A P: tissues Flashcards

Epithelial tissue
Terms Definitions
Stratified
Many layers
pigment in epidermis
melanin
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium can be found where
Trachea
4 Epithelial Shapes (SCCP)
-Squamous-Cuboidal-Columnar-Pseudostratified columnar
Avascular
lacks circulatory system...epithelial tissue is avascular
Adipose Tissue
Type: Connective Tissue (loose)Description: matrix as in areolar, but very sparce; closely packed adipocytes, or fat cells have nuceus pushed to the side by large fat droplet.Location: under skin; around kidnes and eyeballs; in bones and within abdomen; in breasts.Function: provides reserve food fuel; insulator against heat loss; supports and protects organs.
three layers of skin
dermis,epidermis,subcutaneous layer
The Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue
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4 Types of Body Tissues
EpithelialConnectiveMuscleNervous
cartilage
functions to support provide a framework and a place for attatchments protects and forms structure for bones
Cutaneous Membrane
Largest body membrane - skin
 
keratinized stratifited squamous epithelium (epidermis)
and a layer of CT (dermis)
elastic
lots of elastic fibersfibroblast in between fibersprovides strength
_____ is a lack of melanin
albinism
histology
The study of the microscopic structures of tissues and organs. AKA: microanatomy.
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consists mainly of collagen fibers arranged randomlylocation: heart valvesfunction: provides strengthdense irregular connective tissue
Stratified columnar
Multiple layers w/outer columnar. Permits distention, protection and secretion. Epididymis, male urethra, mammary glands (rare)
bone (osseous) tissue
(specialized c.t.)
-rich vascular supply
-supports of skeleton, stores Ca and P
matrix: numerous collagen fibers (soft) in mineral salt (hard) ground
main fixed cells: osteocytes w/in lacunae
periosteum -dense irregular c.t. membrane covering bone surface
What cellular component of connective tissue is made up of cell fragments?
platlets
connective
tissue that supports soft body parts and binds structures together
Resident Cells
are permanently contained within the connective tissue
 
Help support, maintain, and repair the extracellular matrix
Vitamin deficiencies
Rickets (vitamin D deficiency in children)
-can't absorb calium and phophate from diet
-Epiphyseal catilage in made, but not clacified
-bones are soft
Legs bow due to weight 
prevents microorganisms, etc. form entering the body
skin - protection
What are macrophages?
Massive irregularly shaped scavengers that engulf microbes, daed cells, and debris which is then digested in lysosomes (in macrophage). Assist greatly in areas of infection to engulf microinvaders.
Abnormal increase in the amount of interstitial fluid; causes swelling
Edema
Apocrine glands
accumulate secretions at the apical surface then that portion of cell pinches off the rest of cell to release secreion. maybe mammary glands but new research suggests not.
neural tissue
detect changes in internal and external environment - maintain homeostasis
What connective tissue covers the bone?
The periosteum
Tissue Repair
n Skin, mucus membranes, bones regenerate well
n Skeletal muscle and cartilage regenerate poorly
n Cardiac muscle and nerves do not regenerate at all
With severe wounds, fibrosis continues and replaces lost tissue with collagen
what do fibroblasts do?
produce fibers by secreting proteins
Which CT has more protein fibers and relatively little ground substance
Dense
when body temp continues to drop, skeletel muscles __________ ______
involuntary contract
screens out uv, protects nuclei of deep cells
stratum basale
What is hyaluronic acid?
Material that composes ground substance in areolar tissue which serves as a medium through which nutrients, gases, and waste can be easily transported to and from the bloodstream.
Interstitial Growth
Takes place inside the cartilage. Adding more cartilage to the core.
The cranial and spinal nerves along with ganglia form what?
The PNS.
regeneration (tissue repair)
-reconstruction of injured tissue by parenchymal cells (functioning part of tissue or organ - fully functional repair
-stem cells--undifferentiated cells in parenchyma that divide and differentiate to replace cells
(some tissues don't regenerate well - muscle, nervous tissue)
What is the ground substance of blood called?
Plasma
cell wall
a thin wall that holds the cell together
dense IRREGULAR CT
__ type of CT: joint capsule
Define Tissue
Groups of cells that are similar and perform a related function
What are serous secretions?
Watery and contain a high concentration of enzymes.
Special contacts of Epithelia...
form continuous sheets held together by tight junctions and desmosomes
epithelium is avascular
(no blood vessels) blood supply comes from connective tissue, epithelium cannot be too wide
What are three types of specialized connective tissue?
Blood, Bone, Cartilige
CT Proper- Dense regular
n Fibers are predominant elementn Contains regular bundles of parallel collagen fibersn Great tensile strength- little stretchn Poorly vascularizedn Forms tendons muscles to bones and ligaments bones to bones
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
(SLE)
 
An autoimmune disease, mostly in young women
Not contagious, maybe hereditary
Inflammatory reaction in connective tissue (incuding dermis)
Blistering and ulcers on skin 
Connective Tissue Common Characteristics
-Common Origin - orig. from embryonic mesenchyme (dev. tissue)-During dev. 3 primary layers dev. (ie. mesoderm mesenchyme)-Composed of star shaped mesenchyme cell-Varying degrees of vascularity -Cartilage (only avasc. conn tissue) -Adipose (richly vascular)-Contains extracellular matrix (surrounds & bathes cell)
What is the lamina propria?
The areolar connective tissue located in the mucous membrane.
What are the anatomical classifications of neurons?
The classifications are bipolar (one dendrite/one axon) in eye, ear, nose; psuedounipolar (one-branched process) in dorsal root ganglia; and multipolar (multiple dendrites/one axon) in the CNS and PNS.
what are the enlarged ends of a bone called?
spongy bone
What are the two types of Agranul leukocytes?
Lymphocytes and monocytes
Pseudostratified Columnar Description Location Function
D - sinlge layer of cellsF - secretion of mucusL - sperm / trachea
Where do you find adipocytes?
Under the skin, behind the eyes, around kidneys, and in omentum of abdominal cavity.
What is characteristic about irregular dense connective tissue?
Its fibers are oriented at random
how are epithelial cells classified?
based on their cell shape and the arrangement of the layers of tissue
What is fibrocartilage?Where is it found?
It contains thick byndles of collagen fibers but has fewer chondrocytes and lack a perichondrium. It is well designed to take compression and found between vertebrae, between bones in pelvic girdle, and in the knee joint.
What are the only epithelial cells that have a free face?
Simple epithelial cells because they are the outermost layer of cells at a surface
Why is the fluid in the matrix important in cartilage?
It ransports nutrients to the chondrocytes and gives cartilage it's flexible resiliency and ability to withstand compression.
Neutrophils are granular leukocytes charactrized by what?
A three to five lobed nucleus in the cell and small cytoplasmic crystals
What type of cells are specialized for the secretion of mucus?
goblet cells, they are simple columnar epithelium
how is the structure of nervous tissue related to its function?
The nrve cell body and processes allow the transmision of signals
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