AP Language and Composition Vocabulary Flashcards

Language
Terms Definitions
Lament
Mourn
antithesis
opposition; contrast:
callow
immature or inexperienced:
A strong verbal denunciation.
phillipic
scheme
an underhand plot; intrigue.
aphorism
a short pithy instructive saying
Pun
a humorous play on words
A fanciful, particularly clever extended metaphor.
conceit
daunt
to overcome with fear; intimidate:
prolepsis
the anticipation of possible objections in order to answer them in advance.
Understatement
When an author assigns less significance to an event or thing than it deserves
Allegory
a second meaning beneath the surface
Polysyndeton
The deliberate use of many conjunctions for special emphasis - to highlight quantity or mass of detail or to creat a flowing, continuous sentence pattern.
Abstract
refers to language that describes concepts rather than concrete images
anecdote
short account of an incident (especially a biographical one)
Nihilism
complete denial of all established authority and institutions
An unexpected twist or contrast between what happens and what wasintended or expected to happen. It involves dialog and situation, and can be intentional or unplanned . dramatic _________centers around the ignorance of those involved; whereas, the audien
Irony
An unexpected twist or contrast between what happens and what wasintended or expected to happen. It involves dialog and situation, and can be intentional or unplanned . dramatic _________centers around the ignorance of those involved; whereas, the audienc
Irony
Background information presented in a literary work.
Exposition
debilitate
to make weak or feeble; enfeeble:
cataract
an abnormality of the eye, characterized by opacity of the lens.
hypotaxis
dependent relation or construction, as of clauses; syntactic subordination.
Rhetoric modes
this flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing. The four most common are and their purposes are as follows: The purpose of exposition is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion. The AP language exam essay questions are frequently set up as expository topics.The purpose of argumentation is to prove the validity of and idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader. Persuasive writing is a type of argumentation having the additional aim of urging some form of action.The purpose of description is to re-create, invent or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages all five senses in description; good descriptive writing can be sensuous and picturesque. Descriptive may be straightforward and objective of highly emotional and subjective. The purpose of narration is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events. This writing mode frequently uses the tools of descriptive writing.
Apostrophe
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity. William Wordsworth addresses John Milton as he writes, "Milton, thou shouldn't be living at this hour: England hath need of thee."
Onomatopoeia
using words that imitate the sound they denote
verbal irony
words that literally state the opposite of the writer's true meaning
Exclamatory
A sentence that provides emphasis or expresses strong emotion.
Motif
the repetition of variations of an image or idea in a work used to develop theme or characters
Imagery
the total effect of related sensory images in a work
6. Tone
The author's attitude toward the subject begin written about. The tone is the characteristic emotion that pervades a work or part of a work the spirit or quality that is the work's emotional essence. In analyzing literature, look for shifts in tone.
Deviating from normal rules or methods in order to achieve a certain effect.(intentional sentence fragments, for example)
literary license
A long narrative poem witten in elevated style which presents the adventures of characters of high position and episodes that are important to the history of a race or nation.
epic
A detail, image, or character type that occurs frquently in literature and myth and is thought to appeal in a universal way to the unconscious and to evoke a response.
archetype
Refers to the entire process of written communication. Rhetorical strategies and devices are those tools that enable a writer to present a writer to present ideas to an audience effectively.
Rhetoric
Litotes
A form of understatement that involves making an affirmative point by denying its opposite
archaic
marked by the characteristics of an earlier period; antiquated:
cajole
to persuade by flattery or promises; wheedle; coax.
vehicle
a play, screenplay, or the like, having a role suited to the talents of and often written for a specific performer.
bdelygmia
expressing hatred and abhorrence of a person, word, or deed.
penitent
feeling or expressing sorrow for sin or wrongdoing and disposed to atonement and amendment; repentant; contrite.
Satire
A work that targets human vices and follies, or social institutions and conventions, for reform or ridicule. Regardless of whether or not the work aims to reform humans or their society, is best seen as a style of writing rather than a purpose for writing.
Informal
The language of everyday use. It is relaxed and conversational.
It often includes common and simple words, idioms, slang, jargon, and contractions.
Style
the unique way an author presents his ideas - how a writer says what he says. It includes words used, their placement, and distinctive features of tone, imagery, figurative language, sound, and rhythm
Couplet
two related lines of poetry that often rhyme
15. Metaphor
a figure of speech that compares unlike objects. An implied comparison
achieved through a figurative use of words; the word is used not in its literal sense, but
in one analogous to it.
"Life's but a walking shadow; a poor player, / That struts and frets his hour upon the
stage" (Shakespeare).
"[. . .] while he learned the language (that meager and fragile thread [. . .] by which the
little surface corners and edges of men's secret and solitary lives may be joined for an
instant now and then before sinking back into the darkness [. . .])" (Faulkner).
Anastrope
inversion of the natural or usual word order to achieve emphasis by drawing attention to itself
A comic imitation of a work that ridicules the original. It can be utterly mocking or gently humorous, It depends on allusion and exaggerates and distorts the original style and content
Parody
A story that concerns an unreal world or contains unreal characters; it may be merely whimsical, or it may present a serious point.
fantasy
A term used to point out a characteristic of a person. (Swift-footed Achilles) Can be abusive, or offensive, but are not so by definition. (The Rock, Jake "the Snake")
epithet
dissemination
to scatter or spread widely, as though sowing seed; promulgate extensively; broadcast; disperse:
pedagogy
the function or work of a teacher; teaching.
metonymy
A figure of speech that consists of the use of the name of one object or concept for that of another to which it is related, or of which it is a part, as scepter for sovereignty, or the bottle for strong drink, or count heads or noses for cou
languid
lacking in vigor or vitality; slack or slow:
soliloquy
a speech given by a character alone on stage
Cumulative sentence
Makes complete sense if brought to a close before the actual ending. The sentence could end before the modifying phrases without losing its coherence.
anecdote - ℵ
an account or short story which supports an argument, but which is not supported by scientific or statistical analysis.
Paradox
a statement which on its face seems to be self-contradictory or absurd, yet turns out to have valid meaning. "Death, thou shalt die!"
18. Catachresis
a harsh metaphor involving the use of a word beyond its strict sphere.
"I listen vainly, but with thirsty ear" (MacArthur).
A brief story that leads to a moral, often using animals as characters.
fables
Simply, the main idea of a piece of writing. It presents the author's assertion or claim. The effectiveness of a presentation is often based on how well the writer presents, develops and supports this
Thesis
Argumentation
To prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting
sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader
epanalepsis
a repetition of a word or a phrase with intervening words setting off the repetition, sometimes occurring with a phrase used both at the beginning and end of a sentence, as in Only the poor really know what it is to suffer; only the poor.
allegory - ℵ
a narrative that serves as an extended metaphor. The main purpose is to tell a story that has characters, a setting, as well as other types of symbols, that have both literal and figurative meanings.
Reductio ad Absurdum
the Latin for "to reduce to the absurd", it can produce a comic effect or be used as an argumentative technique. It is considered a rhetorical fallacy because it reduces an argument to an either/or choice
A play on words that often has a comic effect. Associated with wit and cleverness, A writer who speaks of " the grave topic of American funerals" may be employing an intentional or unintentional one.
Pun
classification and division - ∫
sorting of material or ideas into major categories to determine what goes together and why
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