Poetry Definitions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
refrain
octameter
8 ft/line
haiku
about nature
patent
evident or obvious
tercet
three line stanza
Meter
the rhythm in pattern
chiasmus
reversal of words, 1-2-2-1
understatement
the opposite of hyperbole
Consonance
the property of sounding harmonious
exposition
introduces the characters, setting, and basic situation in a work of literature
repetition
to do or say again
Personafication
Giving human characteristics to something that is not human
iambic pentameter
unstressed syllable followed by stressed syllable (5 times)
dialect
the unique local pronunciation of words
sedition
rebellion or resistance against the government
simile
comparison between 2 unlike things using like or as
symbol
something used to represent something else
octave
an eight-line unit, which may constitute a stanza
rhythm
the pattern of beats or stresses
PERSONA
latin for mask, fictitious character created by author to tell a story
On 1st Looking into Chapman's Homer
John Keats
Lyric
- a usually short, personal poem expressing the poet's emotions and thoughts rather than telling a story.
Assonance
The repetition at close intervals of the vowel sounds of accented syllables or important words.
Imagery
Creating the scene (image) in the persons mind by using good describing and emotional words.
couplet:
2 successive lines, usually in the same meter linked by rhyme
onomatopoeia
words that sound like what they mean
Allusion
a reference to another work of literature, person, or event
Spondee
a metrical foot consisting of two syllables equally or almost equally accented
Tone
Any sound considered with reference to its quality, pitch, strength, source
connotation
the set of attributes constituting the meaning of a term and thus determining the range of objects to which that term may be applied; comprehension; intension.
controlling metaphors
metaphors that extend through the whole poem
There is no frigate like a book
Emily Dickinson
Limerick
five line poem thats meant to be funny
paradox
a figure of speech in which the literal meaning seems to contradict itself but really expresses a higher truth
Motif
A recurring idea or structure in a work that helps to develop a major theme.
Jargon
A category of language defined by a trade or profession.
death, solitude, consciousness, the soul, life, nature, and God
Topics of Emily Dickinson
Stanza
A unit of poetry containing one or more lines
WHO BELIEVED THAT POEMS COULD FOSTER NATIONAL PRIDE AND UNITY?
W.B. YEATS
rhyme scheme
the pattern in which the rhymed line-endings are arranged in a poem or stanza
Elegy
A sad and thoughtful poem about the death of an individual
Metonymy
Using the name of one object or concept to refer to another to which it is related.*Metonymy is similar to synecdoche, but uses something more generally or loosely associated with a concept to stand in for it. When Americans speak of the Oval Office, or when the British refer o the crown, they are referring to the powers, responsibilities, and authority associated with that place or item.*The difference between synecdoche and metonymy is that in metonymy the word you employ is linked to the concept you are really talking about, but isn’t actually a part of it.
extended metaphor
She is a sloth, she is a turtle
Arroyo
a steep ditch carved in a plain or desert by the force of running water
poetic license
breaking the rules of spelling to make a rhyme or meter more perfect
Apostrophe
Direct address in a poem to someone or something that cannot hear or respond
Pure Rhyme
Occurs when the final sounds of two words are exactly alike (glance, dance)
negative capability
theory of John Keats in which poets are capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts without any irritable reaching after facts and reason - (the ability to accept not everything can be resolved)
free verse
verse that does not follow a fixed metrical pattern.
prose poem
a piece of writing in prose that has obvious poetic qualities
caecura
a pause or break with in a line of poetry, usually indicated by the natural rhythm of the language
Things I Say to Myself While Hanging Laundry
poem; stream-of-consciousness style; allusion: Albert Einstein; personification: ants; scientific relativity; imagery: relativity: metaphor: "like love against skin", describing smooth feel of linen; repetition: about Einstein and ants; free verse
Spenser, Like a Ship that...
