Plant Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
parenchyma
...
Gymnosperm
naked seeds
Angiosperm
flowing plants
leaves of ferns
fronds
Soap Plant
Chlorogalum pimeridianum
Ovary
Carries the ovules
gymnosperms
reproductive structures in cones
Blue Gum Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus globulus
Shoots
above ground, like fruit
Trachoem
Leaf hairs, provides protection against insects and damaging solar radiation; outgrowth of the epidermis
mesophyll
the ground tissue in leaves
vegetative reproduction
cloning genetically identical individuals. type of asexual reproduction
carpels
modified megasporophylls that produce and contain the ovules; make up the gynoecium
dioecious
two homes for 2 sexes
seeded plants
vascular plants with seeds
Antheridium
A sperm-producing structure that may be multicellular or unicellular
pollen grain
male gametophyte in seed plants
archegonium
the female egg-producing structure in bryophyta and pteridophytes
vascular plants
plants with a vascular system
Bryophyte
plant, such as moss, lacking lignin-hardened vascular tissue
tap root.
-one main root, no modes.
-continuation of the primary root.
-ideal for anchor.
-pentration is greater for water.
-storage for food.
Leaf
Photosynthetic organs that contain one or more bundles of vascular tissue
Indica, Japonica, and Javanica are different varieties of
rice.
Petal
Colorful leaf-like part of the sepal
Style
stalk that connects stigma to ovary
nucleus
a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters.
Hydroid
The water-conducting cells of the moss hadrom
chemotropism
plant growth in response to a chemical
one or more pistols (stigma, style, and ovary)
gynoecium
Give the main function of dermal tissue
protection
vascular cambium
lateral meristem that produces new xylem and phloem cells in the stem and roots
spore
a small reproductive cell protected by a thick wall
phloem
transports food made in mature leaves to the roots and parts of the shoot system that don't photosynthesize, such as developing leaves and roots
Calvin Cycle
stage of photosynthesis that produces the end product, sugar
Plants that have both staminate and carpellate flowers on a single individual are called
monoecious.
Epidermis
The dermal tissue system of non-woody plants, usually consisting of an outer layer of tightly packed cells.
sepal
green petals that protect the flower before it blooms
Agamospermy
Seed production without the use of fertilization
source
the part of a plant that provides organic compounds for other parts of the plant
stems
the transport part of a plant that carries nutrients and a defense system that protects the plant against giant predators and diease
petiole
in plants, the stalk that joins the leaf to the stem
Xylem Tissue
goes up with water to transport H2O
mycelium
the main body of the fungus which consists of many hyphae
sporophyte
first phase of a plant's life cycle- diploid, produces spores
Which of the following crops has been genetically modified to solve vitamin A deficiency in some populations?
Rice
taproot
a root that develops from the radicle of a plant embryo, grows vertically downward, and forms branches called lateral roots
Alteration of Generations
Diploid sporophyte generation and a haploid gametophyte generation.
How does auxin pass through the cell wall?
diffusion
Coenocytic
A term used to describe an organism or part of an organism that is multinucleate, the nuclei not separated by walls or membranes
What are the cell walls of plants made of?
cellulose
gaurd cells
open and close the stomata of the leaves which control the rate of transpiration and water loss
What was early earth like? How did oxygen accumulate in the atmosphere? When did oxygen accumulate in the atmosphere? When did photosynthesis evolve? When did organisms begin to move on to land?
gravitropism
the growth of a plant in a particular direction in response to gravity
What is the stalk that holds up the anther?
Filament
tissue culture
a new way to grow plants form pieces of plant tissue
3 functions of the stem
1. storage 2. support 3. transport
Zone of elongation
Cells elongate up to ten times in orginal length. pushes root downward into soil.
35. What is germination?
a. Early growth stage of a plant embryo
What is unique about the female trees in the phyla Ginkos?
They rot and stink
3 kinds of vascular plants
1. seedless 2. seeds that flower 3. cone-bearing
How does the male gamete reach the female gamete ?
It passes down the pollen tube.
How do oligosaccharins aid in plant defense from bacteria and fungi?
