PMP Terms and Definitions Flashcards

Terms Definitions

'Any money
Outputs schedule development
Project schedule
schedule model data
Schedule baseline
Resource requiremens updates
Project calendar updates
Requested changes
Project management plan updates
-- Schedule Management plan updates
Outputs schedule development
'Pareto Diagram'
'A histogram
Communication Channels
N(N-1) / 2
Project Procurement Management
Conduct procurements
Inputs Cost Estimating
Environmental enterprise factorsOrganizational process assetsProject scope statementWork breakdown structureWBS dictionaryProject Management Plan - schedule management plan - staffing management plan - risk register
Contract administration change requests may include all of the following EXCEPT
A. Modifications to the terms of the contract
B. Termination of the contract if the seller's work is unsatisfactory
C. Modification to the description of the product or servic
Answer: D
Contract close-out documentation includes all of the following EXCEPT
A. Technical documentation
B. Financial documents
C. The RFP or RFB and seller's working proposal
D. Results of contract-related inspections
Answer: C
Earliest finish date
Early start date+duration-1
Project Cost Management
estimate costs
determine budget
Triple Constraint
Project Scope and time.
You are building the 127th McDonald’s restaurant this year in the United States (building design# 3 of 5 designs). When someone walks into your new McDonald’s, the goal is for them to feellike this McDonald’s is exactly like every other desi
Activity Definition Inputs?
Inputs: (1)Work Breakdown Structure(WBS), (2)Scope Statement, (3)Historical Information, (4)Constraints, (5)Assumptions, (6)Expert Judgement
The schedule shoud be "re-baselined" when
A. A sequence of activities has taken longer than originally planned
B. The scope has been increased by the client, with an associated approval of the increase
C. The productivity within a certain discip
Answer: B
Which statement about project deliverables is correct?
A. They are determined after the work is completely defined.
B. They are described during project planning and improved over time.
C. They are defined at project onset with the input of project stakeh
Contracts for projects require revisions to meet the project needs as those needs evolve. The correct method of initiating a change to the contract is to prepare a ________ for submission to the customer (buyer).
A. change notice
B. new contract
C. change
Answer: D
The goal of resource-constrained scheduling is to
A. Organize time on construction projects
B. Minimize the overall project duration given the available resources
C. Minimize overtime expenses by assigning resources within normal work hours
D. Maximize th
Answer: B
From the project manager's perspective, quality management is ______________ limited to assessing the attributes of the tools provided to do the work.
A. always
B. usually
C. not
D. seldom
E. intermittently
Answer: C
Resource leveling allocates scarce resources to critical path activities first.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
Researching, organizing, and recording pertinent project information is called:
a. alternative analysis
b. configuration control
c. Information gathering
d. All of the above
Answer: c
Benifit Cost Ratio

The biggest ratio of the benefit/cost
Formula for Estimate to Completion (ETC)
Project Integration Management
Develop Project Charter
'Forecast to Completion (FTC) - Forecast To Completion is the cost to completion based upon the actual performance to date and assumes that the rate of expenditure continues as at present i.e. FTC = ACWP x 100 / % complete'
'Obstacles in the way of progress
Name Tuckmans Principles
Forming, Norming, Storming, Performing, Mourning
Statistical independence
opposite of conditional probablity. It statses that the probablitity of one event occuring does not affect the probability of another event occuring.
A good definition of a successful project is getting the project completed:a. Within timeb. Within time and costc. Within time, cost, and performance requirementsd. Within time, cost, performance requirements, and accepted by the customer/
Management Reserve?
Allowance for future situations which are impossible to predict. Aka "Unknown unknowns".
A management technique used for evaluationg a proposed design to ensure that the design meets customer requirements.
Design Review

If the acceptance sampling attribute for a lot is 30%, this means that
A. 30% of all lots must be tested
B. 30% of all lots must pass the test
C. any given lot must have 30% or fewer defects
D. a sample of a given lot must have 30% or fewer defects to pas
Answer: D
Graphical displays of accumulated costs and labor hours, plotted as a function of time, are called:
a. Variance report
b. S Curve
c. Trend Analysis
d. Earned value report
Answer: b
(Kerzner 822)
The most rapid cost estimating technique is:
A. Square foot estimating
B. Template estimating
C. Computerized estimating
D. Analogous estimating
Answer: C
Project contracts can be separated into two broad categories
A. how the work is to be performed; who will perform the work
B. what procedures are to be used; how the work will be performed
C. when the work is to be performed; what performance standards wi
Answer: D
In the project environment, the individual ultimately responsible for quality control is
A. The line workers who must strive "to do things right the first time' to avoid quality problems
B. The company's quality control manager who must work with the
Answer: D
Japanese quality control has improved dramatically in the last 30 years for all of the following reasons except
A. The use of quality control circles
B. Small, continuous improvements in quality control
C. The use of worker suggestion systems
D. The use o
Answer: E
Which of the following best characterizes the results of an increase in quality*?
