Plant Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
root
pressure
chemical messengers
hormnes
family
5 (-aceae)
Pistil
stigma, style, ovary
Salt Grass
Distichlis spicata
Dormant
Inactive, not growing
parallel
veins of a monocot
closest to wat phylum
fungi
Egg cell
The female gamete
eudicot
vascular bundles form a ring
Are plants autotrophic or heterotrophic?
autotrophic
stamens
modified microsporophylls that produce pollen; make up the androecium
subclass
between class and order (-idae)
Phloem
Transports food from leaves to roots.
vascular tissue
transports water & dissolved substances from place to place
biennial
flowering plant that completes life cycle in two years
rhizoids
hairlike projections that anchor the gametophytes ot the surfaces on which they grow
monocot
petals multiples of 3, parallel viens,
leaves
photosynthetic organs that contain one or more bundles of vascular tissue
flowering plants that produce seeds with two seed leaves
dicots
Sepals and petals are collectively called the
perianth.
Tropism
Growth response that results in cuvature of a whole plants organs toward or away from a stimuli owing to differential rates of cell elongation.
angiosperms
flowering; flowering plants are most abundant.
Rhizomes 3
Horizontal swollen underground stems (Ginger)
Prostele
The simplest type of stele, consisting of a solid column of vascular tissue
Mycorrhiza
is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular plants.
-movement of water and minerals from the roots upward
-movement of manufactured food down
These are the main functions of _________.
stems
petal
leaf shaped part of the corolla, usually brightly colored and easy to identify
mesophyll cells in leaves are packed with _______
chloroplasts
meiosis
cell division that produces one half he amount of chromosomes
stamen
male reproductive parts made of the anther and filament
Epidermis
outer layer of cells of plant structures
Casparian Strip
Waterpoof strip that surrounds plant endodermis cells
What are some functions of cell membranes? What are cell membranes made of? What is the difference between hydrophobic and hydrophilic cell membranes?
sclerenchyma
Single cells or aggregates of cells whose principal function is thought to be mechanical support of plants or plant parts
Eudicots
Flowering plants that have 2 embryonic seed leaves. Petals are usually in groups of 4's or 5's, have netlike veins, arranged vascular tissue, taproot system, and a pollen grain with multiple openings.
Roots
Organs found in vascular plants that anchor the plant and enable it to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
What does bulk water flow carry?
dissolved minerals
ovule
the part of the sporophyte in which the female gametophyte develops
Creation of life
- Evolution; living from nonliving things
biennual
a plant that completes its life cycle in two years
vessels
conducting strands made up of a second type of xylem cell in gnetophytes and flowering plants
alternation of generations
the shift between haploid and diploid
Non-vascular
type of plants that do not have vessels for transportation of water and nutrients
Protein in a wheat grain is mainly found in the
embryo.
Chlorophyll
The green pigment in plant cells used for photosynthesis.
filament
'Stem' Of A Stamen; Holds Anther Above Plant
What is Phosphate essential for?
energy metabolism (ATP)nucleic acidsswitching the activities of enzymes
shoot
the part of a plant's body that grow mostly upward
nonvascular plant
a plant that lacks vascular tissue and true roots, stems, and leaves
cereals
any grasses that can be used to make food
Alternation of Generation
all plants will have a multicellular Gametophyte ( haploid) and a multicellular Sporophyte (diploid).
sugar source
the source of where sugar comes from (sucrose)
Apical Meristems
tips of roots and shoots. Supply cells for the plant to increase in length. Growth in this direction is primary growth.
cell wall
the definite boundary or wall that is part of the outer structure of certain cells, as a plant cell.
Name the two types of pollenation ?
Insect pollenation, Wind pollenation.
Indoleactetic Acid (IAA)
Affects the root and shoot tips of plants. Shoot tips- promotes growth in the shoot area. Root tips- high concentrations inhibit growth and small amounts promote growth.
zone of cell division
The zone of primary growth in roots consisting of the root apical meristem and its derivatives. New root cells are produced in this region.
flatworms are what? why?
they are acoelomates- they have no body cavity
Give three examples of medicines that we get from plants ?
