Plants Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
weed
l'erbaccia
herbaceous
soft
mown
niitis
rhizomes
underground stems
photosynthesis
leaf function
Cactus
El Cactus
Meristems
specialized tissues
periwinkle
catharanthus roseus
seeds
plants reproduce using
xylem
moves water/minerals upward
Juniperus virginiana
Eastern redcedar
ovary
female sex cell
Decidous
shedding leaves annually
lycophytes
Primitive, vascualar plants.spore-bearing
angiosperms
-flowering plants-more
than 230,000
known species which
is by far the largest number for any plant group
bryophyte
a nonvascular green plant
cuticle
produces a waxy layer(cutin)
Salicaceae
Populus, Salix-willows,aspen, and cottonwood.
anther
male organ in plants
style
narrow stalk of carpel
ground tissue
parenchyma cells
collenchyma cells
schlerencyma cells
water conducting cells
food conducting cells
bulk of young plant..filling space between dermal and vascular
support tissue
leaf primordia
where leaf comes from
pollen grain
a sperm cell (microspore)
dicot
flowering plant with two cotyledons
Secondary Growth
Deals with Lateral Meristem
spongy mesophyll
photosynthesis and gas exchange
plants
multicellular eukaryotes that have cellulose walls, and use chlorophylll for photosynthesis
herb
The suffix "wort" means "__________".
haploid
In bryophytes __________ spores produce the next generation.
petiole
the stem of the leaf
nitrogen fixation
The assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain prokaryotes into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used by plants.
stolons
horizontal "runners" are stems growing on the ground that enable plants to colonize large areas asexually
auxin
hormone that promotes growth, cell elongation, fruit development
guttation
extra turgor pressure (little leaf droplets)
plants provide us?
oxygen, energy, clothing, medicine....
petal
usually brightly colored elements that may produce fragrant oils
tropism
growth in response to a stimulus
ovary and pistil
make and store eggs
carpel
the ovary, style, and stigma combination
Corbes
is inside spongy layer of epidermis
herbaceous stems
soft, thin,green, monocot, no secondary growth, vascular bundles arranged throughout
Angyosperms
plants with covered seeds like flowering plants and hardwood trees
false
t/f only some plants r multicellular
All plants are...
multicellular eukarotic (have nuecleus) autotroph(make food from sun)
cone
in gymnosperms a seed bearing stucture
casparian strips
wax rings, blocks passive water flow
Cohesion
Attraction of molecules of the same substance to each other
Agent Orange
Herbicide causing health problems in humans
chlorophyl
the chemical that traps the energy from the sunlight, gives plants their green color
cell membranes
In nonvascular plants water is absorbed directly through __________ __________ and cell walls.
sori
groups of sporangia found on underside of a frond
Monocots
plants with one embryonic leaf within the seed
A, G, C, T
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
ligin and cellulose in cell walls
support structures
Stomata
porelike openings in the underside of the leaf that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf
stamen
combined name for the filament and anther
roots
function: holding the plant to the ground
phloem
vascular tissue where sugar and other compounds flow down from the leaves
chlorophyll
The green substance that helps plants make food
cutin
waxy coating on leaves to prevent water loss
Pterophyta
Ferns - Sporophyte dominant - Need water to reproduce, vascular tissue
Rhizoids
root precurses, that anchor to the ground
stem
Supports the leaves, and holds them high for photosynthesis.
Stomate
The tiny pores or leaf openings appearing between guard cells of the epidermis; oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between inner photosynthetic leaf cells and the atmosphere occurs through these openings
What is a Carpel?
the female reproductive parts.
sapwood
newly formed outer wood lying between the cambium and the heartwood of a tree or woody plant (xylem cells)
In Orchidaceae and some Apocynaceae (a bonus family), all of the pollen grains from one or more stamens are aggregated together into a structure called a ______.
pollinia
d
Which one of these is the female reproductive part?
