Plants 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
petals
attract pollinators
mosses
non-vascular, seedless
Giant Sequoia
Sequoiadendron giganteum
Angiosperms
the flowering plants
Sporophyll ploidy
2N diploid
virus
(virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts
Monocots
-One cotyledon
-Parallel leaf veins
-Vascular bundles scattered
-Flower parts in 3's
-Fibrous roots
Gametes
-mature sexual reproductive cells
-produced by mitosis from haploid gametophyte
vascular plant
dermal tissue
vascular tissue
ground tissue
leaves
stems
internodes
the stem segments between nodes
rhizomes
underground stems of a fern
Phloem
transports nutrient and carbohydrate solutions in the plant
digitalis
an effective treatment for “dropsy” Foxglove is the source of digitalis, a drug used to treat heart disease. It restores regular heat beats and strengthens the contractions. Goes by the names Digoxin and Digitoxin.
Dicot
vascular tissue arranged in a cylinder
transpiration
loss of water through the stoma
circular chromosome
most prokaryotes have a single
stomate
the space between two guard cells
where do the light reactions occur
thylakoid
Stoma
Openings in plant's cuticle, open during the day for photosynthesis to release water and O2, close at night to prevent too much water loss
Ovule
contains eggs; develops into seeds (female)
Are parenchyma primary or secondary walls?
Primary
Saprolegnia (fly fungus)
-water mold
-aquatic saprobe
-white fuzz on dead insects and fish
monocot, dicot
-plant produces flower with both female and male parts
-spores grow into gametophytes
-pollen is produced containing TWO sperm cells
-female gametophyte produced THREE eggs
-fertilization occurs when 1 sperm fertilizes 1 egg
-endosperm is created
Vascular tissue
plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body
Style
an extension of a flower's ovary, shaped like a stalk, that supports the stigma
a plant needs...
sunlight, water, minerals, gas exchange, movement of water and minerals.
woody stem
hard, turns brown, and grows bigger
carpel
The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.; pistil
Leaching
process by which water removes soil nutrients and carries them away. Occurs fastest in sandy soils
numerous stomatameristem above foot continually increases length of sporophyte from basemeiosis occurs in this to produce sporesdiploid elaters intermingled with spores
characteristics of sporophyte
Casparian strip
A special, waxy disposition (suberin in cell walls) in the endodermis that controls what gets into the vasuclar system by forcing water to move symplastically.
photosynthesis
occurs in the mesophyll tissue of the leaf
harmful fungi
fungi that aren't good for the environment
brown algae
algae having the chlorophyll masked by brown and yellow pigments
perennial flowering plants
flower for 2 or more years.
Two types of roots
tap root and fibrous root
petal
A modified leaf of a flowering plant. Petals are the often colorful parts of a flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators.
sieve tubes
sieve-tube members connect end to end at sieve plates to distribute sugars to all parts of the plant. main component of phloem
Imperfect flower-
has stamens or carpels but not both.
Diploid (2N)
-contains 2 sets of each chromosome, one from each parent
-diploid phase usually multicellular sporophyte
light independent reactions
a set of photosynthetic reactions that does not directly require solar energy; it uses the products of the light-dependent reactions to reduce carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate
molecular systematics (connection btwn land plants and green algae)
similar nuclear and chloroplast genes
Vascular Plants
Can survive and grow bigger because of vascular tissue
Concentration Gradient –
What atoms and molecules move along from higher to lower concentration.
sieve tube elements
cells arranged end to end, pump sugars and other foods
why does moss live?
because it has its own ecological niche
How the the male gametohpyte produced?
The mircorsporocyte undergoes meiosis to produce microspores, which then undergo mitosis to form the gametophyte.
Pacific Yew tree (Tacus brevifolia)
Taxol was discovered. It is purified from the bark of the Pacific Yew tree (Tacus brevifolia). And is very effective.Taxol works by inhibiting the cell cycle at the G2-M phase (most anti-cancer drugs act on the G1-S phase). It blocks progression through mitosis by stabilizing microtubules.
What happnes to the endosperm further in seed maturation?
It is abosrbed by the cotelydon.
Be able to name examples of plant types that are wind pollinate
Plants that use wind for pollination usually have small, inconspicuous flowers that lack both odor and nectar. Trees, like this oak, flower in the early Spring before new leaves emerge. This avoids problems with leaves that might interfere with pollination. The stigma of a wind pollinated plant is often large and feathery to help capture pollen grains as they pass by. The grasses are wind pollinated and have small flowers near the top of the plant d.
short
nonvascular are (short/tall)
Liverworts
reproduces sexually; sexes are separate and gamete-producing structures form atop stalks
fertilization
this occurs inside the archegonium
Hepaticophyta
liverworts of nonvascular plants; small plants that grow in clumps or masses in moist habitats
Hornworts
sporophyte grows continually from its base so it can make and release spores over an extended period
gametophyte
dominant life stage in nonvascular plants
Antheridium
male structure of nonvascular plants that contains sperm
Bryophyte
moss division of nonvascular plants; most familiar; small plants with leafy stems with one-cell thick leaves; have rhizoids
Anthocerophyta
called hornworts because of their horn-like sporophytes. Spaces around their cells are filled with mucilage.
