AP Language and Composition Terms Flashcards

Language
Terms Definitions
Tone
Attitude
antecedent
preceding; prior:
demeanor
conduct; behavior; deportment.
Nomenclature
terminology(system of specialized words); system of names or naming things
commonplace
ordinary; undistinguished or uninteresting; without individuality:
terse
breif and to the point
Pathos
an appeal based on emotion.
Nonstandard grammatical usage; a viaolation of grammatical rules.
solecism
Wit
Intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights
distinctio
eliminating ambiguity surrounding a word by explicitly specifying each of its distinct meanings.
Symbol
Something that stands for something else
Asyndeton
Deliberate omission of conjunctions in a series of related clauses.
Antimetabole
repetition of words, in successsive clauses, in reverse grammatical order to reinforce antithesis (Ex: one should eat to live, not live to eat)
common knowledge
something generally known to everyone
Quasar
a massive and extremely remote celestial object, emitting large amounts of energy
An artistic movement emphasizing the imagination and characterized by incongruous juxtapositions and lack of conscious control.
surrealism
The emotional atmosphere of a work.
mood
A familiar provberb or wise saying.
adage
belie
to show to be false; contradict:
boor
a churlish, rude, or unmannerly person; a country bumpkin, rustic or yokel
connotation
an act or instance of connoting.
Hyperbole
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.
Synchises
a pair of adjective phrases in parallel structure
Tricolon
a series of three coordinate items that come right after another
Chiasmus/antimetabole
A sentence strategy in which the arrangement of ideas in the second clause is a reversal of the first.
Personification
the assigning of human qualities to inanimate objects or concepts
Intentional fallacy
the error of interpreting or evaluating a work by referring to the author's stated purpose, design, or intention for the work -- a work stands on its own merit, not authorial intention
61. Chiasmus
a form of parallelism. Two corresponding pairs arranged not in parallels (ab-a-b) but in inverted order (a-b-b-a); from shape of the Greek letter chi (X).
"Those gallant men will remain often in my thoughts and in my prayers always"
(MacArthur).
"Renown'd for conquest, and in council skill'd" (Addison).
Juxtaposition
the act of positioning close together (or side by side)
Indicated by a series of three periods, this indicates that some material has been omitted from a given text. It could be a word, a sentence, aparagraph, or a whole section. Be wary of these; they can obscure the real meaning of the writing
Ellipsis
A literary device employed to serve as a basis for comparison. It is assumed that what is applies to the parallel situation also applies to the original circumstance. In other words, it is the comparison between two different items.
Analogy
A term describing a character or literary work that reflects the characteristics of Romanticism, the literary movement beginning in the 18th century that stressed emotion, imagination, and individualism.
romantic
The mistaken substitution of one word for another word that sounds similar. ("The doctor wrote a subscription.")
malapropism
Allusion
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known. May be drawn from history, geography, literature, or religion.
trivia
matters or things that are very unimportant, inconsequential, or nonessential; trifles; trivialities.
carnal
pertaining to or characterized by the flesh or the body, its passions and appetites; sensual:
invective
an insulting or abusive word or expression.
rhetorical canons
in classical rhetoric, the five overlapping offices or divisions of the rhetorical process.
Syntax
The way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences. The writer may use questions, declarations, exclamations, or rhetorical questions; sentences are also classified as periodic or loose, simple, compound, or complex sentences. First try to classify what kind of sentences the author uses, and then try to determine how the author's choices amplify meaning, in other words why they work well for the author's purpose.
Abstract Diction
Refers to language that denotes ideas, emotions, conditions, or concepts that are intangible.
persona - ∝
the speaker, voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of writing
Aphorism
a concise statement of a principle or precept given in pointed words
Pedantic
a term used to describe writing that borders on lecturing. it is scholarly, academic, and often difficult
17. Analogy
A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them. An analogy can explain something unfamiliar by associating it with or pointing out its similarity to something more familiar. Analogies can also make writing more vivid, imaginative, or intellectually engaging.
43. Apostrophe
Direct address, usually to someone or something that is not present; also, a sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person or personified abstraction absent or present. A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. It is an address to someone or something that cannot answer. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity. Many apostrophes imply a personification of the object addressed.
