Plate Tectonics 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
1972
PAGASA founded
6-10km
Thickness of Sima
Aftershocks
Earth settling after displacement
70,000
Buildings in Christchurch assessed
9
Magnitude of Japanese earthquake
1912
Plate tectonic theory released
105,000
USA Visas for Haitians.
4th September 2010
Earthquake in Christchurch
200,000
Homes destroyed by Mount Pinatubo
5 minutes
Duration of Japanese earthquake
THRUST
Tsunami Reduction Utilising Systems Technology
350,000
Refugees from Mount Nyiragongo eruption
300,000
Number injuried by Haitian earthquake
Bexley
Suburb of Christchurch that flooded
7000km
Length of Mid Atlantic Ridge
Phillipine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronautrical Service Administration
PAGASA
500kmph
Speed of Japanese tsunami waves
400,000
Reversal of earth's magnetic field
1918
Last eruption of Solfatara, Italy
Four types of boundaries
destructive, constructive, conservative, collision
Wegner
Came up with plate tectonic theory
6.1
highest magnitude of aftershocks in Japan
Quasi-Natural
Earthquakes caused by dams and reservoirs increasing water pressure in rocks, acting as a lubricant
Fissure
Volcano shape Elongated mild eruption with basaltic lava e.g. Iceland
Krakatoan
Eruption type very violent eruption removing original cone
Calderas
Volcano shape Andesitic lava, formed from a block vent creating a crater e.g. Krakatoa
700
Killed by eruption of Mount Pinatubo
Alpine Fault
Indo-Australian Plate subducting the Pacific Plate, where the New Zealand earthquake occured
2km
Width of Mount Nyiragongo lava flow
1992
Date planting of contaminated land will work.
14,000
Quakes a year in New Zealand
150
Seismic detectors in 1994 in Japan
18,000
Missing March 21st in Japanese earthquake
$500,000
Aid for New Zealand from China
$4 billion
Cost of repairs in Christchurch
5.1
Magnitude of earthquake triggering the eruption of Mount St. Helens
$5 million
Australian aid to New Zealand
Alfred Wegener
He discovered that all continents where once joined together in one big land called Pandaea.
Plate Names
North America, South America, Nazca Plate, Eurasian Plate, Pacific Plate, Indian Plate, Australian Plate, Antartic Plate
1500-2000
Treated for minor injuries in New Zealand quake
DART
Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis, set up November 2005
1000ft
Decline in Mount St. Helens height after eruption
Hawaiian
Eruption type emitted from a vent gently
Liquefaction
Ground is violently shook and behaves like liquid, soil volcanoes created by movement of groundwater and pore water pressure increases
Interim Haiti Recovery Committee
Organisation to coordinate reconstruction schemes
Solfatara
Gases mingle with steam from rising water, often sulphurous
Inner Core
Inner solid layer of the earth
Mount Nyiragongo
hot spot volcano in Democratic Republic of Congo
30km
Steam and ash into atmosphere after Mount Pinatubo erupts
23%
People live in slums in Angeles, Phillipines
3
US warships sent to tackle Japanese earthquake
Market Rasen, Uk
Intra-plate quake occured 27th Feb 2008
12 miles
Distance of landslide from Mount St. Helens
North American plate
Sial plate subducting the Sima, creating Mount st. Helens
1/4 million
Refugees returned to Goma within 24 hours
600km
Distance away that ash fell from Mount Pinatubo
50 km
maximum depth for quake to cause tsunami
7,000
Deer, elk and bears killed by Mount St. Helens eruption
Mantle
Large layer between the crust and the core of the earth
4 billion ft2
Timber destroyed by Mount St. Helens
Outer Core
Outer liquid layer of the earth's core
3 weeks
Power cuts after eruption of Mount Pinatubo
5ft
Growth of lava bulge in Mount St. Helens before 1980 eruption every day
Crust
Outer layer of the earth, divided into plates
Intra-Plate earthquakes
earthquakes from stresses in the plate due to movement or isostatic uplift.
Gap Theory
Little fault activity in an area increases probability of activity soon
Lake Kivu
Major water supply, polluted by Mount Nyiragongo eruption
Juan de Fuca
Sima plate subducted on boundary forming St. Helens
Marianas Trench
Is deeper than Mount Everest is tall and is a destructive plate boundary.
New Zealand Earthquake Commission
Educates on earthquake safety, with Advertising campaigns such as "Quake Safe" in June 2005-2006
Emergency Coordination Centre
Established March 1980 for Mount St. Helens management
April 29th 1980
No access and restricted access areas created as earthquakes reached 4.9 magnitude near Mount St. Helens
March 27th-April 18th 1980
Earthquakes and steam eruptions occur near Mount St. Helens
North American and Caribbean Plates
Transform fault where Haitian earthquake was
October 5th 2004
Eruption of Mount St. Helens after dome begins to build again
$1.1 billion
Cost of repairs after Mount St. Helens eruption
8.32am May 18th 1980
Eruption caused by earthquake Mount St. Helens
1 in 5
Jobs lost as a result of Haitian earthquake
Layers of the Earth (from outside layer -> in)
Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core
colliding
convergent
moving apart
divergent
divergent
two plates separate
convergent
Two plates come together
Continental rifting
where continents rift apart
What was the supercontinent called that once contained nearly all of the continental crust?