Root hairs
The root outgrowths that absorb water and minerals
fiddlehead
nearly all fronds first appear as a ____________ which unrolls as it grows
stigma
sticky top of the style where pollen lands and germinates
chloroplast
an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
pollination
when pollen from one plant is dropped onto another plant, beginning fertilization
sporangia
organs in which spores are produced by sporophytes
Photochrome
leaf pigments that you can measure the length of the night
upper leaf cells
contain chloroplasts that trap the energy in sunlight for photosynthesis
narrow stalk of the carpel in a flower
style
frond
large leaf of fern; may be divided into pinnae
true
t/f some land plants r supported by vascular tissue
root
(1) An underground part of a plant that anchors the plant and absorbs water and nutrients. (2) In a phylogenetic tree, the bottom, most ancient node.
palisade mesophyll
the tall, slender cells within the leaf
A condition of the stamens in most brassicaceae in which 4 stamens have long filaments and 2 have short filaments
Tetradynamous
ingredients for photosynthesis
energy from the sun, water, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll
Cotyledon
food is stored inside one or two seed leaves
Cytokinin
One in a class of plant hormones that promotes cell division, germination, and tissue growth. Affects root growth and differentiation. Delays aging. Made in roots and transported to other organs.
apical meristem
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
cortex
part of the ground tissue that is the apical meristem
Important poaceae
corn, barley oats, sugar cane bamboo ( largest)
Ovulate cone
hard and woody, scales each have a pair of ovules
sporophyte
a stage in the plant's life cycle that produces spores
WHO HAS:A cell that opens and closes stomata
I HAVE:embryo
fibrous roots
A root that takes in large amounts of water, quickly.
features of ascomoyota, candida infection
yeast infect anywhere moist and dark,
spongy layer
the layer of a leaf that lies just under the palisade layer that contains many air spaces for gas exchange and sugar storage, this layer houses the vascular tissue
terminal bud
the growing part at the END of the TOP of a stem
What are the two systems in a plant?
Shoot (leaves+stems) Root (roots)
root cap
A cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem.
Pinus ponderosa - Ponderosa Pine
needles in 2 & 3, bronze bark, loose lower limbs, long soft needles
im not sure that itd be the best thing to do
no se si eso seria lo mejor
FLOWER
water
6h2o
bunch
kimp
peanut
cacahuete, maní
Chinaberry
Melia azedarach
petals
Attracting pollinators
Gymnosperms
produce cones
Blackgum
nyssa sylvatica
Parenchyma
traditional-looking plant cells
Acer rubrum
Red maple
bark
kůra stromu; štěkot
Asparagus densiflorus 'sprengeri'
Spreng"Fern"
vascular
xylem and phloem
transport
Dendritic
pertaining to dendrites
stomata are what?
tiny pores
Vascular tissue
xylem and phloem
Pinaceae: Abies balsamea
Balsam Fir
sepals
outermost, green floral parts
Positive gravitropism
movement with gravity (roots)
survival value
___________ _________of seeds contributes greatly to seed plants, and their present dominance and success of seed and seed coat
"wet habitats"
support, universal solvent (nutrients), diffusion is easier, and temperate temperature
Xylem (plant tissue)
roots to leaves
parenchyma cells
loosely packed, storage cells
ethylene
hormone, gas; promotes fruit ripening
cambruim
makes the xylem and phloem
Agrostis stolonifera/ gigantea
Creeping bentgrass, redtop
cambium
formative one-cell-thick layer of tissue between xylem and phloem in most vascular plants that is responsible for secondary growth
photoperiodism
physiological response to lengths of night+day
Filament
Slender tube w/ supports the anther
Red Algae
Protist: Phycoerythrin pigment, depend on water for fertilization, no flagella
monocotyledon
flowering plants with narrow leaves &parallel veins
stems
support the leaves of plants, transport various materials
protonema
A mass of green, branched, one-cell-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores.
fruit
wall of tissue surrounding angiosperm seed
that are threadlike roots of non-vascular plants?
Rhizoids
Mycorrhizae
Mutual relationship between fungus and roots. Fungus get sugars and amino acids while plants receive water and minerals from the fungus. Bacterias also help plants by getting sugar and giving nitrogen.
Sambucus nigra 'Eva'
Black Lace European elderberry


-Alternate, 2-ranked branches
-Spinose margins
-Obovate
-Prominent lentisils
-Leathery leaves
Castanea pumilaC: ChinquapinF: Fagaceae
Dormancy
A condition typified by extremely low metabolic rate and a suspension of growth and development.
Cartilage
An inner supporting structure of a bone
raw materials
Carbon dioxide, water, and light energy are the three __________ __________ needed in order for photosynthesis to take place.
pollen
moved by wind, birds, bees and insects
Annuls
flower that lives for a year ex:begonia
Leaf morphology
-Blade=typically broader in dicots and more tapered in monocots
-Petiole (Dicots)/Sheath (Monocots) =attaches the leaf to the stem
Loam
Combinations of humus, clay and sand soils
Most
_____ conifers produce both male and female cones on the same trees, others produce them on separate trees.
dermal tissue
the outer protective covering of plants
pistil
female part of flower as a whole
Gymnosperm
A vascular plant that bears naked seeds—seeds not enclosed. "naked seed plant"
endoderm
surrounds the stele, each cell is wrapped with the Casparian strip
Lumber, paper, & Fuel
all made from conifers
sporopollenin
protects plant in a harsh terrestrial environment, found in walls of spores and pollen
stoma
opening found in leaves that allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to flow in and out
Coal
is made from ancient seedless plants that fell into the mud and compacted.
