Plants 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Hosta sp.
Hosta
Euphorbia pulcherrima cv.
Poinsettia
Magnolia grandiflora
Southern Magnolia
Plectranthus australis
Swedish Ivy
Impatiens
Impatiens Cultivars and Hybrids
Ligustrum japonicum cb.
Japanese Privet
Pinus strobus
Eastern White Pine
Ficus benjamina
Weeping or Benjamin Fig
Maranta leuconeura var. kerchoviana
Prayer Plant
What are the ways plants reproduce?
SexualAsexual
Iris X germanica var. florentine
Bearded Iris
What is an embryo?
immature plantSometimes called seed-germ
ovule
seed
monocot
one cotyledon
megaspore
female spores
fronds
highly divided leaves
Wild Oat
Avena barbata
fruits attract...
seed carriers
archegonia
eggs are produced in
most common plant pigment
chlorophyll
what do flowers attract?
pollinators
meristems
regions of active cell division
Thermoreceptors
Respond to hot or cold
dictos
plants with two seed leaves
micronutrients
nutrients required in small amounts
dilleniidae
subclass: syncarpous (fused carpels), many sympetalous.
Shoots
Usually above ground. Functions include: photosynthesis, reproduction & dispersal.
apical meristem
region where primary growth happens
lignin
substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid
the first plants had no ______
roots
rhizome
the underground stem of a fern
phloem
transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
gametophyte
second phase of plant life-produces egg and sperm
The corn silk is actually a
style.
Spongy Mesophyll
Loosely aranged photosynthetic cells located just beneath the palisade layer of the leaf.
Leaves
Above ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. Site where most transpiration & guttation take place
Zoospore
A motile spore, found amont algae, oomycetes and chytrids
vascular tissue
specialized to conduct water throuhout the plant
-used by the plant
-stored in the stem or the root in the form of sugar, starch, or protein
food
net venation
in plant leaves, the repeated branching of veins to form a network of smaller veins
sepal
a leaflike structures that cover and protect an immature flower
cuticle
protective, waxy layer that covers the leaves, stem, and fruit of plants, and helps prevent water loss
Phototropism
growth response of a plant towards light
What is the basic equation of photosynthesis? How about respiration?What color, or wavelength of light, do plants absorb? Reflect?
Gibberellins
Hormones that stimulate the growth of stems and leaves, trigger the germination of seeds, and stimulate fruit development with auxins.
Auxins
Hormones that affect the growth of plant tissues, stimulate or slows growth, stimulate cells to lengthen and differentiate, and affect the process of abscission
guttation
forcing of water through openings in leaves by root pressure
sorus
a group of sporangia on a fern frond
Louis Pasteur
One of the first to disprove spontaneous generation. A French scientist who proved that microorganisms was carried by dust not air.
1.S-Shaped flask- filled with broth; intended to trap dust particles coming in
2.Boiled flasks killing microbes
3.Opened one flask-Dust particles came in turning broth cloudy- microbes able to travel on dust
4.Kept the other flask with its s-shape. Dust particles remained at the neck of the flask- broth remained clear
5.Microbes travel on dust particles in the air
palmate leaf
dicot; lobes radiating from a central point, resembling fingers and palm of a hand
gymnosperms
seed plants whose seeds do not develop within a sealed container (naked seed)
Sclerenchyma cell
A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking a protoplast and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity. contains fibers and schlereids
Flower
par of a plant that contains the sexual reproductive structures
cotyledons
the first leaves that come from an embryonic plant.
Which of the following was the first crop to be genetically modified?
Corn
Antheridium (a)
A male sexual organ that produces sperm. The sperm producing sex organ of seedless plants as well as some fungi and algae.
How do minerals move across certain membranes?
active transport
root
the parts of a plant's body that grows mostly downward
pollen tube
a structure that grows from a pollen grain, down which the sperm travels to the eggs
Epidermal Cell
cell that makes up the dermal tissue, which is the outer covering of a plant
The force that helps water rise in the stem
Transpiration
duble fertilization
one sperm fertilizes the egg to form the zygote and the other combines with the polar nuclei to form a triploid nucleus
Apical Meristems
Plant tissue that allows the plant to grow longer
nucleic acid
any of a group of long, linear macromolecules, either DNA or various types of RNA, that carry genetic information directing all cellular functions: composed of linked nucleotides.
Name the three factors required for germination ?
Water, Oxygen, Warmth (WOW).
ZONE OF CELL DIVISON
includes the root apical meristem and its derivatives
this is a type of root system that has longer and fewer roots
tap root
Double Fertilization
The Fusion Of A Sperm Cell And An Egg Cell To Create A Seed Of The Same Species
What is a fruit ?
Any part of a plant that contains seeds.
Give three examples of raw materials that we get from plants ?
Jute from string, Flax from linen, Rose petels from perfume, heather for dyes.
