Plants 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Petunia sp
Petunia
Hemerocallis cv.
Day Lily
Juniperus conferta
Shore Juniper
Quercus palustris
Pin Oak
Lagerstroemia indica cv.
Crape Myrtle
Nephrolepis exaltata cv.
Boston Fern
Pelargonium peltatum
Ivy Leaf Geranium
Juniperus horizontalis ‘Plumosa,’ ‘Bar Harbor,’or ‘Wiltonii’
Creeping Juniper
Ficus elastica ‘Decora’
Decora Rubber Plant
Pinus mugo var. mugo
Mugo Pine
Prunus serrulata ‘Kwanzan’
Japanese Flowering Cherry
What is the male sex cell?
pollen
Liriope muscari
Liriope (Green or Varigated cv.)
What is the female sex cell?
egg or the ovule
describe plants
Eukaryotic, Multicellualar, Sessile, Cell wall, Autotrophs
leaves
makes food for the plant
takes in carbon dioxide and releases oxygen into the air
what is a percicarp
it surrounds most fruit
flower
part of the plant that makes the seeds
dormancy
state of much lower activity that some plants enter to survive colder weather
what does phloem do?
transports nutrients and carbohydrates made in photosynthesis down to stem and roots
describe monocots
one cotyledon, floral parts in threes, parrellel leave veins, pollen grain has one pore or furrow, vascular bundles throughout stems ground tissues, fibrous root
roots
part of the plant that soaks up (takes in ) vitamins and minerals
stores food for the plant
anchors the plant
unusual adaptations
help plants get nutrients they are not getting from the soil
ex; Venus Fly Trap
in what ways do nonvascular plants move water?
osmosis and diffusion
fibrous roots
many roots of same size, grow long but not deep
ex. grass, cacti
what are ways plants prevent water loss?
Cuticle and the stomata
Describe seedles vascular plants (3)
tracheophytes they have 3 phyla = fern allias and 1 phylum= ferns
they reproduce with mobile spores
country
país
mycelium
podhoubí
Bryophyta
Mosses
Beryy example
tomato
stamen
makes pollen
dicot
two cotyledon
phytochromes
measure light
Amaryllis
Hippeastrum spp.
ovary
holds the ovules
D
vascular bundles-ring shape
companion cells
see phloem
they open up
dehiscent
Lythrum salicaria
Purple loosestrife
Thorny Eleagnus
elaeagnus pungens
Adhesion
attraction between unlike molecules
Annual Sunflower
Helianthus annuus ASTERACEAE
Araucaria heterophylla
Norfolk Island pine
nonvascular example
hornwort, liverwort, moss
photropism
response to photosynthesis (light)
Lotus corniculatus
Bird's foot trefoil
shagbark hickory
Carya ovata
 
Juglandaceae
lignin
chemical that hardens cel walls,
corn, grass, lilies
examples of monocots
rhizoids
structure that anchors non-vascular plants to the ground
classify
group things that are alike
sporophyte
the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
Embryo
Early stage of a plant
Dicots
2 cotyledons (primary leaves)
branched leaf veins
vascular bundles in ring shape
flower parts in fours or fives
taproot
stomata
Tiny pores under the leaves
Frond
compound leaf of a fern
outer covering of a tree
bark
starch
excess glucose is transformed and stored in the plant
Germination
the early stage of seed growth
Buds
Buds are undifferentianted bundles of cells that can become a leaf, flower, or stem, and are covered by scales.
Ethylene
plant hormone that stimulates fruits to ripen
Gymnosperms
conifers(pines), have seeds that are 'naked' and are produced on special leaves
photosynthesis
leaves are the primary site of
stems
allow the movement of materials between leaves and roots
xylem
vascular tissue that carries water upwardfrom the roots to every part of the plant
Phloem
(living) specialized to transport food and other organic molecules, generally from leaves down to roots. Food may also be transported from roots back up to leaves (sap flow in spring)
dermal
tissue that consists of epidermis cells that cover the outside of plant parts, guard cells that surround stomata, and various specialized surface cells such as hair cells
One flower and many pistils
Aggregate Fruit
Seed
a covering that provides the developing embryo with food and protein
Pistil
Contains the stigma and the ovules.
flowers bilabiate; fruit of four basally-attached nutlets;
iridoids present
Lamiaceae
Seed coat
The outer protection of a seed
angiosperms
a flowering plant that produces seed that has a protective covering
What is double fertiliztion?
when fertilization happens twice
hypocotyl
the stem below the cotyledons that develops into the roots
integuments
one or two tissue layers surrounding the megasporangium in plants.
cell
small unit that makes up living things
leaves function
increase the surface area for capturing more sunlight for photosynthesis
On the lower epidermis are tiny opening called(gases and water vapor passin and out of this)
Stomata
Meristems
Zones of actively dividing plant cells that produce plat growth
sepal
one of the leaflike parts that protects a flower bud and that is usually green.
