Plants section Flashcards

Terms Definitions
synthetic
sintético
ovule
...
La spina
Thorn
Filament
Thread-like stem
flower
sexual organ
Border Forsythia
Oleaceae
Gnetophyta
*Seed Plant
*Gymnosperm
Welwitschia
Gnetun
seed transfer
animals, wind
woody stems
tree/bush stems
Ficus elastica
rubber plant
sperm
male sex cell
Lythrum salicaria
Purple loosestrife
Heracleum mantegazzianum
Giant hogweed
Photosynthesis equations
6CO2+6H20+SUNLIGHT---> C6H12O6+6O2
protenema
branching, one-celled-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores, becomes the gametophyte in moss
vascular plants
hav vascular tissue
wither
dry up and die
Photoperiodism
plant's response to light
Inland Saltgrass
Distichlis spicata Aeluropodeae
Microspores
-spore produced my meiosis-give
rise via mitosis to multicellular male gametophytes, which then give rise to the male gametes-ex. sperm
pith
parenchymal tissues modified for storage
sporophyte
spore-producing stage of a plant
multicellular, photoautotrophs,eukaryotes with thick cell wells made of cellulose, mostly green
Characteristics of all plants
stamen
The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.
sclerenchyma
cells with thick cell walls
nucleus
control center of the cell
Xylem
vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant
anthophytes
flowering, vascular plants that produce seeds
Embryo , endosperm, hardened integuments form?
Seed
Vascular Tissue
The "veins and arteries"
-Transports water and nutrients
-Phloem and Xylem
Auxins
Hormones for plant elongation and rooting
Ovary
the protective vessel where seeds develop
Angiosperms are _______ seeds
covered by fruit
MOA of senna
muscle myopathy and cardiomyopathy
abscission
dropping of leaves from a plant
fibrous roots
Has many small root hairs.
multicellular
how many cells do plants have?
Conifer
any gymnospermous tree or shrub bearing cones, Any of a group of gymnosperms that produce seeds in cones and have needle-like leaves
Animal pollinators
bees, butterflies, moths, bats, beetles
chloroplast
The process of photosynthesis takes place in the __________.
Nutrients
Substances, like minerals, that all living things need to grow.
Cambium
undifferentiated stem tissue that aids in growth in width
radicle
an ambryonic root of a plant
Seedless vascular plant; has rhizomes, scale-shape
horsetail
transpiration
the process by which water evaporates from the leaves of plants
guard cells
modified epithelial cells that control the opening and closing of the stomates in response to changes in water pressure
Fibrous roots differ from taproots
Fibrous spread out
sepal
protects the reproductive organ of the flower
Pollination
when pollem from the touches the stigma
Autotroph
An organism that synthesizes its own organic nutrients and does not rely on other organisms for food.
Photosynthesis
The process by which plants capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make food
combium
tissue that produces new xylem and ploem cells
leaf
the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants
Ilex opaca
Acid sandy soils and bottomlands introduced in many habitats.
Fruit is food for song birds, quail and turkey.
Texas and east to the northeastern border of the United States
Wood is white and useful for piano keys and furniture
Alternation of Generations
Includes a haploid gametophyte generation and a diploid sporophyte generation
positive
When a pea plant's tendirls coil around a solid object we say this is a __________ response to touch.
Reduced vs. oxidized: which has higher energy?
Reduced
tropism
he turning of a plant towards light
Phylum
The next level below kingdom which includes 35 groups of animals and two groups of plants
angiosperm
a flowering plant, a vascular seeded plant that produces flowers
pistils
female parts of the flower that produces female gametophytes
consists of an ovary, stigma, and style
Oak
the hard durable wood of any oak
Lamb's ear
has dense covering for defence, increased reflectance, slows transpiration
origin
rise or derivation from a particular source:
Cold Blooded
Having a body temperature that changes with the temperature of its surroundings.