A sexual condition in which an individual plant produces both perfect and imperfect flowers ( e.g asteraceae with radiate or disci form heads)
Polygamous
symplast; plasmodesmata
_______ is a continuous system of cytoplasm of cells interconnected by ____________.
Diploid Generation
Sporophyte & makes monoploid spores by meiosis
pericyle
type of cambium that enables roots to grow thicker and branch
guard cells
closes stomata when there is a dangerous amount of water loss and opens it when light is neccessary.
pistole
The female part of a flowering plant. Fruit comes from this part of a flower. I'm Awesome
ovule
a plant structure in seed plants that produces the female gametophyte, contains an egg cell
phototropism
tendency of plants to grow toward a source of light
meristemic
cells that are actively dividing in a plant
shoot system
absorb co2 and sun from air
stems, nodes, internodes, leaves, petioles, blades
Oxygen
is air; plants need air, water and light to grow.
pollen grains
grainy yellow powder at top of stamen
comfrey (symphytum oficinale)Heliotrope (crotalaria specatbulis)Senecio spp
P450 converts alkaloids to highly reactive pyrrolesChronic exposure hepatic vasoocclusive disease
Phloem Tissues
Tubes that carry sugar away from the leaves. The sugar in plants is dissolved in water.
What does gibberellins delay?
ripening of citrus fruits, spped flowering
simple fruit
a fruit derived from a single carpel or pistil having one or many seeds within a pericarp. Includes both dry (Pecans, Macadamia Nuts, & Beans) and fleshy fruits (Peaches, Tomatoes, & Oranges).
upper epidermis
A continous layer of cells covered by a thick waxy cuticle, located there to prevent water loss from the upper surface even when heated by sunlight.
Ribes odoratum - clove current
fragrent yellow flowers, current berry
Internode
the part of a plant stem between two consecutive nodes
describe sex organs of magnoliaceae
laminar stamen, superior ovary, apocarpus
4 Major Plant Groups
1. bryophytes 2. seedless vascular plants 3. gymnosperms 4. angiosperms
Which wood is closer to the cambium late wood or early wood?
Late wood
Monocots Vs. Dicots

Vascular Cambium in secondary stem tissue.
Monocots: not present

Dicots: often present
Monocot Seed
a seed that has one seed leaf and stored food outside the seed leaf.
Fertilization
The joining of a sperm cell and an egg cell
ways seeds travel (or disperse)
1. wind
2. animals
3. water
4. unusual ways
between 260,000 and 300,000
How many species of plants are known?
sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide
Plants need these three things to live
Facts about Division Cycadophyta (cycads)
not true palms, but look like palms
ex: sago palm
Robinia pseudoacacia - black locust
2 thorns on twig, black pod fruit persists,
What are the characteristics of seedless vascular plants?
Have xylem and phloe that allow for true roots, stems and leaves; Xylem-vascular tissue that moves water and nutrients from roots; Phloem-vascular tissues move sugars from leaves; Xylem's thick cell walls support larger plants; Well developed cuticle to minimize water loss
In order to flower, a short-day plant needs a
d. night that is longer than a certain length.
Daffodil
seed
to grow
crescere
el tallo
stem
vascular cambium
gfdg
seed coat
...
ginko
a tree
Gymnosperm means:
Naked seed
Solidago canadensis
Canada goldenrod
silver vase
Aechmea fasciata
liverwort
Type of NONVASCULAR plant.
ethylene gas
makes fruit ripen
Plant Cell - Label
...
your an angel
eres un cielo
Fern
Sporophyte is the dominant stage
Seedless vascular
leaves
Considered the plant's food factory.
