Plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dieffenbachia maculata
Dumbcane
Liquidambar styraciflua
Sweetgum
Euonymus alata
Winged Enonymus
Myrica cerifera
Wax Myrtle
Ophiopogon japonicus
Mondo Grass
Ilex vomitoria ‘Nana’
Dwarf Yaupon
Ilex crenata ‘Helleri’
Helleri Holly
Pyrus calleryana ‘Bradford’
Bradford Pear
Ilex X attenuata ‘Fosteri’
Fosteri Holly
Philodendron scandens var. oxycardium
Parlor Ivy
Ilex cornuta ‘Dwarf Burford’
Dwarf Burford Holly
Nandina domestica
Heavenly Bamboo Or Dwarf Nandina
What does asexual propagation involve?
Reproduction of plants using vegetative parts of the plants.
spore
haploid
ovary
becomes fruit
ATP
Root hairs use
petiole
stalk of leaf
Angiosperm –
Flowering Plants
annual
lives only one year
internal to vascular tissue
Pith
Sepals
Protect flower during development
internodes
The stem segments between nodes
endosymbiosis
Process through which early prokaryotic cells are thought to have engulfed other, smaller cells and eventually incorporated them as organelles; these cells evolved into modern-day eukaryotes.
Rhizome
undergroung stem that grows horizontally through the soil and stores food for the plant
Liverworts
Brophytes, Nonvascular, usually grow in clumps in moist habitats, respond well to changes in enviroment
Bark
all tissues outside lateral meristem
Ethylene
-hormone that promotes fruit ripening
-promotes leaf abscission
-promotes senescence (gets old)
-inhibits stem elongation
-inhibits gravitropism (root growth)
Flower
a reproductive structure that produces pollen and seed
photorespiration
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
ground tissue=
between vascular and dermal tissue
megasporangia
produce megaspores that produce female gametophyte; the female gametophyte consists of a group of cells called the embryo sac
parenchyma
have diverse functions ranging from storage and support to photosynthesis. Leaves are mainly composed of parenchyma cells. Some cells, as in the epidermis, are specialized for light penetration and focusing or regulation of gas exchange, but others are among the least specialized cells in plant tissue, and may remain totipotent.
have thin, permeable primary walls enabling the transport of small molecules between them, and their cytoplasm is responsible for a wide range of biochemical functions such as nectar secretion or the manufacture of secondary products.
stems
produce leaves, branches and flowers; they hold leaves up to the sunlight; they transport substances between roots and leaves
ground tissue system
photosynthesis, storage, and structural support of other systems
Long-day plant-
Flowers with a short night.
homospory
plants in which sporophyte produces single type of spore that develops into a bisexual gametophyte with both male and female organs
Organs
groups of tissues that serve a function.
cotyledon
structure that stores food or absorbs food for a sporophyte
c4 pathway
a carbon-fixing process in which carbon dioxide is bound to a compound to form a four-carbon intermediate
passive transport
diffusion across membrane that occurs without cell directly using metabolic energy
rhizomes
horizontal shoots that grow just below the surface
non-fertile part of a flower
receptacle, sepals, petals
gymnosperm
seed plant that bears its seeds directly on the surfaces of cones
Two functions of leaves
Photosynthesis, Adaptation against water loss
Stomata
holes in cuticle, guard cells regulate size of stomata to let gas into plant that the cuticle would otherwise prevent
Coumarin
a mildly toxic compound that gives newly-mown hay its distinctive, sweet smell. Derivatives of coumarin are highly toxic.
Magnoliid Complex
-trees, shrubs, vines
-many petals in whorls of three
-filament poorly differentiated from anther
-eg. CA bay laurel
What is rice?
Mostly grown in Southeast Asia, harvested differently. rice is polished.