colony
a group of many individuals or stems of the same species of plant found growing together
soil
material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow (especially with reference to its quality or use)
seeded vascular
most advanced plants that have xylem and phloem
Perennial
a plant that lives beyond two life cycles. These plants live a long time and usually have woody stems, like maple trees.
tissue
a group of cells that make an organism
vascular plant
plant that has vascular tissues that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plant
Gymnosperms
Seed plants whose seeds do not develop within a sealed container (FRUIT)
monocot
a flowering plant with an embryo that bears a single cotyledon (seed leaf)
Positives on Sexual Reproduction
Variation & diversity
Increases rate of evolution
Travel (seeds)
petal
A modified leaf of a flowering plant. Petals are the often colorful parts of a flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators.
4 stages of butterfly's life
egg, larva, pupa, adult
chlorophyll
A molecule that absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light. (The green stuff in plants)
natural selection
a process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than are organisms with other characteristics
Seed strucutre
has female gametophyte tissue (n) - food storageembryo - 2ninteguments - forms seed coat (2n)
phloem
move the food the plants make in the leaves to the other parts of the plant
long-day plants
exposure to a night shorter then a certain number, ex: spinach, late spring to early summer
Vessel Element
Tube like cells in the xylem of angiosperms.
biotechnology companies - noun
businesses using biochemistry to make new medicines, etc. (e.g. I don't know if my conscience would allow me to work for a biotechnology firm. I just don't agree with their goals.)
lower epidermis
What is letter "F" in the leaf structure picture?
Palmate
arranged like fingers on the palm of a hand
spongy layer of Seed plant
loosely arranged cells and air
cohesion-tension theory
causes most of the xylem movement, as H20 evaporates from open stomata, water is pulled up capillaries to replace what was lost
Complete Flower (Perfect Flower)
Flower with both male and female parts
Difference between taproots and fibrous roots and examples of each
fibrous roots spread in every direction (onions); taproots grow straight down (carrots)
whether
if, no matter if (e.g. I am not sure whether or not I am going to the store today. I may just wait until tomorrow.)
cast
a fossil that is shaped or formed in a mold
WHO HAS:The process in which a plant makes food
I HAVE:Nonvascular Plants
Prunus x cistena - purple leaf sand cherry
black-purple fruit, redish leaves
What makes up a plant's leaf system?
all the leaves and their parts
Why does pressure develop within plant cells?
When higher solute conc. inside than outside - water moves into cellMembranes are semi-permeable so allow water molecules in but not solute molecules - therefore pressure builds
Name some concepts that are the same between angiosperms and gemnosperms.
both produce seeds and both contain vascular tissue.
zone
zona
cyanogenic
plums
foliage
il fogliame
organism
living thing
Poaceae fruit
caryopsis
General Terms
...
thermotropism
response to temperature
dicot
two seed leaves
Nolina recurvata
ponytail palm
Angiosperms
all star, flowers
Trientalis latifolia
Western starflower
Philodendron cordatum
Heart-leaf Philodendron
get on the ball
espabílate
agriculture
the study of farming
Catalpa speciosa
Lady cigar tree
Satellite
another name for moon
petiole
stalk of a leaf
true
by controlling cross-pollination, scientists can artificially produce plants that have the characteristics people find useful
Cell becomes refractory
Zygandenus venenosus
mycorrhizae
(symbiotic associations with fungi) increase the absorptive surface area of the roots
vascular
Vascular plants have __________ tissue.
gnetophytes
closely related to angiosperms; unusual flagellated sperm
Venus Flytrap
Needs nitrogen from insects
sporangium
organ containing or producing spores
vascular bundle
vein system in plants
dioecious
Are cycads monoecious or dioecious?
leaves
Considered the plant's food factory.