Spores
Seedless plants do not contain seeds, so how are they able to reproduce?
emergent plants
live with their roots
underwater, but with a significant portion of
the plant growing above the surface -
mangroves for example.
Nonvascular
no true roots, stems, or leaves
lack specialized vascular transport tissue
ex: moss
vascular tissue
tissues found in vascular plants, composed of tubelike, elongated cells through which water, food, and other materials are transported throughout the plant; include xylem and phloem.
Legume
Member of the pea family; Bear protein-rich seeds in pods; Ex: Soybean, peanut, bean, pea, alfalfa, lentils
Paranchyma
fundamental tissue that makes food and food storage
Gymnosperm
o Naked seed
• Scales of exposed cones
• Seeds
Dicotyledon
class of anthophytes that have two cotyledons, reticulate leaf venation , and flowers parts in multiples of four or five
life cycle
the stages in an organism's life
Distinctive features
-Blue-black drupe ripens in late summer to early fall-No notable cultivars-Fragrant flowers-Very showy flowers-whole tree becomes white with them-Very slow growing; seed needs two years to germinate
life cycle of a plant
seed, root, stem plant
pollination
transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant
Spongy Parenchyma
Lower region of mesophyll with ample space for gas exchange
Flowering Plants Characteristics
True leaves, vascular tissue, seeds, flowers and fruit
Corolla
The flower whorl that contains all the petals.
fungus
a member of a kingdom that contains one-celled living things that absorb food from their enviornment
ovule
a plant structure in seed plants that contains an egg cell
Conifer
A name for a tree that holds cones.
Cambium
Thin layer of cells that divide to form new phloem on the outsideand new xylem on the inside.
Guard Cells
modified cells on the leaf epidermis that regulate gas and water exchange
Stoma
function is to allow CO2 to diffuse into the leaf
Secondary Growth
makes a plant increase in girth of woody plant tissues
filament
the part of the stamen that holds the anther at the right height
polar nuclei
In angiosperms, the two nuclei of the central cell of the female gametophyte; they fuse with a sperm nucleus to form the triploid (3n) endosperm nucleus.
needs moisture
ferns need what type of environment to survive
primary growth
occurs at the tips of roots and shoots
Heterosopy vs homospory
Produce two types of spores that develop into either male or female gametophytes
Micro- male
Macro- female
Homo ancestral (produce spores that make a bisexual gametophyte)
Hetero detived independently
Seeds are all heter
Seeds are possible because of it
True
T or F; Veins are related to vascular tissue
seed plants
most of the plants that we see around are called, they may be herbs, shrubs, vines, and trees. these plants multiply by producing seeds
root cap
a structure that covers the tip of a root, protecting the root from injury
transpirational pull
The movement of water out of the leaf "pulls" water upward through the vascular system of all the way from the roots
Stage 1 or light reaction of photosynthesis
produces ATP and NADPH
C4 plants
Only 10% of plants. Make a 4 carbon compound in the first step of carbon fixation. 2-cell layer organization
What is the life cycle of a seed
seed seedlong adut plant
why plants store food
they can't always make it (for ex., night, cloudy days, drought)
Describe the shoot system in plants
absorb light and exchange gases to make sugars; relies on water and nutrients from root system
How to push water up a tree
1. Push from roots
Stomata close at night and actively load minerals in xylem ===> higher concentration
Moves water towards area (up to 5m)
2. Pull from the leaves
Lose water thru transpiration and increases surface tension on inner leaf cells
Creates negative pressure thru the water collumn in xylem due to cohesion of water molecules
Pressure transmitted thru tension (negative pressure) enabled by cohesion
Transpirtation-cohesion-tension
Concentration of water in outside air is much lower outside than inside---move towards stomata and open atm
Adhesion of water to cell walls also helps
Driven by solar energy, not by plant
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