Cork cambium
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in plants that produces cork cells to replace the epidermis during secondary growth
transpiration
loss of water vapor from leaves and other aerial parts of the plant
function of stems
transport water and minerals from roots, food storage, support
vascular tissue
supports the plant body and transports water and nutrients throughout the plant
double fertilization
occurs after pollen tube enters embryo sac
Warfarin
a synthetic coumarin that is used as rat poison. It causes intestinal bleeding in rodents. It has been described as a “terrible drug.” It has a very narrow range, meaning that the minimal useful dose is very close to the maximal safe dose. Patients must be monitored very closely.
Epidermis
A type of dermal tissue that covers primary growth structures.
budding
when a new cell is developed on the parent cell
seedless plants produce...
haploid spores instead of seeds (ferns and club mosses and allies)
stigma
sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land
receptor proteins
in cell membrane, bind to chemical messengers in their environments, transmit signals to cytoplasm. allows cells to sense their chemical environments and respond. ex: receiving hormone molecules
Girdling
Removing all of the bark, not just the periderm, and destroying the 2nd pholem, stopping the transport of sugars.
tree rings
date lines that determine the age of a tree
characteristics of sexual reproduction of hornworts
archengia and antheridia produced in rows just beneath upper surfaces of gametophytessporophytes
water potential equation
Ψ = Ψs + Ψp (solute potential plus pressure potential)
Transformation of CO2/ other inorganic carbon sources into sugar
-Bacteria and Archaea: 6 biochemical pathways
-Plants: 1 biochemical pathway
-Animals and Fungi: NO pathways
What is the source? A sink?
The movement of sucrose in the phloem is a tissue called the source to a tissue called the sink. A source is often a mature leaf that is actively photosynthesizing and produces more carbohydrate than it can use itself. A sink is another tissue in the plant that needs carbohydrates to meet its energy requirements. A sink may be a root, an apical meristem, a fruit or seed. Some sinks, like roots, act as storage organs. Notice that a sink may be positioned above or below a source.
photosynthesis
6CO₂+6H₂O=>C₆H₁₂O₈+6O₂
dicot
two cotyledons
kingdom
1 (-ae)
Seedless Nonvascular
Bryophytes; moses
Fleshy Jaumea
Jaumea carnosa
Sporophyte
diploid stage of plants
fruit
a mature plant ovary
monocot
vascular bundles in complex arrangement
trichome
Hair-like structures; cooling, water retention, herbivour protection
monocots
plants with one seed leaf
gymnosperms
heterosporous "naked seed" plants; conifers, ginkgo, gnetophytes, cycads
brassicaceae
traditional name is cruciferae (mustard family)
pistil
a flower structure that makes ovules
style
stalklike strucure, rises from ovary, pollen travels down through here
veins
extensions of vascular bundles that run from the tips of roots to the edges of leaves
phloem
a specialized plant tissue that transports sugar molecules from one part of the plant to another
a reproductive structure that produces pollen and seeds and makes plant reproduction more efficient
flower
Soybeans were first domesticated in and probably originated from
China.
Xylem
Vein in vascular plants that transports water and other nutrients.
non-vascular
plants without vascular tissue, rely on diffusion and osmosis
Micropyle
Region not covered by the interuments
Seed
A structure formed by the maturation of the ovule of seed plants following fertilization
-skin of the leaf
-single layer of cells
-protects the leaf from loss of too much moisture
epidermis
sapwood
contains vessel cells that can conduct water and lie outside the heartwood
seeds
structure that contains a young plant in a protective covering
roots
anchor the plant tot the ground,m absorb water and minerals, and sometimes store excess sugar as starch
Perennial
Flowering plants that live for more than two years
Diploid
cell with two sets of inherited chromosomes.as
Primary Growth
Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthens the stems and roots of plants
symport protein
couple H+ in to Cl- in
Monocot stems
A) looks like skulls
B) Above ground part of the plant
C) apical meristem- grow from tip and axillary bud
D)Do not grow lateral
pinnate leaf
dicot; small veins branching off a main central vein
cereals
grasses that are grown as food for humans and livestock
aggregate fruits
develop from several carpels that were part of the same flower. example includes rasberry.
Gametophyte
haploid stage of plants that have the gametes
Ginkgos
a deciduous tree that is a living fossil.