- bacteria and fungus eat cell wall- oligosaccharins (part of wall) are released- signal plant to stimulate other defenses
date
dátil
birch
bříza
-phyto
plant
sedudu itik
duckweed
Liriodendron tulipifera
Tuliptree
collechyma
provide support
Tendrils
help climb
Fern Gametophyte
Prothallus
chaenomeles speciosa
Flowering quince
monocot
secondary growth absent
pollen
immature plant sperm
nitrate accumulating plant
oats
Trillium ovatum
Western trillium
summersweet clethra
clethra alnifolia
Musk Thistle
Carduus nutans ASTERACEAE
Phoenix roebelenii
pygmy date palm
More angiosperms than _______.
Gymnosperms
leaves: malvaceae
stipulate, alternate, simple
Stamen
Male portion of flower
dwarf Janet Craig dracaena
leaves
main photosynthesis organ of plant
Where are auxins produced?
apical meristems
Bulb
Roughly spherical underground bud surrounded by thick, fleshy leaves. Contains additional buds that can develop asexually into new plants. Also contains new food.
Pterophyta
the "seedless plants", earliest vascular plants to colonize land, include ferns.
attract animals that modify plants
petals
rosaceae- flower
actinomorphic, hypogynous-epigynous, 5 clawed petals perfect
Thigmotropism
how plants respond to touch
Gibberellins
stimulate growth; influence various developmental processes; promote germination; cause enlargement in fruits; dramatic stem growth, opposes abicisic acid
Found in meristems of shoot, root, and seed embryo
Spirogira
circular, coiled chloroplasthas +- mating strains, makes a zygospore
Rhizome
an underground stem of most ferns
egg
animal reproductive body consisting of an ovum or embryo together with nutritive and protective envelopes
gametophyte
haploid phase of plant; produces gametes
anther
Pollen-bearing structure in the stamen (male organ) of the flower usually located on top of the filament of the stamen.
support and transport
two functions vascular tissue
Dicot
Two cotyledons; branched veins; floral parts in multiples of four or five; vascular bundles in a ring; taproots.
In
Carbon dioxide goes _____ the stoma
plant hormones
chemical substances that control plants' patterns of growth & development, and plants' response to environmental conditions
triploid
the endosperm is a ______ tissue.
pigments
proteins that absorb some wavelengths of life and transmit others; the transmitted light gives an object its color
Eukaryotic
cells with membrane bound organelles and a nucleus
cambium
mytotic growth layer in vascular plants that can produce both xylem and phloem cells
land, ocean and fresh water
where plants live
vessel element
a short and fat xylem cell
Stomata
small opening or pores on the underside of leaves
rhizoids
anchor plants to ground AND absorb water and minerals from soil by osmosis
micropyle
an opening through the integuments for pollen access to the egg
palisade layer
dense upper layer where photosynthesis occurs
Adaptation
the process of adapting to something (such as environmental conditions)
eukaryotes
_____, such as plants, have a nucleus
cuticle
Waxy, protective layer that covers the stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. Helps prevent water loss.
Megaspore
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a female gametophyte.
Cotyledons
seed leaves that function as nutrient storage structures
seed coat
the outside covering of a seed
flower structure in which haploid male gametophytes are produced
anther
gravitotropism
stimulus - gravity, response - roots go down
annual, biennial, perennial
one year, two years, long-lived
false
t/f accessory pigments absorb the same colors of light that chororphyll does
genetic response
that part of natural selection consisting of change in a population across generations
carpel
intermost part of flower that produces female gametophytes
ethylene
gaseous plant hormone, cel death, leaf abscission, fruit rippening
vascular plant
plants that have true vascular tissue (vascular tissue helps with transportation and support)
fruit
Form from the ovary wall and sometimes other flower organs; some contains seeds
generation
a new generation is formed when plants & animals produce enough seeds or young to continue that plant or animal
Carpel/Pistil
One of the modified leaves of the flower that encloses the ovules; this term sometimes refers to the entire female reproductive organ. Includes ovary, ovule(s), style, stigma.
photosynthesis
the process by which plants and some other organisms capture and use light energy to make food from carbon dioxide and water.