the speaker is compared to a lost ship without stars to guide him and is therefore in a dangerous situation, the stars are his lover Helice
carousel
merry-go-round
meredith
hello
conceit
elaborate metaphor
hyperbole
an exaggeration
Septet
7 lines
quatrains
four lines
Triplet
three-line stanza
seven line stanza
septet
trimeter
3 foot lines
slant rhyme
almost rhyme
Pentameter
5 foot line
iambic
type of foot
Pensive
Thinking deeply or seriously
doggerel
crude, comic, irregular measure
Euphony
a good, pleasing sound
double rhyme
a two-syllable rhyme (ended/blended)
Paraphrasing
rewriting or restating another person's ideas or thoughts into your own words
Personification
giving human characteristics to non-human things
alliteration
repetition of initial consonant sounds
mood
atmosphere/ feeling of a work
invective
an intensely vehement, highly emotional verbal attack
Style
the expressive qualities that distinguish an author's work, including word choice, sentence structure, and figures of speech
oxymoron
a combination of contradictory terms
ubiquitous
(adj) existing everywhere at once
denotation
its objective meaning, independent of other associations that the word brings to mind
sentimental
emotional about a certain person, time, or place
Explication
Detailed explanatio of a poems meaning
theme
idea poet conveys;main idea of poem
Rythym
the regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables
dialogue
conversation between two or more characters in a literary work
a comparison that gives human qualities to an object, animal, or idea
personification
narrative
a poem that tells a story
couplet
a 2-line stanza in poetry, usually rhymed, which tends to have lines of equal length. Shakespeare's sonnets were famous for ending with a summarizing, rhymed _____.
language
has a beat; just like music does!
Sonnet
14 lines rhyming couplet at the end
iamb
and unstrssed syllable followed by a strssed one- u/
Continuous Form
a poem with no stanza breaks
rhymed verse
end rhyme and a regular meter
presenting a poem
eye contact, pacing, and voice
scanison
dividing line of poetry into syllables and feet
ballad
a simple narrative poem of folk origin, composed in short stanzas and adapted for singing.
Satire
the technique that employs wit to ridicule a subject, usually some social institution or human weakness, with the intention to inspire reform
emblem
an object whose significance is made determinate by its qualities and by the role it plays in the narrative.
line
Structure of a poem, classified by number of feet it contains
Sprung Rhythm
each foot contains one stressed syllable and any number of unstressed syllables
blank verse
unrhymed poetry written in iambic pentameter
rhyme
Repetition of a stressed vowel sound and any sound that follows it in words that are close together in a poem
Diction
a writer's or speaker's choice of words
anecdote
a short account of a particular incident or event of an interesting or amusing nature, often biographical.
Acrostic
A word or short message that is spelled out vertically using the first letter of each line.
poetic device
techniques employed by the poet to make the poem most effective
lyric poem
a poem that includes thoughts and feelings about a specific idea
metaphor
not using like or as; two unlike things
blues
originally a kind of folk music, blues songs tend to follow a pattern consisting of three line stanzas, with lines one and two being the same, and the third line being different but end rhyming with lines one and two. "The blues exposed the hard-won wisdom of bitter life experience" (142). Originating in the African American community, blues has come to be vastly influential in all categories of music and poetry.
mythologies
large systems of belief & tradition on which cultures draw to explain & understand themselves.
End Rhyme
Rhyming at the end of a line
dactyl
a foot with one strong stress followed by two unstressed syllables
picture poems
poems arranged in shape of a picture
implied metaphor
suggests a comparison with out using "is" (ex. My love blossoms over time)
figurative language
language that uses figures of speech (saying one thing and meaning another); three of the most common types of figurative language are similes, metaphors, and personification
lyric poetry
a poem expressing the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker
anastrophe
inversion of usual order of the parts of a sentence, for emphasis or to achieve certain rhythm or rhyme
setting
a time and place where the action takes place
Narative Poem
poetry that tells a story. Narrative poems have a plot, characters, setting, and a theme. Most narrative poems are divided into stanzas
Onomatopeia
formation or use of words that imitate sounds of the actions they refer to
symbolism
the use of a person, place, or object to stand for something other than itself; used to create multiple layers of meaning in a poem
im memoriam stanza
4 line stanza in ambic tetrameter, abba
Dramatic Poetry
A type of poetry that utilizes the techniques of drama; the speaker is clearly feelings of the single speaker
image
word or series of words that refers to an experience or memory
Free Verse Poetry
no repeating patterns of syllables, no rhyme, conversational, modern
Concrete poem
a poem which has a "shape" that reflects the content
ex.
O
Con-
Crete Poem
O Concrete Poem,
Your shape reflects your
Content, O Concrete Poem O
Concrete Poem, your shape reflects
your
Con-
tent
literary ballad
written deliberately in the form of a folk ballad
Pun
a play on the multiple meanings of a word or on two words that sound alike but have different meanings
narrative poetry
poetry that focuses on telling a story or relates a series of events
line number
In the textbook, lines are numbered as 5, 10, 15, 20 . . . to locate passages easily.
Iambic foot
A two syllable foot with the stress on the second syllable; the most common foot of the English language
end stop line
the line that ends with a punctuation mark
What is a haiku?