Starch in a wheat grain is mainly found in the
endosperm.
Fertilization
The union of nuclei from female and male gametes.
Bryophyte
A Plant That Has No Vascular System, And Includes Mosses, Hornworts, And Liverworts.
What is Ca needed for?
cytoskeletonprocessing of hormonal and environmental cues (sig trans)
vascular cambium
the meristem that lies just under the bark
guard cell
one of a pair of specialized cells that border a stoma
two divisions of the seed bearing plants
angiosperms, and gymnosperms
carpel
consists of a sticky stigma at the top of a slender style
zygote
the cell produced by the union of two gametes, before it undergoes cleavage.
What is chlorophyll ?
A green pigment that absorbs energy from the sun.
vasaulur
Plants can be a variety of size and do not rely solely on diffusion and osmosis.
INDOLEACTETIC ACID (IAA)
Affects the root and shoot tips of the plant
How does the plant obtain carbon dioxide ?
From the air through the stomata.
What are the four types of tissue that make up vascular plants?
dermal, ground, meristematic, and vascular tissue
differences in calvn and kreb's cycle
calvin: ATP and NADPH is used to put in energy. krebs: ATP, NADH, FADH2 is produced. calvin's cycle makes sugar and kreb's cycle breaks down sugar
Pteridophyta
Fern
sugar(glucose)
C6H12O6
dandelion
võilill
maple tree
arce
Centipedegrass
Eremochloa ophiouroides
Pine Cones
gymnosperms
Conifers
cone-bearing plants
Liriope
liriope muscari
stamen
contains/makes the pollen
Meristem tissue
continually divides
Acer saccharum
Sugar maple
haw
hložinka (plod hlohu)
Argyranthemum frutescens
Marguerite Daisy
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus
Iniancurrant coralberry
Dermatophyte
ringworm (skin fungus/plant)
rhizones
stems that grow underground
Cuticle
Protective covering for leaves
Tiliaceae: Tilea europeae
European Lindin
absorb water
how seeds germinate
Abscisic acid
stress hormone; prevents germination
auxillary
buds in armpit of plant
Bryophytes
non-vascular, ex. mosses, dominant phase: gametophyte
botanist
a scientist who studies plants
perrenial
more than two growing seasons
Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra
Pacific willow
spores
have N number of chromosomes
guttation
exudation water droplets by root pressure
heterotrophs
consumers, they rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply
sexual reproduction
Fusion & 2 parental cells
vascular bundles
Vascular tissue contains __________ __________.
Slime molds
Protist: Plasmodial And cellular; produce fruiting bodies
Can be cellular or plasmodial
dicotyledon
floh lateral rootswering plants with main tap root wit
positive phototropism
plant grows towards the light
sori
clusters of sporangia on the undersides of sporophylls
vein
cluster of vascular tissues in leaves
What is a non- vascular plant?
Moss
Bud- apical
top of stem, terminal bud
Ground Meristem
inner meristem making ground tissue



-Entire, glabrous
-Nondescript leaves
-Petioles can be reddish to purple
-Coarsely serrate margins
-Evergreen
Ternstroemia gymnantheraC: CleyeraF: Theaceae
Pericycle
The outermost layer in the vascular cylinder from which lateral roots arise.
Excretion
The removal of wastes from the body.
Stem
What brings water up to the plant?
flowers
part of the plant that forms seeds
thin
Mosses and liverworts are important to the ecology or many areas because they can grow in __________ soil and in soils where other plants cannot grow.
