AP Language Composition Flashcards

Terms Definitions
intended to instruct
out of speaking persuasive
Jumbo shrimp, holy war
When two contrasting things—ideas, words, or sentence elements—are placed next to each other for comparison, ___ occurs.
originally meaning an "inscription," it became for the Greeks a short poem, usually solemn; for the Romans, it meant a short, witty poem with a string at the end. The term has come to mean any cleverly expressed thought in verse or prose
Extreme exaggeration, often humorous, it can also be ironic; the opposite of understatement
An apparently contradictory statement that actually contains some truth.
not highly flavored; mild; tasteless:
The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words (as in "she sells sea shells"). Although the term is not used in the multiple-choice section, you can look for alliteration in any essay passage. The repetition can reinforce meaning, unify ideas, and/or supply a musical sound.
exaggeration for the purposes of emphasis
Uses standard language and vocabulary without elaborate words and may include contractions.
a rhetorical technique for pointing out similarities or differences. Writers may use a point-by-point method to interweave points of comparison or contrast between two things or a subject-by-subject method
the speaker, voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of writing
Background information presented in a literary work.
The author's attitude toward his subject.
A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
devoid of freshness or originality; hackneyed; trite:
to express mirth, pleasure, derision, or nervousness with an audible, vocal expulsion of air from the lungs that can range from a loud burst of sound to a series of quiet chuckles and is usually accompanied by characteristic facial and bodily movements.
a terse statement of known authorship, which expresses a general truth or moral principle (If the authorship is unknown, the statement is generally considered to be a folk proverb.) Can be a memorable summation of the author's point.
a clensing or purging that releases emotions
an informal or conversational use of language
Concrete Diction
Specific words that describe physical qualities or
Ethos - ∝
a rhetorical appeal to credibility
when the parallel elements are similar not only in structure but in length (that is, the same number of words, even the same number of syllables) "His purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to confound the scrupulous"
the act of interpreting or discovering the meaning of a text
a kind of literary or artistic work
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
The falling axtion of a narrative; the events following the climax.
A verbal approximation of a sensory impression, concept or emotion
A character's incentive or reason for behaving in a certain manner; that which impels a character to act.
A brief, pithy, and often paradoxical saying.
The use, for rhetorical effect, of more conjunctions than is necessary or natural.
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects
A similarity or comparison between two things or the relationship between them
any literary or rhetorical device, as metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony, that consists in the use of words in other than their literal sense.
ascribing human form or attributes to a being or thing not human, esp. to a deity.
growth by continuous additions, as of interest to principal.
a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.
a ferocious quality or state; savage fierceness.
two purposes: 1. An evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices. We can analyze and describe an author's personal __and make judgments on how appropriate it is to the author's purpose. Can be called flowery, explicit, succinct, rambling, bombastic, commonplace, incisive, or laconic, to name only a few examples. 2. Classification of authors to a group and comparison of an author to similar authors.
An effect created by words that have sounds that reinforce their meaning
Parallel structure (parallelism)
A grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence. It involves an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased.
the opposite of exaggeration. It is a technique for developing irony and/or humor where one writes or says less that intended (Swift wrote "Last week I saw a woman flayed, and you will hardly believe how much it altered her person for the worst")
Dramatic Irony
(theater) irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play
41. Epigram
A concise but ingenious, witty, and thoughtful statement.
The attitude of the author toward the audience and characters (e.g., serious or humorous).
A figure of speech in which a representative term is sused for a larger idea (The pen is the mightier than the sword).
The shape or structure of a literary work
The process that moves from a given series of specifics to a generalization
The format of a fromal argument that consists of a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion.
The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing
any violent upheaval, esp. one of a social or political nature.
an act or instance of creating or producing by exercise of the imagination, esp. in art, music, etc.
is a type of internal rhyming in which vowel sounds are repeated.
Omniscient Narration
a narration in which the readers has unspoken thoughts of characters
strident - ∴
making or having a harsh sound; grating; creaking
Compound/Complex Sentence
a sentence that contains two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent/subordinate clause
33. Dramatic irony
A circumstance in which the audience or reader knows more about a situation than a character.
a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied to yield a family of similar curves
A sentence with two or more coordinate independent clauses, often joined by one or more conjunctions.
compound sentence
a reversal in the order of words in two otherwise parallel phrases, as in "He went to the country, to the town went she."
the act of conceding or yielding, as a right, a privilege, or a point or fact in an argument:
An effort to ridicule or make fun of a literary work or an author by writing a comic imitation of the work
inherently - ∴
existing in someone or something as a permanent and inseparable element, quality, or attribute.
74. Loaded question
A question with a false, disputed, or question-begging presupposition. A loaded question is a question with a false or questionable presupposition, and it is "loaded" with that presumption. The question "Have you stopped beating your wife?" presupposes that you have beaten your wife.
A figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance, as in A mighty fortress is our God.
The point in a work in which a very significant change occurs.
turning point
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