Sphagnum
well-known moss; peat moss; thrives in acidic bogs in northern regions of the world; harvested for use as fuel and is a commonly used soil additive
spore
haploid cell capable of producing and organism. Some land plants reproduce by spores that have waterproof coverings.
Nonvascular plants
do not have specialized transport tissues and substances move slowly from cell to cell by osmosis and diffusion.
Bryophytes
first land plants to evolve, do not have rigid support tissues, lack seeds, and most do not have vascular tissue (includes mosses, hornworts, and liverworts). Requires water for reproduction
Stomata
openings in the outer cell layer of leaves and some stems that enable the exchange of gases
sporophyte generation
produces spores that can grow to form the next gametophyte generation. Depending on the type of plant, one generation is dominant over the other.
staminate
male
Podophyllum
peltatum
Cercis
canadensis
Beet
Mineral
Nitrate
methemoglobin anemia
acute= GI signs, resp signs
chronic= abortion, poor performance
dormancy
inactive state
megaspores
produce female gametophytes
Milder Mustard
White Seeds
pistil
female reproductive structures
Buttercups, ranunculu, clematis
Glycoside
Protoanemonin
GI signs
root cap
protects apical meristem
Flower
Reproductive structure of flowering plants. Protect the gametes and fertilized eggs.
ethylene
promotes fruit ripening, instigates triple response, facilitates apoptosis, promotes leaf abscission
Alfalfa
Mineral
Selenium
Acute= GI and resp signs
Chronic= hoof and hair abnormalities
cuticule
Plants evolved a protective, moisturizing, layer called a _______, when adapting to land.
Organelle
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
embryo
the undeveloped plant in a seed
Auxins
hormones for plant elongation and rooting
Pericycle (root)
Forms root branches/secondary roots, Meristem that surrounds xylem and phloem in root
cotyledon
An embryonic leaf inside a seed
meristematic cells
actively dividing cells, called primary growth
Stamen
a flower part that makes pollen
Monocot
angiosperm whose seeds have one cotyledon
Fungi cellwalls are composed of what?
Chitin
Perennial
Any flowering plant that lives for more than two years.
Solar Tracking
leaves or flowers following sun's movement across the sky
pollen
dustlike particles that carry the male gametophytes of seed plants
vascular system
A collection of specialized tissues that bring water and mineral nutrients up from the roots
Big Bluestem
dominates the tall grass prairie, needle grass that can grow over 2 meter high
Betel Nut
Mouth and throat cancer (addictive substance chewed in India
lagumes
Peanuts are neither peas nor nut; they're _______ - they grow underground.
Phylum Pteridophyta
vascualr, no seeds, only spores; ferns
biennial
a flowering plant that completes its life cycle in two years
Rhizoids
in fungi, a rootlike hypha that penetrates the surface of an object; in mosses, a long, thin cell that anchors the moss in the ground and absorbs water and mineraals
perennials
flowering plants that live for more than two years
what is the key ingredient for photosynthesis enters the leaf via stomata?
CO2
Aquatic Plants
Plants with tissues that have large air-filled spaces for better oxygen diffusion.
cortex and pith
two types of parenchymal tissue modified for storage
Dermal tissue
"Skin" of plant, outermost laber and protects plant
Shoot
the portion of a plant that grows mostly above the ground; includes the stems and leaves.
Native to Indonesia, used in whole or ground form, considered to have the effect of increasing heat in system
Cloves
plants range in size from microscopic water fern to the giant.....that are sometime more than 100meters in height
sequoia trees
Hebal delivery from strongest to weakest
Tang, San, Wan
gymnosperm
a plant that produces seeds that are not enclosed by a protective fruit
water-conducting tissues
seeds
flowers
features that divide plants into four groups
the basic structural unit of fungi are threadlike filaments called....?
hyphae
Seeds
- ( not all plants contain this )
- contain food
- stay in soil until they can start growing
- need food for energy
- life on pause
gravitropism
response of a plant to the force of gravity
Tropism
the movement of all or part of an organism in response to an external stimulus, such as light or heat; movement is either toward or away stimulus
The Badianus Manuscript is associated with what?
Aztec Medicine (c. 1552)
to survive on land, what characteristics did plants need to develop?
1.absorb nutrients
2.prevent H2O loss
3. Reproduction
seed
the first stage in the growth of many plants
Food Chain
series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
alternation of generations
The life of life cycle between haploid phases and diploid phases
What part of the marijuana plant is used for the physcoactive drug?
The bud (cannabinoids)
leaf
a plant that grows out of the stem; it takes in the air and light that a plant needs
what are 3 ways fungi can reproduce?
Fragmentation, Budding, Producing spores
What is NOT true about Chen Pi
does not move LIV qi
eyes or buds of tubers
these grow into roots and shoots to produce a new plant
What is true about herbs that dry dampness
the herbs have a bitter quality
What channels do Bo He and Chai Hu enter:
LU, LIV; SJ, GB, PC, LIV
what is the apical maristem and where is it found?
its is a growth tissue behind the the root cap
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