plant
3.Develop cuticle (protection layer) to keep from drying out
4. Specialized structures for reproduction, including spores and seeds
What was the transitional period after 1850?
Botanists began to realize that \"natural affinities\" existed among plants and believed that classification should reflect those affinities
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