A. increased productivity, increased cost-effectiveness, and decreased cost risk.
B. Reduced productivity and no change to cost-effectiveness or cost risk.
C. Reduced produc
Answer: A
Which describes how cost variances will be managed?
A. Cost management plan
B. Cost baseline
C. Cost estimate
D. Chart of accounts
Answer: A
Project Stakeholders are defined as:
A. Individuals and organizations who use the project's product
B. Individuals and organizations whose interest may be positively or
negatively affected as a result of project execution or successful project
Answer: D
The technical performance of the project is derived from the quality program instituted by the project manager. Quality control is one part of the quality program that ________.
A. defines requirements and performance standards
B. measures results of oper
Answer: E
___________ is/are an uncertain event that or condition that, if it occurs, has appositive or
negative effect on a project.
a. Assumption analysis
b. Delphi technique
c. Risk
d. Triggers
Answer: c
A work breakdown structure numbering system allows project staff to:
A. systematically estimate costs of work breakdown structure elements.
B. provide project justification.
C. identify the level at which individual elements are found.
D. use it in projec
Which of the following choices indicates that your project was 10% under budget?
A. BCWS = 100, BCWP = 110
B. ACWP = 100, BCWP = 110
C. BCWS = 100, ACWP = 110
D. ACWP = 110, BCWP = 100
E. BCWP = 100, BCWS = 110
Answer: B
The process of performance reporting includes all of the following except:
a. status reporting.
b. progress reporting.
c. forecasting.
d. product analysis.
Answer: d
Inputs into overall change control include all of the following except:
a. project plan.
b. change requests.
c. change control system.
d. performance reports.
Answer: c
iron triangle
The triple constraints of project management: time/cost/scope
Scope Management Process Outputs - Scope Verification
Accepted Deliverables
Variance analysis
Comparing planned vs. actual schedule dates.
Project Integration Management
Develop Project Management Plan
'Scheduled Finish (SF) - The date calculated by the resource scheduling program as the earliest date on which an activity can finish
'Closed Projects'
'Projects that have either been completed
'Critical Factors'
'Favorable or adverse conditions that may exist or be expected that may significantly impact the course of a project. See also Critical Success Factors.'
control schedule
the process of montioring the status of the project to update project progress and managing changes to the baseline schedule.
Process Group- Executing
Integration- Direct and Manage Project Execution
Quality Management- perform qaulity assurance
HR- 1. acquire project team
2. Develop team
3. Manage Project Team
Communications-  1. Distribute Information
2. Manage Stakeholders Expectations
Procurment Manag.  1. conduct procurements
Occurs when a large portion of the message is lost from the sender to the receiver. Generally caused by problems of language, culture, semantics, knowledge base, etc. Filtering can be deliberate and positive as in the case of upward communications where the subordinate “filters” information that the superior does not need or want to know
Develop Preliminary Scope Statement Outputs
Preliminary Project scope statement
A schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. (mixes deterministic and probablilistic approaches)
Critical Chain Method

(Schedule Development)
Closure includes all the of the following EXCEPT:
A. determining performance measures.
B. appraisal reviews of team members.
C. documenting the degree to which each project phase was properly closed after its completion.
D. documenting the final project s
The Pareto Principle is a technique used by quality managers to determine which quality control problems concerning a particular service or manufacturing process should be corrected. Which of the following statements best represents the philosophy employe
Answer: B
A project manager has just been assigned to a new project and has been given the completed project scope. The FIRST thing the project manager must do is:
A. create a project plan using the WBS.
B. confirm that all the stakeholders have had input to the sc
In organizing a project, a project manager must deal with conflict. Which statement is true
regarding conflict in projects?
a. Strong matrix project managers have few human resource conflicts, because they can dictate
their needs to functional managers
Answer: d
A scope change control defines the procedures by which the project scope may be changed. It
a. Performance measurement, tracking systems, and appropriate approval level for authorizing
b. Paperwork, project management information syst
Answer: c
A cost management plan is:
A. A plan for describing how cost variances will be managed.
B. A subsidary element of the project charter.
C. An input to the Cost Estimating process.
D. A and C
E. A and B
A project manager receives a change request from the customer. The change requires adding a new filtration system to the project in place of a cleaner bag. When the project manager evaluates the change, it is MOST important that he/she consider the impact
The project manager on a large software installation project is working with her team on a critical set of tasks. They are working late on Saturday night. Circumstances create the situation wherein the project manager must decide to change the schedule th
Contingency planning is a means to _____ risks to the project through a
formal process and provides the resources to meet the risk events.