stigma
The tip of the pistil
Deciduous gymnosperm; its ancestors were diverse i
ginkgo
Blade
Attaches a leaf to its stem
embryo
a minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium
cytokinins
produced in roots, sprayed by florists
protogyte
The condition of hermaphrodite plants in which female gametes mature and are shed before maturation of male gametes
Mimosoideae
Mimosa, small compact legumes, pinnate or bipinnate leaves
Lanatana, yellow sage
Acid
Triterpene acids
Liver damage -> photosensitization
GI signs
gymnosperm
naked seed, produces cones (spruce, pine)
Dicots
__________ have vascular bundles that are arranged in a ring.
stipule
curvy base of the leaf stem
tropisms
a plants response to a stimulus
nonvascular plant
a type of peat moss
sieve tubes
the conducting strands in phloem
Seeds
encloses embryo to prevent drying out; provides nutrients
cells
All plants are made up of this
zone of cell division
cells are actively dividing
Vessel Elements
Elongated, tubular plant cell that forms xylem strands (vessels) and conducts water and dissolved substances
receptacle
swollen base of flower. forms tissue of fruits
style
a way of expressing something (in language or art or music etc.) that is characteristic of a particular person or group of people or period
hydroponics
a technique for growing plants with out soil
The hypocotyl us the ______ between the plumule..
connector
cotyledon
seed structure that stores food or helps absorb food for the sporophyte of vascular seed plants.
air, water, animals
Three ways seeds are spread.
mitochondria
a eukaryotic organell that is bounded by a double membrane and is the site of arobic respiration
zygote
A fertilized egg, produced by the joining of a sperm and an egg.
Adhesion
H bonding between water and matrices - causes them to adhere to the sides of xylem vessles
scape
a leafless peduncle rising from the ground.
absiscis acid
slows down growth; major effect on seed dormancy
A(n) __________ plant no longer lives on Earth, but a(n) __________ of its remains might be found.
extinct, fossil
Pollenation
the transfer of pollen from a male reproductive structure to a female reproductive structure
companion cells
phloem cells that support the sieve tube elements
cuticle
A waxy coating on the surface of leaves that reduces water loss
cross-pollination
when a plant transfers its pollen to the stigma of another plant
stolon
a horizontal branch from the base of plant that produces new plants from buds at its tips
root hair*
outgrowth of a root's epidermal cell that increases the surface area available for absorption
Loam
Best soil, 40% silt, 20% clay, 40% sand
Carbon Dioxide
A heavy odorless colorless gas formed during respiration and by the decomposition of organic substances
epicotyl
part of the embryo, becomes the upper part of the stem
during germination
roots grow down and stems grow up
sapwood
In the tree trunk contains tubes that carry water and nutrients
Aggregate Fruits
form from a single flower that contains several separate carpels. After fertilization each ovary from each individual carpel enlarges. the ovaries may fuse to form a single fruit e.g. raspberry
What is the basic unit of living things?
cells
number of seed leaves
flowering plants can be classified through this
vascular cambium
a strip of tissue that lies between the xylem and phloem
sporophyte, embryo, ovule, seed
the megagametophyte is dependent on the ____________, since it and subsequent __________ are reatined withtin the _______ that develops into the _______
Simple Leaf
Leaf that is not compound, not divided into secondary units
Pollen tube
A(n) _____ grows from the pollen grain to the female cones
essential nutrients for roots
nitrogen (4 proteins) phosphorous (to make dna) potassium (proteins and carbs) magnesium (chlorophyll) calcium (cell growth and wall structure)
Cellular respiration
The process when cells use oxygen to break down the sugars stored as starch to release energy
Life Cycle
The stages of growth and change that an organism goes through.
secondary plant growth
growth that leads to an increase in the width of a plant
dormant
a seed that is in a resting state and not growing .
transport proteins
use atp to pump mineral ions from soil to plant.
gametophyte
the stage in the life cylce of a plant in which the plant produces gametes, or sex cells
Examples of vascular plants
sunflower, maple tree, ferns, and pine trees
What are the 2 types of seed producing plants?
Gymnosperms(conifers) and Angiosperms(flowering plants)
Difference between xylem and pholem
pholem moves water up and down a stem
xylem is the storage for glucose
What does the protoplasm consist of?
The chemicals within the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
The cuticle does what for the plant
creates a barrier to help with keeping water inside the plant
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