Dormancy
A period when an organism's growth or activity stops
root cap
tough structure that protects a root as it forces its way through the soil
seed dispersal
method of scattering seeds from the plant that produced them; natural sources: wind, water, etc. or fruit (organisms eat then excrete - angiosperms)
Roots
this organ is used to anchor the plant
in their stomata
where do plants take in co2
Nonvascular Plant
a low-growing plant that lacks true vascular tissue.
Transpiration
the process by which water is lost through a plant's leaves
Zone of differentiation
cells in this zone undergo specialization into three primary meristems that give rise to three tissue systems in the plant the epidermis ground tissue and xylem and phloem


-Spiny (spines originate at bud)
-Mostly 3 prominent lobes
-Serrate
Crataegus marshalliiC: Parsley HawthornF: Rosaceae
sclerenchyma cell
plant cels with two thick cell walls fortified with linin; function to support
how are gymnosperms and angiosperms similar?
they both make seeds
dark reaction/calvin cycle
organic molecules are made using ATP, NADPH, and CO2 from the air
Alternation of generations
Plant life cycles having both a diploid and haploid phase
nutrient
the part of food the body needs to help it grow and/or work
ABC genes
flower genes that give rise to normal structure almost like homeobox genes in animals, the four plant parts are 1-steeple-2-petal-3-stamen-4-carpel;a gene specifies steeple, a and b genes specify petal, b and c genes are stamen and c alone is for carpel
Ground Tissue
cells that lie between the dermal and vascular tissue
Parts of a seed
tiny plant, stored food, seed coat
phenotypic plasticity
variation in the phenotype of a single genotype caused by environmental influences
George Washington Carver
the plant doctor who found many uses for sweet potatoes, peanut, pecans, and tomatoes
Populus nigra 'italica' - lombardy black popular
sall buds pressed to twig,
pollen, alternation of generations
What two means of reproduction and dispersal do plants have?
embryo
tiny part of a seed that can grow into a new plant
Function of xylem tissue
carry water upwards from the roots to every part of a plant (osmosis and capillary action)
After meiosis in females
4 megaspores produced - 3 die and only one functional one - gives rise to the female gametophyte generation
Seed plants have STEMS which allow:
stems allow movement of matrials btwn leaves and roots
What is the function of the fruit?
It protects and encloses the seed and aids in their dispersal by wind/ animals.
pole
polo
zacatl
grass
La verdura
Vegetables
Hormones
Growth Regulators
pith
storage material
light reactions
...
fronds
fern leaf
Abies balsamea
balsam fir
primary growth
vertical growth
Bottlebrush Buckeye
aesculus parviflora
redox reaction
oxidation and reduction
abscisic
"babysitter" hormone...makes sure seeds don't germinate early, inhibits cell growth, stimulates the closing of the stomata
seeds or seed pods
4.
spores
What is letter C?
Digitalin
from foxglove, heart med
black walnut
Juglans nigra
 
Juglandaceae
Sepals
Leaflike, unusually green structures arranged in a circle around the top of a flower stem but below the petals.
ovule
specialized reproductive structure in seeds
Philodendron 'Green Congo'
green Congo philodendron
Bryophytes need what to reproduce?
Moisture
Plants
Multicellular Eukaryotes with tissues and organs that have specialized structures and functions
waxy surface layer of leaf
cuticle
Cambium
formative one-cell-thick layer of tissue between xylem and phloem in most vascular plants that is responsible for secondary growth
swamp white oak
Quercus bicolor
 
Fagaceae
spoil yourself a little
mímate un poco
liverworts
a small herbaceous nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum hepatophyta
fat cells
in charge of storing energy
protogyte
The condition of hermaphrodite plants in which female gametes mature and are shed before maturation of male gametes
xylem
tubes that transport water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant
3rd way nonvasc. plants help
nesting material
Plant-based foods
Foods originating from plant sources
chlorophyll
a green chemical needed for photosynthesis
Plants came from
algae, from the sea
Petals
modified leaves which are usually bright in color to attract pollinators
food provides (4)
-energy
-body's own building blocks
-gene regulators
-protective anitoxidants
Anthocerophyta
Common name hornworts
grown in damp shady habitats
kalumpang tree
bears flowers with a bad odor
tracheids
hollow cells with thick cell walls that resist pressure;key cells in xylem
What are the root-like structures that help anchor NV plants?