self-sufficient
to take care of yourself
aspergylis
fungus breaks down soy:soy sauce
auxins (5)
unequal distribution causes phototropisms, make plant grow upward more, 2,4-D is manmade and used as a weed killer, used as rooting powder to develop roots quickly, synthetic used to make seedless plants
leaf
place where photosynthesis takese place
bryophyta (mosses)
sexual; nonvascular; spores; near water so that sperm can swim to reach eggs and fertilize them
savanna
grassland found in tropical climates (India, South America , Austrailla, and Africa
Wavelength
The distance between crests of waves
seed leaf
food for the developing plant
Internodes
region between two successive leaves where there are no leaves (part of the stem)
heredity
passing of characteristics from a parent to its offspring
Monocot
an angiosperm with one seed leaf
collenchyma cell
unevenly thickened primary cell wall
Acer spp (Maple)
TP: unknown, wilted dried leaves often culprit, all species potentially a problem
MOA: acute hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, Heinz body formation
Animals affected: horses, alpacas
Clin Signs: within 24 hours, depression, anorexia, br
endodermis
innermost layer of cortex, boundary between cortex and vascular tissue
Liverworts
Appear as small flat leaf like structures, Sporophyes appear as small umbrellas a top the gametophytes.
spongy mesophylll
provide CO2 to those performing photosynthesis(diffusion), loosely packed
"A" gene
gene that stimulates growth of sepals
Pride of Barbados
Acid
Tannic acid
GI lesions (rumi and monos)
Renal damage (rumi)
protoderm
root tissue that becomes epidermis; a primary meristem
seedless vascular
which plants include the lycophytes and the pteridophytes?
Epicotyl
becomes the upper part of the stem
Transpiration
Loss of water vapor through the stomata of a leaf in plants.
prop roots
help support top heavy plants
EX. maize
botany
the branch of biology that studies plants
Staminate cones
male conesmall and short livedscales are modified leaves - microsporophylls that have two sporangia on each scale
eukaryote
any organism having as its fundamental structural unit a cell type that contains specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, a membrane-bound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes, and an elaborate system of division by mitosis or mei
photosystem
in plants; a unit of several hundred clorophyll molecules and carotenoid pigment molecules in the thylakoid membrane
What tissue is a protective outer tissue that prevents water loss?
dermal tissue
What is the basic characteristic of Angiosperms?
flowering plants
orographic effect
As elevation increases ever 300 ft, precipitation increases 2-4 inches
monoecious
plant with male and female parts on the same plant
pesticides
any one of various substances used to kill harmful insects (insecticide), fungi (fungicide), vermin, or other living organisms that destroy or inhibit plant growth, carry disease, or are otherwise harmful.
flower parts in 4's or 5's, branching netted veins in leaves, vascular bundles arranged in a ring in stem, taproots
dicots
autotroph
organisms that use energy from the sun or energy stored in chemical compounds to manufacture their own nutrients
Stele
central part of the root or stem containing the tissues derived from the procambium; contains xylem in an x-shape, along with all other vascular tissue
nonvascular plant
plants that lack vascular tissue to efficiently transport water and nutrients
moist, harsh, asexually, water, photosynthesize
Because sexual reproduction involves flagellated sperm, nonvascular plants are usually found in _______ habitats; mosses compete well in _______ environments because the gametophyte can reproduce ___________; mosses can dry up, later, when _______ is available, they _________________ again
plumule
The shoot that comes out of the embryo after root
Vascular bundle
Composed of xylem and phloem. Found in the veins of the leaf. It is a circular structure that causes the leaf to form a "hill". The phloem and xylem transport material throughout the plant.
plant biologist
a scientist who studies plants and how they function in their habitat
Nut
Has a hard outer layer and contains a dry, one-seed fruit; Ex: Peanut, walnut, cashew, pecan, coconut, almond, macadamia, filbert, pistachio
ill return the favor some day
ya te devolveré el favor
DNA>RNA>PROTEINS. What two processes happen here?
Transcription happens between DNA and RNA, Translation happens between RNA and PROTEINS.
what are the 4 phyla of gymnospersms?
1. ginkgophyta
2. gnetophyta
3. pinophyta or coniferophyta
4. cycadophyta
polar nuclei
three nuclei at each end of the cell and two nuclei in the center
node
place on the stem where a bud or leaf is attached
Some nutrients are mobile others are immobile
Plants will preferentially move nutrients to younger tissues at the expense of older tissues (mobile nutrients)
Young tissues will start dying first is immobile
Chlorosis is yellowing of plant signs of weakening
Red tinge- phosphate deficiency
Burnging- K "
Middle thru tip - N "
What does the vascular system do?
transport and support; made up of xylem and phloem
how does the pollination of most trees and grasses differ from the plollination of flowers
trees and grasses self pollinate- flowers must get pollen from other flowers.
take in water and nutrients from the soil
the most important job of roots is to
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