AP Language Composition Vocab Review Flashcards

Language
Terms Definitions
dehortatio
discussion
Pathos
appeals to emotion
Asyndeton
deliberate omission of conjunction
Euphemism
More agreeable/less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept
Ambiguity
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
Simple sentence
Contains one independent clause.
Insincere or overly sentimental quality of writing/speech intended to invoke pity.
bathos
A mistake in reasoning
Logical Fallacy
adroit
cleverly skillful, resourceful, or ingenious:
Epistrophe
opposite of anaphora/repetition at the end
Connotation
The implicit rather than explicit meaning of a word; consists
of the suggestions, associations, and emotional overtones attached to a word.
conciliatory - ∴
tending to win over
Antithesis
the presentation of two contrasting images emphasized by parallel structure "to be or not to be"
Syntax
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
Needless repetition which adds no meaning or understanding. ("widow woman," "free gift")
tautology
The recreation of regional spoken language, such as a Southern way of speaking. Zora Neal Hurston uses this in such works as Their Eyes Were Watching God.
Dialect
A comic technique that ridicules through caustic language. Tone and attitude may both be described as sarcastic in a given text if the writer employs language, irony and wit to mock or scorn.
Sarcasm
Understatement
Presents something as less significant than it is
bauble
a showy, usually cheap, ornament; trinket; gewgaw.
literal
in accordance with, involving, or being the primary or strict meaning of the word or words; not figurative or metaphorical:
dysphemism
the substitution of a harsh, disparaging, or unpleasant expression for a more neutral one.
Mood
The first meaning is grammatical and deals with verbal units and a speaker's attitude. The indicative ___ is used only for factual sentences. The second meaning of __is literary, meaning the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work.
Polysyndeton
the presence of more conjunctions than normal
Colloquial Expression
Nonstandard, often regional ways of using language appropriate to informal or conversational speech and writing.
feign - ∴
put on an appearance of
Burlesque
any imitation of people or literary type that, by distortion, aims to amuse. It tends to ridicule faults, not serious vices. Its aim is amusement rather than the contempt or indignation of satire (the mock epic is one form and The Rape of the Lock a good example)
Didactec
Fiction or nonfiction that teaches a lesson or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking
Theme
central idea of a work of literature
Parabola
a plane curve formed by the intersection of a right circular cone and a plane parallel to an element of the curve
Something in a literary work that stands for something else. (Plato has the light of the sun represents truth in "the Allegory of the Cave.")
Symbol
A speech given by one character (Hamlet's "To be or not to be..."
Monologue
The repetition or variations of an image or idea in a work used to develop theme or characters .
Motif
A long narrative poem witten in elevated style which presents the adventures of characters of high position and episodes that are important to the history of a race or nation.
epic
Allegory
The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning.
Caricature
A verbal description, the purpose of which is to exaggerate or distort, for comic effect, a person's features
clandestine
characterized by, done in, or executed with secrecy or concealment, esp. for purposes of subversion or deception; private or surreptitious:
synthetic
of, pertaining to, proceeding by, or involving synthesis (
aphorism
A terse saying embodying a general truth, or astute observation, as Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely Lord Acton.
tapinosis
giving a name to something which diminishes it in importance.
efface
to wipe out; do away with; expunge:
parable
a short narrative designed to teach a moral lesson
Repetition
A device in which words, sounds, and ideas are used more than once to enhance rhythm and to create emphasis.
Argument
a single assertion or a series of assertions presented and defended by the writer
Alliteration
use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse
39. Sarcasm
From the Greek meaning "to tear flesh," sarcasm involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. It may use irony as a device, but not all ironic statements are sarcastic (that is, intended to ridicule). When
well done, sarcasm can be witty and insightful; when poorly done, it is simply cruel or banal.
Rhetorical Choices
the particular choices a writer or speaker makes to achieve meaning and effect
The opposite of exaggeration. It is a technique for developing irony and/or humor where one writes or says less than intended
Understatement
The repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines or sentences.
anaphora
A type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite. (describing a particularly horrific scene by saying "It was not a pretty picture.)
litotes
A work that functions on a symbolic level
Allegory
Prose
One of the major divisions of genre, refers to fiction and nonfiction
delineate
to trace or sketch the outline of something in words
euphuism
any similar ornate style of writing or speaking; high-flown, periphrastic language.
Figurative Language
Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.
Anaphora
repetition of a word or phrases at the beginning of successive phrases
analogy - ℵ
a similarity between like features of two things, on which a comparison may be based.
Rhetorical strategies
For AP test purposes, there are two meanings: If the prompt directs the student to mention rhetorical strategies AND literary devices AND imagery in analyzing a piece, then the term means compare/contrast, process analysis, definition, narration, cause/effect, or argument/persuasion. IF the prompt asks students to discuss the rhetorical strategies in a piece and does NOT mention other terms, the student should include everything that he knows about analysis: literary devices, imagery, compare/contrast, etc.
50. Loose sentence
A sentence that follows the customary word order of English sentences, i.e., subject-verb-object. The main idea of the sentence is presented first and
is then followed by one or more subordinate clauses. A type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses. If a period were placed at the end of the independent clause, the clause would be a complete sentence. A work containing many loose sentences often seems informal, relaxed, or conversational.
I arrived at the San Diego airport after a long, bumpy ride and multiple delays.
Plagiarize
to copy the words or ideas of another and claim as your own
The omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced from the context. ("Some people prefer cats; others, dogs".)
ellipsis
rhetorical situation
the context of a rhetorical act, made up of a rhetor, an issue, and an audience.
Periodic Sentence
Presents the main clause at the end of the sentence, for emphasis
metaphor - ℵ
a figure of speech or trope through which one thing is spoken of as though it were something else, making an implicit comparison
10. Theme
The central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers into life. Usually theme is unstated in fictional works, but in nonfiction, the theme may be directly stated, especially in expository or argumentative writing.
figure of speech
any expressive use of language, as a metaphor, simile, personification, or antithesis, in which words are used in other than their literal sense, or in other than their ordinary locutions, in order to suggest a picture or image or for other special effect
The point in a work in which a very significant change occurs.
turning point
/ 66
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online