William Wordsworth addresses John Milton as he writes, "Milton, thou shouldst be
living at this hour: / England hath need of thee."
In "Ode to a Grecian Urn," Keats addresses the urn itself: "Thou still unravished bride of
quietness."
"For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel. Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar
loved him." Shakespeare, Julius Caesar.
59. Antithesis
a form of parallelism. Opposition or contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction.
"Extremism in defense of liberty is no vice, moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue" (Barry Goldwater). (notice, this is also an intentional comma splice).
"Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more" (Shakespeare).
"The vases of the classical period are but the reflection of classical beauty; the vases of the archaic period are beauty itself" (Sir John Beazley).
Anaphora
one of the devices of repetition in which the same expression (word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences
A clash between opposing forces in a literary work, such as man vs. man; man vs. nature; man vs. god; man vs. self.
Conflict
Can refer to two different areas of writing. One refers to the relationship between a subject and verb (active and passive). The second refers to the total "sound" of a writer's style.
Voice
A clash between opposing forces in a literary work, such as man vs. man; man vs. nature; man vs. god; man vs. self.
Conflict
A figure of speech in which a representative term is sused for a larger idea (The pen is the mightier than the sword).
Metonymy
egocentric
having or regarding the self or the individual as the center of all things:
demagogue
a person, esp. an orator or political leader, who gains power and popularity by arousing the emotions, passions, and prejudices of the people.
ellipsis
the omission from a sentence or other construction of one or more words that would complete or clarify the construction, as the omission of who are, while I am, or while we are from I like to interview people sitting down.
style
a particular kind, sort, or type, as with reference to form, appearance, or character:
Theme
The central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers into life
Rhetorical question
A question that requires no answer. It is used to draw attention to a point and is generally stronger than a direct statement.
diction - ℵ
style of speaking or writing as dependent upon word choice
Process analysis
a method of clarifying the nature of something by explaining how it works in separate, easy-to-understand steps
7. Mood
the emotional tone in a work of literature. Think of the mood of Edgar Allen Poe's stories versus the mood of Jonathan Edwards' sermon.
Epithet
any word or phrase applied to a person or thing to describe an actual or attributed quality
A type of argument that has as its goal an actionon the part of the audience.
Persuasion
The use of slang in writing, often to create local color and to provide an informal tone. Huckleberry Finn is written in this tone.
Colloquial
Situational Irony
When events turn out the opposite of what was expected
onomatopoeia
the formation of a word, as cuckoo or boom, by imitation of a sound made by or associated with its referent.
misleading statistics - ∅
the use of statistical evidence in order to mislead
Assonance
a type of rhyme in which the vowels in the words are the same but the consonants aren't (how now brown cow)
In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas. It comes from the Latin meaning "against the man."
Ad Hominem
allusion - ℵ
a reference in a literary work to a person, place, or thing in history or another work of literature.
Diction
Word choice
Obscure (adjective)
Relatively unknown
poignant - ∴
deeply moving
didactic
intended for instruction; instructive:
Narrative
writing that tells a story
A sermon or moralistic lecture.
homily
Harsh, inharmonious, or dicordant sounds.
dissonance
badinage
light, playful banter or raillery.
Simile
an explicit comparison, normally using like, as, or if.
Oxymoron
contradictory terms appear side by side
Antithesis
A direct juxtaposition of structurally parallel words, phrases, or clauses for the purpose of contrast.
Setting
time and place of a work
Imagery
language that appeals to the senses
A familiar provberb or wise saying.
adage
The specific instructionsa playwright includes concering sets, characterization, delivery, etc.
Stage Directions
blanch
to whiten by removing color; bleach:
impervious
not permitting penetration or passage; impenetrable:
Denotation
The exact, literal definition of a word independent of any emotional association or secondary meaning.
Attitude
the relationship an author has toward his or her subject and audience. It is closely linked to the tone.
anecdote
a short story intended to illustrate an idea
(often humorous)
Understatement
a statement that is restrained in ironic contrast to what might have been said
Nanotechnology
the branch of engineering that deals with things smaller than 100 nanometers (especially with the manipulation of individual molecules)
A detail, image, or character type that occurs frquently in literature and myth and is thought to appeal in a universal way to the unconscious and to evoke a response.
archetype
Writing whose purpose is to instruct or to teach. A didactic work is usually formal and focuses on moral or ethical concerns.
