PMP Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions

Bottom-up Estimating
Inputs Scope Definition
Organizaitonal Process Assets
Projet Charter
Preliminary scope statement
Project Scope Management Plan
Approved Change requests
Inputs Scope Definition

Quantitatively Based Durations
A cost-plus-percentage-cost (CPPC) contract has an estimated cost of $120,000 with an agreed profit of 10% of the costs. The actual cost of the project is $130,000.
What is the total reimbursement to the seller?

A. $143,000
B. $142,000
C. $140,000
Project Quality Management
Plan Quality
Group of projects or portofolios
Risk quantification includes:
a. sub­totaling internal and external events.
b. identifying potential risks and impact.
c. evaluating event probability and impact.
d. developing contingency plans and resources.
Answer: c
Miscommunication, disparities in information, and unequal access to information are significant trust inhibitors on teams that are not collocated. A project manager in this situation should
A. Be extremely clear when communicating with team members
B. Dev
Answer: E
Cost Control Outputs
Performance measurements
Forecasted completion
Recommended corrective actions
'As-Late-As-Possible (ALAP) - An activity for which the application sets the early dates as late as possible without delaying the early dates of any successor.'
attributable sampling
represents an attribute , yes/no/pass/fail. Number of football jerseys or number of a bus route.
Outputs schedule development
Project scheduleschedule model dataSchedule baselineResource requiremens updatesProject calendar updatesRequested changesProject management plan updates -- Schedule Management plan updates
Schedule Control Outputs?
Outputs: (1)Schedule Updates, (2)Corrective Action, (3)Lessons Learned.
Cost Reimbursable contracts are equivalent to
A. Progress Payment Contracts
B. Extra Work Order Contracts
C. Cost Plus Contracts
D. Fixed Price Contracts
Answer: C
Project coordination is enhanced through progress reporting, variance reporting, and cross-team meetings. These are all forms of:
A. stakeholder management.
B. risk management and reporting.
C. quality management.
D. communications management.
The project manager, when communicating with an action­oriented person should­
a. Be as brief as possible
b. Provide options, including the pros and cons
c. Remain patient
d. Speak as quickly to ensure that all the information is conveyed
Answer: a
Contracts for projects require revisions to meet the project needs as those needs evolve. The correct method of initiating a change to the contract is to prepare a ________ for submission to the customer (buyer).
A. change notice
B. new contract
C. change
Answer: D
In project time management, fast-tracking means
A. Reducing the duration of critical path activities to shorten project duration
B. Reducing project duration by redefining logical relationships
C. Using only the best resources to accomplish work as quickl
Answer: B
A collection of related projects working in alignment towrards a common cause.
Communications Management - Communications Planning
Communications Management Plan
Project Quality Management
(monitoring and controlling)
Perform Quality Contro
'Contract Closeout'
'Contract closeout activities which assure that the contractor has fulfilled all contractual obligations and has released all claims and liens in connection with work performed.'
Progressive Elaboration
Characteristic of projects that accompanies the concepts temporary and unique.PE means developing in steps and continuing by increments
work package
a deliverable or project work component at the lowest level of each branch of work breakdown structure
Factors that for planning purposes are considered to be true, real, or certain. Assumptions affect all aspects of project planning and are part of the progressive elaboration of the project. Project teams frequently identify, document, and validate assumptions as part of their planning process. Assumptions generally involve a degree of risk
Project Plan Execution Inputs?
Inputs: (1)Project Plan, (2)Supporting Detail, (3)Organizational Policies, (4)Preventive Action, (5)Corrective Action
Budgeted Cost of Work Performed. Now EV(Earned Value).
The primary driver(s) behind the demand for continual quality improvement is/are
A. an increase in the number of projects being worked.
B. the government cost improvement reports that have created widespread public interest in quality.
C. the prevalence o
Answer: E
A software development project has been suffering through many major project changes. Because of this, the project manager has not been able to do much but complete change control forms. Which statement BEST describes the other activities the project mana
Most quality problems
A. Originate in the quality department where the ultimate responsibility for quality rests
B. Originate on the shop floor because of waste and product rework
C. Are the result of management inattention to potential quality improvemen
Answer: C
Japanese quality control has improved dramatically in the last 30 years for all of the following reasons except
A. The use of quality control circles
B. Small, continuous improvements in quality control
C. The use of worker suggestion systems
D. The use o
Answer: E
Before reporting a perceived violation of an established rule or policy the project manager
a. Determine the risks associated with the violation
b. Ignore the violation until it actually affects the project results
c. Convene a committee to re
Answer: d
Tools & techniques for risk identification include
a. Decision tree analysis, information­gathering techniques, checklists, assumptions analysis,
diagramming techniques
b. Documentation reviews, information­gathering techniques, checklists, assum
Answer: b
Constraints do not include:
A. Impacts of weather
B. Organizational structure of the performing organization
C. Collective bargaining
D. Expected staff assignments
Answer: A
Financial analysis of payback period identifies the
A. Ratio of discounted revenues over discounted costs
B. Future value of money invested today
C. Project that is expected to become profitable most quickly
D. Point in time where costs exceed profit
E. M
Answer: C
Halfway through the project, the client considers canceling the remaining work and the contract. It would be BEST to look at which of the following to determine the purpose for the project?