rhizoids
Spore case
During reproduction plants produce a _______ with spores
Target Cell
A cell that receives hormone signals.
grafting
put together two plants to combine them into a stronger plant with one root system
pollination
spreading of pollen around from plant to plant
palisade mesophyll
layer of tall, column-shaped mesophyll cells just under the upper epidermis of a leaf
sorus
cluster of sporangia on the underside of a fern frond
Nonvascular
No tube-like structures to carry food, and water through the plant
cycads
The four main groups of gymnosperms include conifers, __________, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes.
mineral
A nutrient that xylem transports to the leave in a vascular plant.
endosperm
a nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm cell with two polar nuclei during double fertilization, which provids nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds
Guard Cells
guard stomata, help regulate water flow


-Fall color
-Ovate, crenate leaf
-Naturally dense
Pyrus calleryana 'Bradford'C: Flowering PearF: Rosaceae
bulbs
an underground vertical shoot that has modified leaves that are used as food storage
dicots (5 characteristics)
1. two cotyledons 2. branched/netlike veins 3. vascular bundles arranged in a ring 4. taproot root system 5. number of petals usually in multiples of four or five
food and water
stems can store these two things
embryo sac
the resulting structure is the female gametophyte, egg cell and one is a large, central cell containing two haploid nuclei.
Symplast
The pathway from the root surface to the root core, by which water enters the root hair membrane and travels through the cytoplasm of adjacent cells via channels that connect the contents of those cells.
Hornworst
Are very small plants that are similar to liverworts
Stomate
openings on underside of leaf to allow exchange of gases (CO2, O2, and H2O)
evergreen
Plants that do not lose their leaves in the fall.
cytokinins
a class of related plant hormones that retard aging and act in concert with auxins to stimulate cell division, influence the pathway of differentiation, and control apical dominance.
cellular respiration
the process by which plants release the energy in food to carry on these life processes
A function of the root
absorb water and nutrients
nodes, internodes
what are 2 things on the stem?
Diamotaceous earth
earth compose of shells of these diatoms
Cortex (root)
Makes up the bulk of the root. Functions include the storage of starch.
root
takes in some of the materials a plant needs to make food
egg nucleus
the nucleus that remains in a female gamete after the meiotic reduction division and extrusion of polar bodies and contains only one half the number of chromosomes characteristic of its species
the role of stems
they carry nutrients throughout the plant
root hairs
single cells that grow out of roots, only part of root that can absorb water and minerals
Modified leaves
1. Tendral
Part of the leaf is modified to be sensitve to touch to coil around other structures for structural support
Can be moified from any plant part
2. Spines
Protection
Hardened sharp tiped leaves
No a thorn- modified stem
Convergent evolution
3. Water storage
Succulents, dry environments
4. Traps
Carnivorus
Where N is limited
Bogs or rainforests
Convergent evolution
All envolve enzymes
Pitcher, active closing mechanism
stem
this part's job is to carry water from the roots to the leaves and food back to the roots
Zones of maturation
Above the zone of elongation. Cells are mature and specilized.
Vascular, no seeds
used to be quite tall. Include ferns, horsetails, and club mosses.
capillary action
one of the forces that draws water out of the roots of a plant and up into its stems and leaves.
life cycle
is the beginning and end to a living thing.


-Can be hedged; grows to 60'
-Deciduous
-Prolific bloomers
-Variable apices-retuse, acute, acuminate
-Genearlly ovate
-Opposite
-Unique opened seed pods
Lagerstroemia indicaC: Crepe MyrtleF: Lythraceae
What is the primary root?
The first root that emerges during germination.
Multi-system toxic plants- cyanogenic glycosides
Prunus spp. apricot seed kernelspits from seedsamygdalin
What is a stigma?
Sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land.
What are 3 differences between plant and cells?
Plant cells have a cell wall, animal cells don't
Animal cells don't have chloroplasts, plant cells do
Animal cells have vacuoles that are tiny or absent, plant cells are see able
/ 233
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online