A. Address
B. Classify
C. Assign
D. Resolve
Answer: A
Of the following factors, which one has the greatest effect on the project's communication requirements?
A. Stakeholder responsibility relationships
B. External information needs
C. Availability of technology
D. The project's organizational structure
E. E
Answer: D
. The process of establishing clear and achievable objectives, measuring their achievement,
and adjusting performance in accordance with the results of the measurement is called:
a. strategic planning.
b. alternative objectives inventory.
c. management by
Answer: c
. All the following statements are true about interface, EXCEPT
A. Considered to be the most difficult aspect of implementing the project plan
B. The process of coordinating the various elements of the project so that they meet their joint goals of perfor
Answer: E
Activity A has a pessimistic (P) estimate of 36 days, a most likely (ML) estimate of 21 days, and an optimistic (O) estimate of 6 days. What is the probability that activity A will be completed in 16 to 26 days?
A. 55.70%
B. 68.26%
C. 95.46%
D. 99.73%
Answer: B
The three main types of diagramming methods are
C. Precedence, arrow, and conditional
Answer: C
A project manager may issue a "waiver" on items received from a vendor because the items are less than the purchase order specified. If the project manager knowingly accepts faulty material, the vendor is usually ________ any damages that the ma
Answer: B
A precedence diagram and an arrow diagram are both examples of networks. Which statement describes the primary difference between them?
A. The arror diagram incorporates PERT in the activity duration
B. The precedence diagram represents activities as node
Answer: B
The project schedule is a dynamic document that is maintained in computer systems and that initially reflects the baseline plan. As the schedule is updated to correct errors, change the scope, or reflect actual duration, the baseline schedule ________.
Answer: B
When properly managed and used, float (slack) in a schedule provides some flexibility in a schedule. The ownership of float on a major contract may be questioned by the owner (buyer), prime contractor, and subcontractors. Therefore, it is best to include
Answer: B
Often the detailed network contains so many activities that it is difficult to follow the logic and track progress over relatively long periods of time. A summary network is used for this purpose. To develop a summary network from a detailed network, ____
Answer: D
Overview of a PM
Ultimately responsible for project outcome
formerally empowered to use organizational resources
in control of project
authorized to spend projects budget
authorized to make decisions
Quality Processes - Monitoring & Controlling
Perform Quality Control
Forward Pass
Method for calculating early start and finish dates.
Quality Management Processes - Perform Quality Assurance
Requested (process) Changes
project life cycle
A collection of generally sequential project phases whose name and number are determined by the control needs of the organization or organizations involved in the project. A life cycle can be documented with a methodology-.
'Management by Project'
'A term that is gaining popularity
'Project Monitoring '
'Comparison of current project status with what was planned to be done to identify and report any deviations.'
'Corporate Responsibility Matrix'
'A responsibility matrix depicted at the corporate level and from the corporate perspective.'
'A provision in the project plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk. Often used with a modifier (e.g.
'Arrow Diagram Method (ADM) - One of two conventions used to represent an activity in a project. Also known as Activity on Arrow method.'
Name 6 types of Conflict Management
Problem Solving/Confrontation, Compromise, Smoothing, Forcing, Withdrawal, Collaborative
coaching/selling leaders
define roles and tasks but seek ideas and suggestions from follower. communication is two way
The nine areas of Project Management
Project XXXXXXXXX ManagementWhere XXXXXXXX =1) Integration2) Scope3) Time4) Cost5) Quality6) Human Resources7) Communications8) Risk9) Procurement
A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount and the seller can earn an additional amount if the seller meets defined criteria.
Fixed-Price-Incentive-Fee (FPIF)
A request for proposal (RFP) is used to
A. establish a project master plan.
B. establish project baselines.
C. create project budgets.
D. solicit bids from contractors.
E. maintain control over unauthorized work changes.
Answer: E
You are project manager leading a US $3,000,000 chemical engineering project. To date, you've been leading the other 11 people who comprise the overall project team. Lately you've noticed that you are spread too thin and the schedule is being negatively i
Which of the following will help the project manager verify assumptions and assess alternatives?
A. Organizational policies
B. Project plan
C. Historical information
D. Corrective action
You are sampling items from a batch and plotting the results on a control chart. How will an increase in the number of items in the sample affect the value of the standard deviation used to set the control limit?
A. increase it.
B. Decrease it.
C. No effe
Answer: B
The selection of the type of contract is important because of the cost risk involved. In most cases, the buyer (owner) will attempt to transfer the risk to the seller (project sponsor). The buyer, therefore, will always attempt to award a(n) ________ cont
Answer: A
The project schedule is not used to determine:
a. The starting and finishing dates of the activities.
b. Occasional changes to the activity listing.
c. The total float of the activities.
d. The project's budget.