A. The goals, objectives, and business case in the charter
B. The
Communication is often enhanced when the sender ___ the receiver?
A. speaks up to
B. uses more physical movements when talking to
C. talks slowly to
D. shows concern for the perspective of
Who issues the project charter?
A. Management
B. Project manager
C. Project team
D. Stakeholders
Outputs Activity duration estimating
Activity duration estimates
Activity attributes updates
Outputs Activity duration estimating
Integration Processes - Planning
Develop Project Mgt Plan
Cost Management Processes - Planning
Cost Estimating
Cost Budgeting
project phases
A collection of logically related project activities*, usually culminating in the completion of a major deliverable. Project phases (also called phases) are mainly completed sequentially, but can overlap in some project situations. Phases can be subdivided into subphases and then components, this hierarchy. if the project or portions of the project are divided into phases, is contained in the work breakdown structure. A project phase is a component of a project life cycle. A project phase is not a project management process group*.
'Organizational Factors'
'The availability of expertise of personnel
'Object-Oriented Analysis'
'Analysis based on considering the system as a collection of objects (entities
'Added Value'
'The addition of some worthwhile quality or performance improvement as a result of some action taken
'Inexcusable Delays'
'Project delays that are attributable to negligence on the part of the contractor which lead in many cases to penalty payments.'
What is Decomposition
Breaking Down Project Deliverables into smaller components that you can associate time and cost with
Flow chart
help identify the process flow, logic or a method for performing a specific activity or group of activities. Can help ID failing process steps and identify process improvement opportunities.
Schedule Variance (SV)
1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of that activity. 2) In earned value, EV less BCWS = SV
A key reason why project management is more important in business today compared to 30 yearsago:a. The technology that is available today compared to 30 years agob. The sheer size of projects today compared to 30 years agoc. The improved t
A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use, but do not share the same requirements for quality.
Which term describes those costs that are traceable to or caused by a specific project work effort?
A. Variable
B. Direct
C. Indirect
D. Fixed
E. Semi-variable
Answer: B
All of the following would occur during this closure of the project EXCEPT?
A. Creating lessons learned
B. Formal acceptance
C. Reducing resource spending
D. Performing cost benefit analysis
Project risk is characterized by three factors: _____.
A. Severity of impact, duration of impact and cost of impact
B. Identification, type of risk category and probability of impact
C. Risk event, risk probability and the amount at stake
D. Occurrenc
Answer: C
The product manager for the product your project is developing notifies you that she has decided the product should be able to be used by an additional market. You should:
A. immediately notify the project sponsor that there is a project scope change.
Which of the following practices is NOT an important element of effective contract administration?
A. Preparing contract change documentation
B. Processing payment vouchers
C. Establishing the appropriate contract type
D. Implementing a contract change co
Answer: C
Which of the following BEST describes the project manager's role relating to changes?
A. The project manager's job is to serve the customer and do what the customer wants.
B. Monitor and track changes to ensure they benefit the project
C. Influence the fa
The client demands changes to the product specification that will add two weeks to the critical path. The project manager should:
A. crash the project to recover the two weeks.
B. fast track the project to recover the two weeks.
C. consult management befo
A tool which links the project roles and responsibilities to the project scope definition is called:
A. Scope Definition Matrix
B. Responsibility Assignment Matrix
C. Roles Assignment Matrix
D. Project Scope and Roles Matrix
The project manager has just received a change from the customer that does not affect project time and is easy to complete. What should the project manager do FIRST?