Digitalis (a muscle relaxant) from foxglove, morphine from poppy, quinine from cinchona tree.
30. What is a rhizoid?
a. Has a similar function and role as plant roots, anchor plant, collects water and nutrients
near upper surface of leaf; full of chloroplasts; tightly packed together; oriented to obtain maximum amount of light
palisades cells - part of the mesophyl
walnut
nuez
anthocerophyta
hornworts
tronco
trunk
la enredadera
vine
sepal
green leaves
sap
sugar water
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
pink quill
Companion tubes
support cells
Carolina Snailseed
Coculus carolinus
brassinosteroids
growth and development
auxin
causes cell elongation
Alisma plantago-aquatica
European water-plantain
Japanese Maple
acer palmatum
megaspores
female gametes of plants
anther
top portion of stamen
fertilization
egg and sperm unite
leaves : fagaceae
stipulate, alternate
hole in the leaf
stoma
Non-vascular Plants
Lack vascular tissue.
New seeds
begin a new plant
blade
main part of a leaf
Toyon
Heteromeles arbutifolia; found at clapporal, oal woodland, mixied-evergreen forest -1300m capp, baja CA
rhizoid
Threadlike structures that anchor nonvascular plants to the ground.
wood
all tissues inside lateral meristem
What division is moss in?
Bryophyta
plants reproduce
plants developed water-resistant spores and seeds
Meristematic Tissue
produces new cells by mitosis
meristem tissue
continually divides=> plants continue to grow as long as they live
Epidermal tissue example
Upper epidermis of leaf
Seed
an adaptation of some terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a protective coat
moss
no true roots or leaves, non-vascular
stoma
paclike openings in underside of leaf
WHEN A SEED FIRST SPROUTS/OPENS.
define germination
cambium
vascular tissue that produces xylem and phloem cells as a plant grows
live in wet places for reproduction
mosses
stem
supports a plant above the ground
root hairs
increase surface area for absorption
Chloroplast
the tiny body that contains chlorophyll
fruit
wall of tissue surrounding an angiosperm seed
Calyptera
falls off and spores are released
Endosperm
a tissue that provides nourishment for the developing plant
Conifer
A tree that makes seeds inside cones
Herbaceous
characteristic of a nonwoody herb or plant part
root cap
thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root
cell
the smallest unit of a living thing
Sporangium
Structures in ferns and some fungi that contain spores
rhizomes
a horizontal shoort that grows just below the suface. Vertical shoots emerge from axillary buds in the rhizome
ovary
in plants, a flower structure that contains one or more ovules from which female gametophytes are produced; in anmials,...
ground tissue
between dermal and vascular. includes root hair cells and have 3 kinds
bilin
a pigment that is a linear tetrapyrolle
Parts of a leaf
1. veins
2. epidermis
3. chlorophyll
4. stomata
Describe the flower of iridacae
3 merous perfect
transpiration pulls
great distances, relies on cohesion and adhesion
pollen grains
developed from microspore & contains male gametophyte within pollen wall; protects pollen grain
Fiddlehead
the early stage of sporophyte growing out of the archegonia, curled frond gradually unfurls and spreads out
vegetative reproduction
method of asexual reproduction in plants
a ___________ is a thin, rootlike structure that anchors a moss and absorbs water and nutrients for the plant
rhizoid
Cohesion
Water molecules are attracted to each other via Hydrogen Bonds
Adaptation
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce!
photosynthesis
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
petals
The colored part of a flower that attrats birds and insects.
Pollen Grain
Small structure produced by the male reproductive organs of a seed plant. Has a water-resistant coat, contains gametophyte parts that will produce sperm.
develop from an embryo
where do mosses come from
translocation
the movement of food material from 1 place to another
Transport proteins
on endodermal cells are control points where a plant adjusts the quantity and type of solutes absorbing from the soil water.
Sphagnum teres
Bogs; no bog can exist without this
Supports bogs, stores water and nutrients, makes and keeps up a nutrient-poor acidic environment that fosters only their growth, along with other highly-specialized plants
They are in North America, Northern Florida (Okaloosa County).