Pangaea
radiation
transfer of energy through empty space; transfer of heat occurs without direct contact between heat source and an object
out of two continental lithospheres the______ subducts
oldest
sonar
is a device that bounces sound waves
rebound
crust slowly springs back to its previous elevation
geologist
scientists who study the forces that makes and shapes the earth
granite
a usually light colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust.
the super continent was propose by
alfred egener
what type of volcano is Mt lassen
plug(dome)
paleomagnetism
Study of Earth's magnetic record using data gathered from iron-bearing minerals in rocks that have recorded the orientation of Earth's magnetic field at the time of their formation
plates
the earth's crust is divided into huge pieces
Continental crust
What the earths crust made of land
sea-floor spreding
the process by which new oceanic lithosphere (sea floor) forms as magma rises to Earth's surface and solidifies at a mid-ocean ridge
convergent boundary
places where two tectonic plates are moving towards each other
Subduction zone
The region where oceanic plates sink down into the asthenosphere.
Continental Drift
The Theory that continents can drift apart from one another and have done so in the past
small, short, mafic lava fountains and are fairly steep
cidercone volcano
normal faults
type where the hanging wall moves downward along a fault
caused by tension
oceanic ridge
a continuous elevated zone on the floor of all the major ocean basins and varying in width from 1000-4000km; the rifts at the crests represent divergent plate boundaries (Mid-Atlantic Ridge)
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
transform boundary
..., a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
Seafloor Spreading
The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges
sea floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
Rift Zone
an area of deep cracks that forms between two tectonic plates that are pulling away from each other
when masses of land become attach to an overriding plate due to subduction it is called
accreted terranes
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
transform fault boundary
a boundary in which two plates slide past one another without creating or destroying lithosphere
if two continental plates collide, which of the two subducts?
none because they create mauntain ranges
california transform baundary is in the
san andreas fault running through most of the state
hydrosphere
water
P wave
Atrial depolarization
Compression
associated with convergent boundary
Convection
the movement of heated materials
core
the very centre of the earth
Extrusive
fine-grained igneous rock that forms when magma cools quickly at or near Earth's surface
Transform
Boundry where plates slide past eachother
Stratovolcano
type of volcano, explosive, steep slopes, cone shaped.
fracture zones
prominent linear breaks; include active transform and active extentions and lie only between two offset ridge segments
Moho
the mohorovicic discontinuity. this is the boundary between the mantle and the crust. we know that it is there because when the P waves hit the mantle they spike up to 8 km/s, indicating a boundary and a different rock type. the moho can be up to 90 km thick. it is composed of ultramafic peridotite, made up of the iron and magnesium bearing silicates pyroxene and olivine.
Where are Mid-Ocean Ridges found?!?
ALL Oceans
asthenosphere
plastic mushy composed of iron and magnesium. it is where convection takes place.
sedimentary rock
rock formed with sediment cemented together, most likely rock to have fossils
Pangea
Large ancient land mass that was composed of all the continents joined together.
Harry Hess
American geologist who proposed the theories of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.
plate
a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthensphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust
lithosphere
the rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and upper mantle
rift
a personal or social separation (as between opposing factions)
Himalayan mountains
formed by the collision of Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates; convergent boundary
Felsic
Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.
When plates collide what do the form
mountains
Convective flow
motion of matter resulting from convection
The theory that the continents move.
Continental Drift
Tectonic plates
large slabs moving pieces of both oceanic and continental and continental crust in the lithospher
Secondary wave
Wave which causes rock particles to move at right angles to the direction of wave travel, the second wave to pass through the earth after an earthquake
Rayleigh waves
Surface waves that travel in a backward-rotating, elliptical motion, causing both vertical and horizontal ground movement. Can travel through solid, liquid, and gas. Fourth to arrive. Dangerous.
Mid-ocean Ridge
An underwater moutain chain where new ocean floor is formed.
Volcanic neck
When magma hardens in a volcanoes pipe.
transform fault
when two tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally, the boundary between them transforms
pressure
The force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted
Fractional crystallization
The process by which the crystals formed in a cooling magma are segregated from the remaining liquid at progressively lower temperatures.
Secondary Waves
waves that travel outward from an earthquke's focus and move through Earth by causing particles in rocks to vibrate at right angles to the direction of the wave
fault
(geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
Earthquake magnitude
measure of ground shaking during and earthquake, which depends of distance from epicenter and the geological material.
Ring of fire
Volcanoes all around the pacific plate
trench
the place where one plate slides under another plate
pyroclastic flow
an avalanche of glowing rocks flowing on a cushion of hot gases
.:Sea-Floor Spreading:.