A. Make the change happen as soon as possible
B. Contact the project sponsor for permissi
. Steps in effective goal setting are:
a. Negotiation, resource allotment, published goals.
b. Definition, setting completion time, resource allotment, quality standards.
c. Setting quality standards, setting quantity standards, defining other contribu
Answer: b
It is important to collect project records at the end of the project to:
A. document decisions made on the project.
B. recall what happened on the project.
C. support cost decisions.
D. support the risks on the project.
On a project, quality should generally be of
A. equal priority with cost and schedule.
B. lower priority than cost and schedule.
C. equal priority with cost, but higher priority than schedule.
D. equal priority with schedule. but higher priority than cost
Answer: A
As the project manager, you are preparing your methods for quality management. In your project management system, you are looking for a method that can demonstrate the relationship between events and their resulting effects. You want to use the method to
. In initiating a contract, the primary focus is on obtaining a product or service without regard for the termination. The contract for goods or services should have a termination provision (after successful completion) that ________.
A. fixes on a date t
Answer: C
The EAC is a forecasting technique based on past project performance. It can be calculated using the formula ________.
A. cumulative actuals + (ETC X CPI)
B. cumulative actuals + new estimate for cost of work remaining
C. cumulative actuals + remaining bu
Answer: D
The purpose of resource planning is to
A. Determine the physical resources needed to perform project activities
B. Approximate the costs of resources needed to complete project activities
C. Provide quantitative assessments of the costs of resources requi
Answer: A
All of the following are contract types except:
a. cost­reimbursable.
b. arbitration­based.
c. time and material.
d. fixed­price.
Answer: b
The PDM provides project managers with knowledgte of
A. All levels of the WBS
B. Tasks likely to be involved in the project integration and resource allocation functions
C. A graphical representation of the task interdependencies
D. What the project compl
Answer: C
The basis for measuring and reporting schedule performance is the
A. Schedule baseline
B. Number of change requests
C. Difference between planned and actual events and activities
D. Need for duration compression techniques
E. All of the above
Answer: A
Statistical sampling is a method to determine the conformance to requirement for some element or product of a project. The advantage of statistical sampling is that it ________.
A. does not require an expenditure of resources
B. is accurate enough with a
Answer: C
Fast Tracking in time management is
A. Doing some or all activities in parallel rather than in sequence
B. Preparing progress reports on a quick turnaround basis
C. The timely input of data to calculate the critical path
D. Reducing the time allowed for e
Answer: A
The schedule is an important document to plan and control the use of time and to reflect progress on the project. As such, it should be developed during the ________ phase and updated during the ________ phase.
A. conceptual; planning
B. implementation; e
Answer: C
The pillar(s) of quality is (are)
A. Quality is free
B. Doing it right the first time
C. Zero defects
D. Process improvement
E. B and C
Answer: E

You are getting $__ worth of work out of every $1 spent.
(<1) is bad
(>1) is good
project office
PMO - a project management office organizes and manages control over all projects within an organization.
Precedence Diagramming Method
also called Activity on Node.
Network diagram where boxes represent activities and arrows are used to show the dependencies between the activities.
Cost Management Processes - Cost Control
Performance Measures
Forecasted Completion
Time Management Processes - Activity Sequencing
Project Network Diagrams
Project Integration Management
(Monitoring and Controlling)
Monitor and control project work
Perform integrated change control
'Project Scope'
'A concise and accurate description of the end products or deliverables to be expected from the project and that meet specified requirements as agreed between the ProjectÍs Stakeholders.'
'Conflict Resolution'
'To seek a solution to a problem
Project Constraints (high level)
1. Scope
2. Quality
3. Schedule.
4. Budget
5. Resources and
6. Risk
*Note: All the factors are inter-related. A change in one will affect the other.
Conditional Porbability
deals with causation, it is a cloudy day and there is a propbabality of rain.
Risk Management Plan
A subsidiary element of the overall project plan which documents the procedures that will be used to manage risk throughout the project
Scope Definition Tools and Techniques?
Tools and Techniques: (1)Work Breakdown Structure Templates, (2)Decomposition
When entering into a contract, it is often assumed that the performance of the work will be as specified and no disputes will be raised during the performance period. On the contrary, it is better to assume that there will be disputes and include a proced
Answer: A
In the area of contracting, there are two basic types of contracts that reflect how the total price is determined. The ________ contract has an objective of a pre-determined end price while the ________ contract has an objective of a target end price.

Answer: D
he degree to which a company accepts and utilizes project mgmt is most often dependent upon the ___________ and ___________ of its projects.
a. Competion, dollar value
b. Type of industry, manpower requirements.
c. Risk, quality management
d. size, nature
Answer: d
Having to constantly push the team to perform is an example of a LACK of:
A. project continuity.
B. team buy-in.
C. management support.
D. team accord.
A contract is a promise to provide goods and/or services to one party in return for something of value from that party. To define the goods, services, and something of value in a legal document, the contract must be comprised of ________.