The four main organs
petals, sepals, stamens(anther), pistils(ovary)
Leaf Shape
-Simple= leaf has a single blade
-Compound= blade is subdivided into several leaflets
what anchors the plant in the ground?
roots
needlelike scale-like
Gymnosperms leaves are _____ or _____
guard cells
Specialized cells that control the opening and closing of stomata in response to changes in water pressure.
pollinators
organisms that carry pollen from one plant to another
Chlorophyll
the green pigment which absorbs light energy and converts it into chemical energy for photosynthesis
Vascular Plants
plants with specialized cells for moving water and nutrients thoughout the plant
ovule
structure within the ovary where the ova are produced
Angiosperm
efficient vascular system and are more likely to be associated with mycorrhizae than gymnosperms. flowering plants who's seeds are in fruits
rhizobium
symbiotic bacteria that lives in the nodules of legumes, fixes nitrogen gas
petoile
what is the structure that connects the leaf to the stem
root cap
thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root
what makes up the perianth
petals and sepals
Sieve tubes
a long stack of sieve tube members
tap Root
If the primary root remains the beggest
carpel\pistil
female part of flower, made up of ovary, style and stigma
Light Dependent Reactions
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
vien
any of the tubular vessels that convey blood to the heart
sclerenchyma cells
dead at maturity cells, provide frame, support in areas where growth is no longer happening
vascular
tissue that consists of two types of tissue, xylem and phloem
Tropism
A way that plants change their growth because of something outsdie of them
food Roots
carrot, sweet tater, beet, turnip all large taproots that store carbs
Seedless
Known as ferns and use spores to reproduce.
Classify
means to put things in groups; we classify uses of plants into 3 groups: for food, for clothing, for medicines.
four major groups of plants?
byrophytes (moses), pteridophytes (ferns), gymnosperm (conifers), angiosperm (flowering plants)
Tulip
Out of a shrub, pine tree, and palm tree, this has the least amount of xylem tissue.
What are the three plant tropisms?
gravitropism, phototropism, and thigmotropism
Short-Day Plant
Plant in which blooming is affected by photoperiod so that flowering occurs when the hours of darkness in a 24-hour photoperiod rise above a certain level.
lower epidermis
protective layer on the bottom of leaf which contains stomata & guard cells
Prunus maackii - Amur Chokecherry
copper color bark, small buds,
Generative Cell
in a pollen grain, the cell that divides mitotically and forms two sperm cells
zone of cell division
section root where clels actively divide
what type of cells secrete suberin in their walls then die?
Cork cells
All of the following are characteristics of monocots EXCEPT:

a) parallel leaf venation
b) flower parts in multiples of 3
c) usually herbaceous (no true wood)
d) vascular cambium present
e) monocolpate pollen
d) vascular cambium present
Embryo
tiny part of a seed that can grow into a new plant.
grafting
attach a cut stem of one plant to a slice in the stem of another plant. It will make a new plant with the good characteristics of each plant
stores water
What is the main function of a vacuole in plants?
upper epidermis
The top layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.
Facts about Anthocerophyta (hornworts)
no roots, soak up water as individual cells
Acer glabrum - Rocky Mtn. Maple
cherry red bud, smooth twig, grey bark, small leaf
What are the 3 major groups of bryophytes and their characteristics?
Mosses- Most closely related to vascular plants
Liverworts-Lobed "leaves"; most closely related to ancestral land plants
Hornworts
What do the structures found in plant cells have the ability to do?
To take in solar energy and convert it into other forms of energy.
pure
puro
Leaves
...
Beech tree
Haya
M
one cotyledon
Antheridium
produce sperm
el corcho
bark
Syringa patula
Manchurian lilac
Syringa vulgaris
Common lilac
germinate
begin to grow
Serbian Bellflower
Campanula poshcharskyana
Chinese Parasol Tree
Firmiana simplex
Pigweed
Acid
Soluble oxalate
HypoCa and renal damage
also has nitrates (methemoglobinemia)
angiosperms
flowering, vascular seed plant
Pinaceae: Pinus resinosa
Red Pine
humus
organic constituents of soil
solar energy
energy from the sun
perennials
Can live for several years
Used in plant cell walls
Cellulose
Gnetophytes
Gymnosperm
-leaves of Ephedra species contain compounds used as stimulants and appetite suppressants also decongestants
-The leaves of gnetophyte Welwithschia mirabilis may be hundreds of years old.
vertebrate
Any animal with a backbone
Periderm
The protective material that lines outside of woody plants. They are more thicker and tougher than epidermis.