When intact, it is partly alive and partly dead; the top is alive and the bottom is dead form lack of light and is partially decayed; it is used as a fertilizer that holds water and nutrients
Geotropism
A Turning of the roots down to earth
hypocotyl
part of seed embryo that becomes the lower part of the stem
pokemon
a monster that comes out of a pokeball
layer of cells at bottom of leaf
lower epidermis
organ
a special part of an organism that performs a specific function
stigma
The apical end of the style where deposited pollen enters the pistil
ring
the stems add a _________ of cells srond the trunk each year
secondary growth
plant growth which stems increase in width
cuticle
a very thin hyaline film covering the surface of plants, derived from the outer surfaces of the epidermal cells.
cotyledon(seed leaf)
a leaf(green), of the embryo of a plant
Monocot Characteristic 3
leaves are usually in multiples of three
dicot
petals are in multiples of 4, 5, veins are networked, and stems get thicker each year
food conducting cells
sieve tubes members, makes up phloem, tubes, alive
Fibrous Roots
mat of thin roots that spread out. monocots
stomata
The hole(s) on the bottom of the leaf that allows water and gases to pass through. Stomata are similar to the pores in our skin.
ammonium ions
in the nitrogen cycle, n first be converted to WHAT
grafting
a bud, shoot, or scion of a plant inserted in a groove, slit, or the like in a stem or stock of another plant in which it continues to grow.
tepal
this is similar to sepal but also is a leaf
Catalpa speciosa - Western catalpa
whorled arrangement, large pod, heart shape leaf
What is Herbaceous growth?
Cells from shoot and root tip meristems
capillary action
tendency of water to rise in a thin tube
terminal bud
The bud at the tip of a stem. during auxin stimulation, suppresses lateral growth by suppressing development of axial buds
fibrous root system
consists of a mat of thin roots spread out below the soil surface, provides increased exposure to soil, nutritents and water
stage - plant development
2nd stage in the life cycle of a flowering plant
List 6 traits of the parasitic reduction syndrome and why they occur.
1. Loss of leaves--take up E, photosynthesis not occurring
2. Small overall size-no need for large plant to hold leaves
3. Loss of roots-unnecessary, get E from host
4. Loss of chlorophyll-not doing photosynthesis
5. Loss of genes needed for photosynthesis-not doing photosynthesis
6. Higher substitution rate in genes that are not lost
tulips
gravity
vine
la vite
el cactus
cactus
sporophyte
diploid generation
Organism
Any living thing
Cheatgrass
Bromus tectorum Poeae
ferns
seedless vascular plants
male gametes
in pollen
Buddleja davidii
Butterfly bush
Neoregelia carolinae
blushing bromeliad
Flower
What makes new seeds?
Lycophyta
phylum of club moss.
angiospeerm
flowering plants, produce fruit.
Microspores
Smaller type of spore
i advise you
te aconsejo que
Photosynthetic tissue
Site of glucose production
grain
The seed of certain grasses.
Peace lily
Acid
Insoluble Ca oxalate
Irritation of oral mucosa, tongue, and throat
rings
dicoatscircles adding layer to trees
reproduction
the process of generating offspring
Corylus cornuta var. californica
Beaked hazelnut
trunk
woody stem of a tree
Ethylene
Promotes fruit ripeningPromotes leaf abscission (shedding of leaves in fall)
gymnosperm
vascular plants that don't flower, generally have needlelike or scalelike leaves, and produce seeds that aren't protected by fruit; conifers, cycades, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes
Angiosperm
The largest group of flowering plants
male, haploid
antheridia is ______ and ___________
autotrophs
organisms that make their own food
archae
Which of the domains contains prokaryotic organisms capable of surviving the greatest extremes in temperature or salt concentration?
Collenchyma
Lives at functional maturity
Unevenly thickened walls- rigidity
Primary walls
Epidermus of new shoots for support
cutin
waxy coating that prevents water loss
seeds
simple plants do not make these
xylem
vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
bryophyte
plant that lacks vascular tissue
must live in moist environments
mosses, liverworts
radicle
an embryonic root of a plant
Cones
are the seed bearibng structure of gymnosperms
perennial
plants that live for many growing seasons
embryo
organism in its early stage of development
germination
the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
Sepals
the leaf like structures that enclose a flower when it is still a bud.