A. an explicit w
Answer: C
Investors are often used to obtain the necessary financing for major projects, which can transfer the ownership to the investors. The system is then leased back for operation and use. The major advantage for the investors is ________ , and the major advan
Answer: C
You are managing the development of a highly controversial project. Today you called a team
meeting and explained the project objectives to the team and several members stood up and left
citing philosophical objections to the project. You chased them do
Answer: c
Which of the following is a common problem in administrative closure?
A. Retaining resources to complete the project
B. Completing the quality assurance plan
C. Obtaining scope verification
D. Completing a project charter
A milestone is best described as
A. A combination of related activities and events
B. An intersection of two or more lines or arrows commonly used for depicting an event or activity
C. An identifiable point in a project that denotes a reporting requiremen
Answer: C
Which type of contract should be used for a well-defined project
A. Unit price contract
B. Fixed price contract
C. Cost reimbursable contract
D. Partnership contract
E. A unit price contract that disallows such contracting
Answer: B
The project schedule is the key to tracking progress in the project. Schedule reports should be easily understood, practical, pertinent, and current because of their intended use by ________.
A. engineers
B. planners
C. managers
D. the scheduling team
Answer: A
As of the data date, your project schedule has a BCWS of 100. The BCWP, however, is 110. This tells you that your project is currently 10%
A. Behind schedule
B. Ahead of schedule
C. Over budget
D. Under budget
E. Ahead of schedule and over budget
Answer: B
Which of the following is an important input to scope verification?
A. Work results
B. Historical information
C. Formal acceptance
D. Change requests
project human resource management
Knowledge area that focues on organizational planning, staff acquisition, and team development.
Risk Processes - Monitoring & Controlling
Risk Monitoring & Controlling
'Cost Analysis'
'The analysis of the cost elements of a proposal or on-going work. It includes verification of cost data
'Risk Mitigation Strategy'
'An overall plan for mitigating the risks in the investment activity.'
'The amount of time after one task is started or finished before the next task can be started or finished.'
Rough order of magnitude
-50 to +50% in the intiating process
The contract is signed at the end of the
A. Pre-award phase
B. Award phase
C. Post-award phase
D. Solicitation phase
E. Award cycle
Answer: E
The project is not going well and many changes are being made. Which of the following should you do FIRST to gain control of the project?
A. Review the scope of work with the stakeholders
B. Create a new change form
C. Remind everyone of the change proced
A team of seven people adds two more people to the team. How many lines of communication are there now?
A. 9
B. 36
C. 18
D. 81
Why use limit reconciation?
enusre that the expenditure of funds is reconciled withthe funding limits imposed by the performing organization
tool of the cost budgeting process
Payback Period
measure of the time it takes to recoup initial costs of producing the product/service/result
'Cost Plus Percentage of Cost Contract'
'Provides reimbursement of allowable cost of services performed plus an agreed upon percentage of the estimated cost as profit.'
Three point estimating (PERT and Triangular Divison)
an analytical technique that uses three cost of duration estimates to represents the optimistic, most likely, and pessimitic scenarios. THis is technique is applied to improve the accuarcy of the estimate of cost or duration when the underlying activity or cost component is uncertain.
A contract is a promise to do or not do something in exchange for some form of consideration. A negotiated contract is one where both participants agree on the basis for principal considerations
A. the period of performance and the specifications for the
Answer: C
Types of Costs - Variable
Costs that vary on the project. (Hourly labor, fuel for bulldozer)
'End Tranche Assessment'
'A review carried out at the outset of the benefits realization phase to verify the completion of all tranche projects and to plan for maximizing benefits from tranche projects and executing the next tranche.'
Name the 5 Planning Processes for Risk
Risk Management Planning, Risk Identification, Qualitative Risk Analysis, Quantitative Risk Analysis, Risk Response Planning
Earned Value Formulas - Estimate at Completion (EAC)
Projecting the total cost at completion based on project performance up to a point in time.
What are the Outputs to Scope Planning (Planning Process)
The Project Scope management plan
A primary function of PMO (project management officer) is to support project managers
- Managing shared resources across all project administered by PMO.
- Identifying and developing project management methodology.
- Coaching, mentoring, training and oversight.
- Monitoring compliance with PM standards, policies, procedures.
- Developing and managing project policies, procedures and templates
- Coordinating communication across projects.
All of the following are outputs from performance reporting EXCEPT:
A. Trend analysis
B. "S" curves, histograms, bar charts, and tables
C. Performance reports
D. Change requests
E. Stakeholder reports
A: The outputs are change requests and performance reports. Stakeholder reports are examples of performance reports and B are examples of the formats for performance reports.
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