Phototropism
growth toward the light, positive phototropism
chloroplast
is the structure that contains chlorophyll
Nectar
A sugary liquid that attracts insects.
Legumes
Bean/pea plants with root nodules important to the nitrogen cycle--good source of protein
Tracheid
A long, tapered water-conducting cell that is dead at maturity and is found in the xylem of all vascular plants.
ground-tissue system
most of plant, photosynthesis, storage, and support
apiaceae sex organs
inferior ovary, nectar disc
apoplast
network of cell walls and intracellular spaces within a plant body, allows extracellular movement of water
ancient green algae
fossils of early plants
Phyllids
leaf-like structure of mossesone cell thick - no vasc tissue - only have cuticle on upper surface
anther
flower structure in which haploid male gametophytes are produced
chloroplasts
the diffusion of cabon dioxide + H20
Meristematic zone
region and activity dividing cells behind root caps
xylem & phloem
2 types of vascular plants
hydroponics
Cultivation of plants without soil in nutrient-rich water, which is usually irrigated over some inert medium
eggs
_____ are produced as the ovule develops (in angiosperms) (look at picture in book on pg. 279)
gibberellins
promotes cell growth all over the plant, most dwarf plants are gibberelin deficient
parenchyma cells
thin cells walls and larger vacuoles
alternative energy source
other ways to produce energy
secondary growth
stems and roots thicken over time
seed plants
These plant produce seeds for reproduction and include four phyla of gymnosperms and one phylum of angiosperms.
Body cover. Of plants, a transparent covering of w
cuticle
pollen
A dustlike particle that is carried by the male gametophyte of a seed plant
cortex
majority of the root that functions as a starch storage receptacle
root pieces
Some plants have roots that can produce new plants from ________ ______ such as sweet potato.
carbohydrates
a substance that forms a hard material in cell walls
Cross pollination
Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma of a different flower.
The plant kingdom
gdomWhere do all plants belong to?
Celastrus scandens - American bittersweet
pea shape fruit, twining
Deciduous
Broadleaf (leaves fall off in the fall time and grow back in the spring time)
Tissue
Group of cells that work together to perform a function
end products
Glucose and oxygen are the __________ __________ in the process of photosynthesis.
What is a chloroplast's function in a plant cell?
Photosynthesis
seed coat
is a layer that protects the seed
Dermal Tissue
outer covering or "skin" of a plant
Methods of processing
heated salted smoked dried frozen canned freeze-dried stored in air- tight containers
plant embryo
after sperm fertilize the egg and polar bodies in the ovule, the egg becomes a ________________
Aborization
branching like a tree (such as occurs with nerve fibers)
short day plants
ex poinsettias, exposure to a night longer than a certain number of hours(flowering reqs.) and end of sumer to ind of winter(flowers during)
root hairs
hairs that grow out of the root's surface that increases the surface area of the root that touches the soil
what holds up the plant to the sun?
the stem
determinate
grows to a specific size or shape and then stops
non-vascular plants
do not have any tissues to transport water and nutrients
tropical rain forest
dense warm wet forests near the equator
n/v/ bradycardia, conduction delays, wide complex vent dysrhythmias, paresthesias
Paclitaxel: from pacific yew; antitumor chemotherapeutic
The first thing to ______ out of a see is the root?
Sprout
Stigma style ovary
The Pistil consists of a sticky _____, a stalk-like _____, and a(n) _____
Name the 3 tissue systems in plants
Dermal Vascular and Ground
What other functions can leaves serve?
can function in protection or climbing
carbon dioxide
a gas in the air that plants use to make food
Factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis
1.) Amount of light
2.) Temp.
3.) Amount of water
4.) Surface area of leaves
5.) Pigment->more=more absorption
6.) Color of light
7.) Minerals ->Mg
8.) Amount of CO2
Differences between early wood and late wood
early wood has thin cell walls to maximize water delivery; springtime
late wood has thicker cell walls to aid more in support than water delivery; summertime
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