What are the uber many effects of gibberelins? How many are there?
about 80- role in fruit production (size)- plant size- induce bolting- promote seed germination- bring plants out of winter dormancy
melon
melón
Rutaceae
Citrus
pollination
...
nutrients
soil contains
angiosperms
flowering plants
anther
produces pollen
Pistil
female gamete
Bulb
short, underground stem
thallose
classification of liverworths
Lonicera japonica
Japanese honeysuckle
carpel
female reproductive part
Veronica americana
American brooklime
la mata
bush, shrub
Spanish Bluebell
Hyacinthoides hispanica
Angiosperm
Flowers, Fruit, Seeds(Protected Seeds)
cells
basic units of life
Kaffin lily
Alkaloid
Lycorine
Emetic and purgative= bulb
large doses= M. tremors & seizures
Flowers
Diploid
Sexual
Perfect
Male & female
Imperfect
Male or female
Pistillate (female)
Staminate (male
xylem
carries nutrients to plant
Sweet Autumn Clematis
clematis terniflora
fonds
the leaves of a fern
Modified stems
-Stolans=horizontal above-ground stems EX: Bermuda/st.augustine grass "runners"
-Rhizomes=horizontal under-ground roots EX: ferns, mesquite-locust-aspen trees
-Bulbs= vertical underground stems with leaves modified for storage EX:onion
-Tubor= underground stem modified for storage
tap root
one single thick root
Fruit
Ovary becomes fruit
Enlarged ripened ovary
One or more seeds
Protects seeds
Seed dispersal
Transpiration
water loss due to evaporation
Dermal Tissue
makes up the epidermis.
Foster's Holly
Ilex x attenuata 'Fosteri'
dicot
angiosperm with two cotyledons inside its seed, flower parts in multiples of four or five, and vascular bundles in rings
Epidermis
Protects the plant from the outside.
Pollen
encloses sperm, transports it without water
Bark
protective tissue that consists of phloem and cork tissue.
Pollen Grain
Matured microspores. The male gametophyte of gymnosperms and angiosperms. The pollen grain divides into 3 cells (angiosperms) or 4 cells (conifers). Contains the vegetative (tube) nucleus as well.
seed plants
vascular plants that make seeds
Gymnosperm
Plants that have true leaves,stems, and roots.They have a vascular system,or tubes, to carry food and water to all parts of the plant. They reproduce by making seeds. They are also called coniferous, because they produce their seeds in cones.
Roots
portion plants below ground; root hairs
Smilacina stellata/ Maianthemum stell
Star-flowered false solomon's
Conifers
wood for construction and paper products
Sporangia
developed on the undersurface of leaves and are grouped into sori
spines
an adaptation of leaves for another purpose: protection in a cactus
Monocots
1 Seed Leaf, Parallel leaf veins, Scattered vascular tissue, Flowers in multiples of 3, Fibrous Root System.
germination
the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
plant habitat
anywhere with suffecient sunlight and water
perenials
life cycle of flower continues for many years
phytochrome
A blue-green pigment involved in plant responses to relative lengths of daylight and darkness
cartenoids
red, yellow or orange pigments that are also used for photosynthesis
seedlings
the germination of a seed sprouting into a new, young plant
Parellel Venation
a parallel arrangement of veins; typical of the leaves of monocots
embryology
the study of how organisms develop from fertilized eggs to fully formed organism
celloulose
chemical compound made out of sugar, forms tangled fivers in the cell walls of many plants and provides structures and support
AUTOTROPH
plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
PERENNIAL
plant's life cycle continues for many years
classification
A process by which scientists identify and organize organisms such as plants.
cultivar
another name for a specific plant; same as variety
photoperiodism
in plants is responsible for the timing of seasona
water vapor
form of excess water which escapes from the stomata
Annuals
seed to seed in one growing season, most garden plants, wheat conr, beans
penicillin
a life saving antibiotic produced by a green mold
textiles importance
cotton, flax plant (linen), coal used to manufacture dyes
chlorophyll
green substance in a leaf that traps sunlight and carries out photosynthesis.
Cork Cambium
Produce Cells that develop tough cell walls that form a protective outside layer on the stems and roots
Auxin
__________ is a type of plant hormone that causes plant stems and leaves to exhibit a positive response to light.
Is DNA tightly coiled or loosely arranged?
tightly coiled.
Phloem vessels
sieve tube elements : carry the nutrients
companion cells : support sieve tubes
Disperse
Refers to how seeds travel or move around.
Tropism
The response of a plant to a stimulus.
Nellie R. Stevens Holly
ilex x 'Nellie R. Stevens'
Short-day plants
Plants that power during the spring and fall when nights are long and days are short.
tracheid cells
one of the two divisions of xylem cells that function in the passage of water
spongy layer
What is letter "E" in the leaf structure picture?
Cambium
a layer of cells which divide to make new phloem and xylem, vascular tissue. This structure is sandwiched in-between the inner bark and the sapwood, in a tree.
Fibrous (Lateral) Roots
Roots that grow horizontally from the taproot
Sieve-tube members
a type of cell making up phloem tissues
What planet lies on its side while it revolves around the Sun
Uranus
What is the nucleus's function in a plant cell?
Genetic Info
scavenger
an animal that feeds on bodies of dead organism
cellulose
A long molecule made up of many sugar molecules bonded end to end; it is a key component in the cell walls of plants.
At the source, phloem cells get packed with sugar causing the cells to become hypertonic. Water rushes in by osmosis creating water pressure that drives the flow of sugar to the sink
Pollen Grain
terminal bud
bud at tip of a stem responsible for terminal growth
Types of Seedless vascular plants
Ferns, ground pines, spike mosses,and horsetails
diploid sporophyte
what is the most dominant part of the fern life cycle?
color and frangrence
What are some ways that plants attract pollinators
vascular cambium or bundles
extends length of plant, gives rise to secondary xylem and phloem
The function of the leaves
is to make food for the plant
Difference between primary and secondary growth
Increase in length in roots and stems is primary and increase in diameter is secondary growth
How are the cell walls in xylem tissue strengthened
They are thickened and lignified
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