Didactic
A verbal approximation of a sensory impression, concept or emotion
Image
The author's choice of words that creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning.
Diction
amoral
not involving questions of right or wrong; without moral quality; neither moral nor immoral.
anthropology
the science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development, biological characteristics, and social customs and beliefs of humankind.
commoratio
dwelling on or returning to one's strongest argument.
induction
the act of inducing, bringing about, or causing:
Point of View
The particular perspective from which a story is told
colloquialism - ℵ
an expression characteristic of or appropriate to ordinary or familiar conversation rather than formal speech or writing; an informal expression.
Voice
can refer to two different areas of writing. One refers to the relationship between a sentence's subject and verb (voice of the verb - active or passive); the other refers to the total "sound" of a writer's style (his unique attitude toward the material)
begging the question
Often called circular reasoning, __ occurs when the believability of the evidence depends on the believability of the claim.
46. Allusion
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. Allusions can be historical, literary, religious, topical, or mythical. There are many more possibilities, and a work may simultaneously use multiple layers of allusion.
Argument
a single assertion or a series of assertions presented and defended by the writer
The aspects of a literary work that elicit pity from the audience. An appeal to emotion that can be used as a means to persuade.
Pathos
An object that is used to represent something else.
symbol
The process of moving from a general rule to a specific example
Deduction
The aspects of a literary work that elicit pity from the audience. An appeal to emotion that can be used as a means to persuade.
Pathos
agape
with the mouth wide open, as in wonder, surprise, or eagerness:
running style
sentence style that appears to follow the mind as it worries a problem through.
aporia
the expression of a simulated or real doubt, as about where to begin or what to do or say.
Grammar
a set of rules that specify how a given language is used effectively.
subordinate clause
a word group that contains both a subject and a verb, but cannot stand alone and must be accompanied by an independent clause. This clause usually begins with easily recognizable key words such as: although, because, unless, if, even though, since, as soon as, thil, who, when, where, how, and that
inimitable - ∴
incapable of being imitated or copied; surpassing imitation, matchless
Anticipating audience reaction
a rhetorical technique often used to convince an audience of the soundness of your argument by stating the arguments that one's opponent is likely to give and then answering these arguments even before that opponent has a chance to voice them
figurative language
Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.
3. Details
facts that are included as well as those that are omitted.
A situation in which all parts of the presentation are equal, whether in sentences or paragraphs or sections of a longer work.
Balance
A sentence in which words, phrases, or clauses are set off against each other to emphasize a contrast.
balanced sentence
Figure of Speech
A device used to produce figurative language (Apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synedoche, understatement)
Synecdoche
A form of metaphor in which a part of something is used to signify the whole.
Example: "all hands on deck"
• Also, the reverse, whereby the whole can represent a part.
Example: "Canada played the United States in the Olympic hockey finals."
• The container representing the thing contained
Example: "The pot is boiling."
• The material from which an object is made stands for the object itself.
Example: "The quarterback tossed the pigskin."
hasty generalization - ∅
basing a conclusion on too little evidence
appeal to authority - ℵ
quoting from a source which is known to be knowledgeable or an expert.
ergonomic
human engineering.
chaff
worthless matter; refuse.
Quotidian
Occurring or returning daily
denotative
having power to denote.
Analogy
The correspondence or resemblance between two things that are essentially different
Impede
To slow the progress of
A direct comparison between dissimilar things. "Your eyes are stars" is an example
Metaphor
paralepsis
The suggestion, by deliberately concise treatment of a topic, that much of significance is being omitted, as in not to mention other faults.
Thesis
1. a proposition maintained or defended in argument. 2. An unproved statement assumed as a premise.
Philosophy
the love and pursuit of wisdom
Imperative
A sentence that gives a command.
Conceit
a long, complex metaphor which establishes a striking parallel between two apparently dissimilar things or situations
concrete language
Language that describes specific, observable things, peoples or places, rather than ideas or qualities.
