AP Language and Composition Vocabulary 2 Flashcards

Language
Terms Definitions
Futile
Pointless
Logos
appeals to logic
ornate
rich in decorative detail
The process of reasoning
Logic
opulence
wealth, riches, or affluence.
Antithesis
the balanced paring of opposites
Precipitous
extremely steep or done rashly
A sermon or moralistic lecture.
homily
mercurial
changeable; volatile; fickle; flighty; erratic:
Understatement
The ironic minimalizing of fact, presents something as less significant than it is. The effect can frequently be humorous and emphatic.
Denotation
dictionary meaning of word, literal meaning
syllogism
from the Greek for "reckoning together," a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises—one major and one minor—that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion
hyperbole - ℵ
an exaggeration for effect
Extended metaphor
a sustained composition, often referred to as a conceit, developed through a piece of writing
62. Asyndeton
lack of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words.
"We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardships, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty" (Kennedy)
"But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground" (Lincoln). (notice, this sentence also uses anaphora).
Specialized language or vocabulary of a particular group or profession.
jargon
The underlying ideas the author illustrates through characterization, motifs, language, plot, etc.
Theme
A concise statement, often offering advice; an adage.
maxim
Aphorism
A statement (of known authorship) which expresses a general truth or a moral principle
beguile
to influence by trickery, flattery, etc.; mislead; delude.
antipathy
a natural, basic, or habitual repugnance; aversion.
kairos
in classical rhetoric, the opportune time andor place, the right time to say or do the right thing.
Allusion
A reference, usually oblique or faint, to another thing, idea, or person
Romance
an exciting and mysterious quality (as of a heroic time or adventure)
descriptive detail
the writer's sensory description that appeals to the senses
self-deprecating - ∴
belittling or undervaluing oneself; excessively modest
Plot
a sequence of events in a work
Allegory
a literary work in which characters, objects, or actions represent abstractions
40. Pathetic fallacy
Faulty reasoning that inappropriately ascribes human feelings to nature or non-human objects.
Burlesque
any imitation of people or literary type that, by distortion, aims to amuse. It tends to ridicule faults, not serious vices. Its aim is amusement rather than the contempt or indignation of satire (the mock epic is one form and The Rape of the Lock a good example)
A moment of sudden revelation or insight.
epiphany
The everyday speech of a particular country or region, often involving nonstandard usage.
vernacular
Light verse consisting of five lines of regualr rhythm in which the firs, second, and fifth lines (each consisting of three feet) rhyme, and the second and third lines (each consisting of two feet) rhyme.
limerick
Exposition
To explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion
ubiquitous
existing or being everywhere, esp. at the same time; omnipresent:
antidote
a medicine or other remedy for counteracting the effects of poison, disease, etc.
chleuasmos
in rhetoric, a sarcastic reply that mocks an opponent, leaving him or her without an answer.
alliteration
the commencement of two or more stressed syllables of a word group either with the same consonant sound or sound group
indolence
the quality or state of being indolent.
Speaker
The narrator of the story, poem, or drama. A fictional persona.
Repetition
The deliberate use of any element of language more than once - sound, word, phrase, sentence, grammatical pattern, or rhythmical pattern.
Satire
a mode of writing based on ridicule, that criticizes the foibles and follies of society without necessarily offering a solution (Gulliver's Travels exposes mankind's condition)
Emotional appeal
exploits the readers' feeling of pity or fear to make a case; this fallacy draws solely on the readers' pathos and not on logic
Parody
a comic imitation of a work that ridicules the original. It can mock or be gently humorous
51. Elliptical construction
A sentence containing a deliberate omission of words. In the sentence
"May was hot and June the same." (The verb was is omitted from the second clause).
Trope
Artful diction; the use of language in a nonliteral way; also called a figure of speech.
Plasma
liquid portion of blood made up of water, dissolved salts, proteins, and other substances
A conclusion one can draw from the presented details
Inference
A single assertion or a series of assertions presented and defended by the writer
Argument
Words that sound like the sound they represent (hiss, gurgle, pop)
Onomatopoeia
The interpreive level of a word based on its associated images rather than its literal meaning
Connotation
Placing two elements side by side to present a comparison or contrast.
juxtaposition
An argument attacking an individual's character rather thatn his or her person on an issue.
ad hominem argument
aesthetic
pertaining to a sense of the beautiful or to the science of aesthetics.
assonance
rhyme in which the same vowel sounds are used with different consonants in the stressed syllables of the rhyming words, as in penitent and reticence.
judicial rhetoric
speech or writing that considers the justice or injustice of a certain charge or accusation
Rhetorical Question
A question that is asked merely for effect and does not expect a reply. The answer is assumed.
Metaphor
A figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared directly
tropes - ℵ
any literary or rhetorical device that consists in the use of words in other than their literal sense. A figure of speech.
Persuasion
a type of argument that tries to move an audience to thought or action
54. Subordinate clause
Like all clauses, this word group contains both a subject and a verb (plus any accompanying phrases or modifiers), but unlike the independent clause, the subordinate clause cannot stand alone; it does not express a complete thought. Also called a dependent clause, the subordinate clause depends on a main clause (or independent clause) to complete its meaning. These easily recognized key words and phrases usually begin these clauses: although, because, unless, if, even though, since, as soon as, while, who, when, where, how and that.
Example: Yellowstone is a national park in the West that is known for its geysers. (The Italicized phrase is the subordinate clause; the non-italicized part of the sentence is the independent clause).
Anecdote
a story or brief episode told by the writer or character to illustrate a point
Those who carry out the action of the plot in literature. Major, minor, static and dynamic are types.
Character
A story that operates on more than one level and usually teaches a moral lesson. (The Pearl by John Steinbeck is a fine example.)
Parable
censure
to criticize or reproach in a harsh or vehement manner:
Rhetorical or stylistic devices
are the specific language tools that an author uses to carry out a rhetorical strategy, and thus achieve a purpose for writing.
capricious - ∴
subject to, led by, or indicative of whim
14. Trope
a generic name for a figure of speech such as image, symbol, simile, and
metaphor.
zeugma
the use of a word to modify or govern two or more words when it is appropriate to only one of them or is appropriate to each but in a different way, as in to wage war and peace or On his fishing trip, he caught three trout and a cold.
73. Loaded language
A word or phrase is "loaded" when it has a secondary, evaluative meaning in addition to its primary, descriptive meaning. When language is "loaded," it is loaded with its evaluative meaning. A loaded word is like a loaded gun, and its evaluative meaning is the bullet. The problem with it is that the logic of the argument isn't convincing the reader as much as the language is pushing the reader's buttons.
Examples:
Unloaded Loaded
Plant Weed
Animal Beast
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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