Nectary
Produces a sugary liquid that attracts insects.
annual
a reference book that is published regularly once every year
nitrifying bacteria
bacteria that converts NH4 (ammonia) to (NO3-) nitrates; nitrates can also be taken up by plant directly. NH4 can result from decaying matter in soil
pollinators
animals or insects that carry pollen to other flowers
insects
The pollinators of the gnetophytes are ____.
Asteraceae
Ray and disk flowers. inferior ovary of 2 fused carpels. flower parts in 5s. anthers fused. capitulum has a common receptable and surrounded by bracts. Leaves alternate.
Transpiration
the process by which plants release water vapor into the air through stomata; also the release of water vapor into the air by other organisms
Mycorrhizae
supply the plant with water and minerals. and are symbiotic structures consisting of the plants roots intermingled with the hyphae of a fungus that increases amount of nutrients the plant can absorb
Cambuim tissue
produces new Xylem and Phloem cells
Monocot leaves
all spongy mesophyllstomata on top and bottom because grass leaves are at an angle and both sides are exposed to light
asexual reproduction
reproduction, as budding, fission, or spore formation, not involving the union of gametes.
What do NV involve to help prevent water loss?
cuticle
Self- Polination
transfer of pollen grains from the same flower or from flowers on the same plant.
Mediterranean climate
mild wet winters, warm- hot dry summers; CA, Chile, S. Africa, Australia, Med. Basin (2% of world's land)
hypothesis
a prediction about the result of an experiment
epidermal cell
cell that makes up dermal tissue, which is outer covering of the plant
venus flytrap
a carnivorous plant that catches and digests insects, a flower that hinged like jaws that close when an object touches it
T&F: dicots have flower parts in 3ʻs and parallel-veins in their leaves
false
pollen tube
structure grown by a pollen grain; contains 2 haploid sperm nuclei
guard cells
cells that control the oopening and closing of the ctomata; regulate the flow of water vapor from leaf tissue
oxygen
A waste gas produced by plants during photosynthesis which is used by all the plants and animals during cellular respiration.
ecosystem
a place that includes the living and non-living components of an area
evergreen plant
plant that retains its leaves year round
Meristem
Found only in the tips of shoots and roots
-The source of all plant growth: the only spots in the plant where new cells are made
-Regions of actively dividing cells
-Stems and roots
-Produces new cells by mitosis
rhizoids, antheridia, archegonia, antheridia, archegonia
in mosses, ______________ anchor the protonema, to which the shoots are attached; the shoots bear _____________ and _______________ at their tips; ______________ produce flagellated sperm which need external water to reach eggs in _______________
cell membrane
surrounds a cell, holding the parts of the cell together; allows certain materials to enter the cell and waste products to exit
What do roots do?
Dissolve water and substances, anchor the plant, store food and water, and take in pxygen
Seed coat
The thickened wall of the ovule that protects the embryo.
Woody stem
Non-green stem that grows to be thick and hard.
3 absolutely necessarily parts of a plant
Stem, Leaf, Root
a group of similar cells is called a _________
tissue
can you give me some advice
me puedes dar algun consejo
Watson and Crick
Found out the structure of DNA in 1953.
Quercus virgiania
Sandy soil dry to wet shade and salt spray tolerant.
Habitat for squirrels and food for deer, squirrels, large birds black bear and many small mammals.
Coastal zone Texas to Virginia
Ship building in colonial times, Lumber products and horticulture
Style
a tube on top of the ovary the extends to the stigma
root pressure
the upward push of xylem sap in the vascular tissue of roots
impact - noun
effect (e.g. What do you think will be the impact of the revolutions in the Middle East?)
What is a root cap?
some roots have this to protect the meristem
thanks i can do it, manage on my own
gracias lo puedo hacer solo
how do conifers extend their growing season
they do not lose leaves, so they can last through winters and grow more because they are still carrying out photosynthesis
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