Moiety
one of two (approximately) equal parts
An image of contradictory terms (bittersweet, pretty ugly, jumbo shrimp)
Oxymoron
An interjection to lend emphasis; sometimes a profanity.
expletive
Refers to language that describes concepts rather than concrete images
Abstract
contentious
tending to argument or strife; quarrelsome:
brevity
shortness of time or duration; briefness:
diatyposis
recommending useful precepts or advice to someone else.
Person
A grammatical tern that describes the relationship of a writer or speaker to an audience by examining the pronouns that are used.
Parallelism
A literary technique that relies on the use of the same syntactical structures
Ambiguous
meaning can be interpreted in more than one way
Compound-complex sentence
Contains two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.
Cliché
overused phrases which have lost their ability to convey meaning
Epic
a long and serious narrative poem about a hero and his companions, often set in the past that is pictured as greater than the present (Beowulf, Iliad, Paradise Lost)
22. Occupatio
the rhetorical strategy of claiming the intent of silence on a subject and then naming the subjectl, often at length. "I'm not going to tell you what will happen if you miss curfew tonight. I'm not going
to talk about taking the keys to your car. I'm not going to talk about taking away your cell phone. I'm not even going to talk about turning off the television for a month."
Dialect
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
Literary techniques used to heighten the effectiveness of expression.
rhetorical devices
An indirect comparison that uses the words like or as to link the differing items in the comparison. ("You eyes are like stars.")
Simile
The organization and form of a work
Structure
discord
lack of concord or harmony between persons or things:
bucolic
of, pertaining to, or suggesting an idyllic rural life.
ethopoeia
the description and portrayal of a character
allegory
a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms; figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another.
Ad hominem
1. Appealing to prejudice and emotion rather than to reason. 2. Attacking the character, motives, etc. of an opponent rather than debating the issue on logical grounds.
Pacing
A speed of a story's action, dialogue, or narration. Some stories are told slowly, some more quickly. Events happen fast or they are dragged out.
pretentious - ∴
characterized by assumption of dignity or importance
Classification and Division
a method of sorting, grouping, collecting, and analyzing things by categories based on features shared by all members of a class or group is called classification. Division is a method of breaking down an entire whole into separate parts or sorting a group of items into non-overlapping categories
Form
the shape or structure of a literary work
28. synesthesia
when one kind of sensory stimulus evokes the subjective experience of another. Ex: The sight of red ants makes you itchy. In literature, synesthesia refers to the practice of associating two or more different senses in the same image.
Red Hot Chili Peppers' song title, "Taste the Pain," is an example.
Anadiplosis
repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause "The crime was common, common be the pain"
The process that moves from a given series of specifics to a generalization
Induction
A unit of poem, similar in rhyme, meter, and length to other units in the poem
Stanza
The time and place of a literary work
Setting
mundane
of or pertaining to this world or earth as contrasted with heaven; worldly; earthly:
demographic
pertaining to the science of vital and social statistics of populations
deliberative rhetoric
speech or writing that attempts to persuade an audience to take or not take some action.
Tension
is a work of literature, is a feeling of excitement and expectation the reader or the audience feels because of conflict, mood, or atmosphere.
Zeugma
The use of a verb that has two different meanings with objects
that complement both meanings.
parallelism/parallel structure - ℵ
the repetition of similar grammatical or syntactical patterns
Chiasmus
a type of balance in which the second part is balanced against the first but with the part reversed (Ex: "Flowers are lovely, love is flowerlike")
4. Language
the overall use of language. These are words that describe the entire body of words in a text, not isolated bits of diction.
Simply, the main idea of a piece of writing. It presents the author's assertion or claim. The effectiveness of a presentation is often based on how well the writer presents, develops and supports this
Thesis
A narrator who presents the story as it is seen and understood by a single character and restricts information to what is seen, heard, thought or felt by that one character.
limited narrator
Metonymy
A figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it
comparison and contrast - ∫
juxtaposing two things to highlight their similarities and differences
Colloquial expressions
the use of slang in writing, often to create local color and to provide an informal tone
A narrator who is able to know, see, and tell all, including the inner thoughts and feeling of the characters.
omniscient narrator
qualifier - ⊗
a word (such as very) or phrase that precedes an adjective or adverb, increasing or decreasing the quality signified by the word it modifies.
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Term:
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