An unrhymed verse form of Japanese origin having three lines containing usually five, seven, and five syllables, respectively
narrator or speaker
the voice you hear or imagine as you read a poem.
slant or off rhyme
two or more words that don't exactly rhyme but resonate with each other, assonance
William Shakespeare, Sonnet 130
Coral is far more red than her lips' red;
"the giant who was my father . . . a hundred strong men strained beneath his coffin"
hyperbole in "The Funeral"
trifling
insignificant
trochaic
/u
monometer
one foot
quatrain
four line
Uphill
Christina Rosetti
Canny
Showing self interest
stanzas
grouping of lines
minutiae
small, unimportant detail
Stalwart
adj.: staunch, loyal, committed
hyerbole
Exaggeration or deliberate overstatement.
conflict
problem between the characters
kinesthetic imagery
imagery of movement
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
"The Erl-King"
BATHOS
Cliches, overused 'pathos,' overly emotional ideas or indulging in emotions for their own sake
Movement
THe way lines flow together
subject
what the poem is about
terza rima
an interlocking 3-line rhyme scheme
senryu
"haiku with attitude" 5,7,5 about human nature
figurative langauge
non-literal language that includes figures of thought, figures of sound and rhetorical figures
penthimimer or dipody
2 feet 4 syllables
structure
the poet's arrangement or overall design of the work
analogy
detailed comparison between two like relationships, ideas, or situations
Foot:
the unit of rhythm in verse
Alliteration
The repetition of consonant sounds, at the beginning of words.
scansion
analysis of literature in terms of meter
rhyming couplet
a pair of lines that rhyme
poetry
a kind of rhythmic compressed language that uses figures of spech and imagery designed to appeal to our emotions and imagination
ode
a relatively long, serious and usually meditative lyric poem that treats a noble or otherwise elevated subject in a dignified, calm matter
idyll
happy poem depicting a rural or pastoral scene
stanza length
lines per stanza (couplet, tercet, quatrain, cinquain, sestet, octave)
rhyme pattern
correspondence in the terminal sounds of the lines forming a pattern
Verbal Irony
Saying one thing and meaning another
Song
expression of a poet's emotions, meant to be sung
Rhyme Royal
a seven-line stanza of iambic pentameter rhymed ababbcc, used by Chaucer and other medieval poets
dramatic poem
Poem that reveals character through monologue or dialogue
cinquain
a five line poem about one topic
Cacophony
An unpleasant spoken sound created by a clashing consonants
tetrameter
a line of metered poetry with 4 feet
synecdoche
using a part of something to represent the whole thing
speaker
the voice that relates the ideas or story of the poem
English sonnet
three quatrains and a couple-- abab, cdcd, efef, gg
heroic couplet
two consecutive lines of rhymed verse written in iambic pentameter
Foot
the basic unit of measure in rhythm. Usually contains one accented syllable and one or more unaccented syllables.
denotation and connotation
dictionary meaning vs. the meaning association with emotion
Haiku is
Japanese verse form with three lines. 5-7-5 syllables
Elision
the slurring or suppression of a vowel sound or syllable, usually by fusing a final unstressed vowel with a following word beginning with a vowel or a mute h. Usually in poetry it is used to maintain the meter of a line ("Th'expense of spirit."). The elision is related to the syncope, in which a letter or syllable within a word is omitted ("o'er" for "over"). (note: know the difference between the elision and the syncope).
elipsis points
mark of punctuation used to create pauses or gaps
internal rhyme
rhyme between words that occurs within a single line of poetry
true rhyme
It occurs when the vowel sounds and consonants appearing after them are exactly the same.
Robert Herrick, Delight in Disorder
A cuff neglectful and thereby
Ribbands to flow confusedly,
poetic foot
a group of syllables in verse usually consisting of one accented syllable and one or two unaccented syllables associated with it.
petrarchan sonnet
a sonnet in two parts: an octet and a sestet: its rhymed scheme: ABBAABBA CDECDE
Back out of all this now too much for us,
Back in a time made simple by the loss
Of detail, burned, dissolved, and broken off
Like graveyard marble sculpture in the weather,
There is a house that is no more a house
Upon a farm that is no more a farm
And i
Frost, "Directive"
William Shakespeare, Sonnet 144
And would corrupt my saint to be a devil,
Ode to the West Wind, Percy Bysshe Shelley
Thou who didst waken from his summer-dreams
The blue Mediterranean, where he lay,
Lull'd by the coil of his crystalline streams,
/ 190
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