Answer: d
The concept of quality is based on
A. meeting luxury goods standards.
B. producing excellent products that are superior to other similar items.
C. conforming to the requirements specifications
D. maintaining uniformity of design
E. a and c.
Answer: C
Changes to a contract are approved and signed by both the buyer and seller as the desired performance requirements. These changes are ________.
A. separate contracts between the customer and the project
B. stand-alone subcontracts to the prime contract
Answer: C
When a process is set up optimally, the upper and lower specification limits typically are:
a. Set outside the upper and lower control limits
b. Set equal to the upper and lower control limits.
c. Set at an equal distance from the mean value
d. a and c
Answer: d
Which of the following is NOT an example of a direct cost?
A. Salary of the project manager
B. Subcontractor expenses
C. Materials used by the project
D. Electricity
E. B and D
Answer: D
Which type of contract should be used for a well-defined project
A. Unit price contract
B. Fixed price contract
C. Cost reimbursable contract
D. Partnership contract
E. A unit price contract that disallows such contracting
Answer: B
project scope management
The processes to ensure that the project includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.
Human Resource Processes - Executing
-Acquire Project Team
-Develop Project Team
Free float
Amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the early start date of subsequent dependant activities.
Dealing with crises
Ability to cope with uncertainty and change is vital for surmonting obstacles
'Communication Channels'
'The path along which the exchange of information takes place or is supposed to take place. Typically refers to the sequence of individuals in a chain of command.'
'A point in time representing a key or important intermediate event in the life of a project. A milestone should be capable of validation by meeting all of the items prescribed in a defining checklist as agreed with the stakeholders.'
'Essentials of Project Management'
'The four essentials of project management are: Common Vocabulary
Name Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement Outputs
Preliminary Project Scope Statement
Statement of Work (SOW)
Describes the portion of the product to be contracted. In general, this is different from the product description (which tends to be more broader). Under the circumstance where the seller is producing the entire product, the distinction between SOW and the product description becomes moot
Which of the following is a tool or technique used in integrated change control?
a. Organizational procedures
b. Performance measurement
c. Performance reports
d. Project plan updates
Answer: b
What is the CPI for this project, and what does it tell us about cost performance thus far?BCWS = $2.2KBCWP = $2KACWP = $2.5KBAC = $10K
A. 0.20; actual costs are exactly as planned
B. 0.80; actual costs have exceeded planned costs
C. 0.80; actual costs ar
Answer: B
What if schedule analysis
Typically uses Monte Carlo analysis to predict likely schedule outcomes and identify areas of highest risk.
'Management Styles - Judicial'
'A project manager that exercises the use of sound judgment or is characterized by applying sound judgment to most areas of the project.'
What are the Outputs to Activity Sequencing in Planning
Project Schedule Network Diagrams
A graphic display of process data over time and against established control limits. Has a centerline that assists in detecting trends of plotted values towards the limits.
Control Chart

(Perform Quality Control)
Legitimate power is:
A. Power derived from a person's formal position in the organization.
B. Power bestowed due to a person's personal qualities and abilities.
C. Power earned based on a person's technical knowledge, skill, or expertise in a particular
A: See Adams, "Principles of Project Management", pg. 74 and Verma's, "HR Skills for the PM", pg. 233
Formula for Planned Value (PV)
Planned percent complete x Budgeted at Complete (BAC)
'Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract'
'(CPFF) - A form of contractual arrangement in which the customer agrees to reimburse the contractor#s actual costs
Which of the following statements concerning compromise as a conflict resolution is false?
A. Neither party wins but both parties get some degree of satisfaction.
B. Important aspects of the project may be hindered in order to acheive personal objectives.
D: A definitive resolution is acheived when a compromise is reached and accepted as a just solution by all parties in conflict.
What are the advantages of using a functional project organizational structure?
Individual experts from functional departments can be used when needed, the functional departments contain a pathe of professional growth and advancement for the project team member, There is a flexibility in the use of staff from the functional departmen
. If BCWS = 100, BCWP = 98, adn ACWP = 104, the project is
A. Ahead of schedule
B. Headed for a cost overrun
C. Operating at project cost projections
D. Likely to come in under budget at completion
E. Behind schedule
Answer: B
Which of the following is part of the expectency theory of motivation?
A. Clear, specific, and challenging goals generally motivate team members.
B. Project managers should ensure that tasks assigned to project participants match their skills and
the org
C: "A" is part of Goal-Setting Theory" and "B" is part of the Contigency Theory
How should a skills inventory be used to choose a project team?
Used to pick the best project team possible
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