.:The process by which new oceanic lithosphere for
Secondary wave (s-wave)
Wave which causes rock particles to move at right angles to the direction of wave travel, the second wave to pass through the earth after an earthquake
colliding boundary
A plate boundary where two plates come together, or collide
Ridge Push
When the force of gravity moves a plate downward and away from a ridge
Divergent Boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
neap tide
A tide that occurs when the difference between high and low tide is least; the lowest level of high tide.
divergent plate boundary
where two plates are moving apart, magma comes up to create new crust
Theory of plate tectonics
Formation of volcanoes and mountain ranges can explain this theory
iron and nickel
What is the Earth's core made of?
Convergent Boundary Continental Plate vs Oceanic Plate
Creates a trench and volcanic arc
mechanisms of plate motion
slab pull, ridge push, and slab suction
Foot Wall
The block of rock that lies on the underside of an inclined fault
Alfred Wegner
The man who thought that all of the continents were connected at one time.
How were the Hawaii Islands formed?
It is on an Hot spot.
give two examples of a volcanic mountain
mt saint helens and kilauea
What are the two causes of Plate Motion?
Rigde Push and Slab Pull
Why didn't individuals believe Wegener's hypothesi
He could not explain how, when, or why changes had
Sink
Dense materials?
name of super continent?
Pangaea
Earthquakes
what has restricted distribution regarding trenches and ridges and are caused by plate movement?
Climate
Tropical plants in ice-covered Greenland; Rocks deeply scratched by ice sheets in South America
Composite Cones
Classic pyramid shaped volcanoes
Richter
An open-ended scale for determining the magnitude of earthquakes
Gondwana
The name of the southern supercontinent that formed after the breakup of Pangaea; included South America, Africa, Antarctica, India, and Australia.
isostay
a condition of gravitational and buoyant equilibrium between earths lithosphere and asthenosphere
accretion
process that occurs when crustal fragments collide with and stay connected to a continental plate
...
What three places can volcanoes form?
the places where tectonic plates touch
Boundaries
Epicenter
the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
Magnetic Reversal
when Earth's magnetic poles change places
astenosphere
The layer of "plastic rock" directly under the crust of the Earth that is responsible for creation of all volcanic action as well as continental drift. It follows a never ending convection cycle
Subduction
The process that occurs at convergent boundaries, where one plate moves under another.
Volcano
a mountain that formed around the opening as the lava or cinders build up.
Transform Boundaries
plates move side by side, shear.
Ocean ridge
created at a divergent boundary where the ocean plates spread apart. Magma rises out to form underwater mountains.
Laurasia
the name of a mass continent present over 180 million years ago. Does not exist anymore due to continental drift
Normal Fault
Hanging Wall is below foot wall (tensional faults)
slab pull
the sinking region of the mantle's convection current also pulls the oceanic plates downward into the subduction zones and the weight of a subducting plate helps to pull the trailing lithosphere into the subduction zone.
Andesitic
This type of magma usually comes from subduction boundaries and is sometime explosive.
continental slope
The the "cliff"-like structure where a continent ends under water
Alfred Wagener
-used fossils of animals and plants found in Europe, South America, and Africa
-evidence of climate change
-same geologic features and formations found in boht Africa and South America of eroded remains of mountains
Tectonic Plate
the lithosphere is broken into many large and small slabs of rock.
transform plate boundary
Places where crustal plates shear laterally past one another. Crust is neither produced nor destroyed at this type of junction.
Pole Reversal
advancement in finding plates that has to do with divergent boundaries
sea-floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
Basic/Shield Volcanoes
Gentle sides and cover a large area
Earthquake
A sudden movement of the earth's crust caused by the release of stress accumulated along geologic faults
convergent plate boundary
where plates move together causing one of the slabs to be consumed into the mantle as it descends beneath an overriding plate.
Richter Scale
a scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph
Convection currents
Fueled by the heat from the core, causes the asthenosphere to be
plasticlike and move.
Convection Current
the movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another
Seismic Wave
waves of energy that are generated by an earthquake and travel through the earth
rock clues
same rock found on areas of continents that use to be connected
____ is where the magma comes out at the Mid-Ocean
Ridge
lithosphere continental and oceanic
according to the theory of plate tectonics, the _______ is make up of a number of plates that contain ________ and ____ crust
south
what way would a compass go if a polar reversal were to happen?
what are convection currents?
The currents of heating and cooling. (Heat moves up, cold moves down)
Convergent (ocean to ocean) boundary
One plate is subducted and causes tsunamis and earthquakes making volcanic islands
Where does the heat from convection currents primarily come from?
the interior of the earth
divergent continental / continental boundary
A divergent boundary on land where two continental plates seperate and rift valleys are formed.
Describe the formation and movement of a tsunami.
A tsunami happens right after an earthquake. The earthquake might broken a massive piece of rock so the rock plummets down in the ocean, rising the gushing water up. The water starts to rise at the epicenter and gradually gets much higher near the shore.
Describe the age of rocks that make up the ocean floor relative to the seafloor spreading?
The rocks spread apart from the place they were created. The farther away the older. (Add a diagram)
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