Poetry Elements Flashcards

Terms Definitions
quatrain
four line stanza
lyric poetry
poetry expressed through music
alliteration
the repetition of consonants and stressed sounds at the beginning of words
Tone
The author's attitude about the subject, it may be stated or implied
rhythm
a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in the lines of the poem
symbol
person, object, or image that evokes meaning beyond simply what it is
meter
a regular pattern of stessed and unstreed syllables
imagery
launguage that appeals to the readers' senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste
rhyme
usually found at the end of lines; sound the same; internal, end, slant
stanza
grouping of lines set off by a space
sound
words are arranged to form a pattern of sound
Trochee
stress-weak
Heptameter
Seven feet
tetrameter
4 feet
Septet
Seven-line stanza
Speaker
The poems narrator
sublime
majestic, noble (adj)
sestet
a 6-line stanza
Limerick
Funny 5 line poem
assonance
reptition of vowel sounds
blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter
a septet
a 7-line stanza
Understatement/Meiosis
The deliberate representation of something less than it is for the purpose of ironic contrast
Rythum
the "beat" of a poem
objective
impersonal; sticks to the facts
hyperbole
exaggeration to service the truth
Consonance
repetition of end consonant sounds
poetry expressed through music
Lyric poetry
Oxymoron
the combination of seemingly contradictory or opposing ideas or images
allegory
2nd meaning beyond surface one
total meaning
the experience a poem communicates
Amphibrach
A foot with unstressed, stressed, unstressed syllables
Similes
making comparisons by using connecting words
Metaphor
direct comparison of two unlike things
simile
comparison between unlike things using like, as, or as though
personification
giving human traits to nonhuman things
Euphony
The use of compatible, harmonious sounds to produce a pleasing, melodious effect
anapestic meter
unstressed, unstressed, stressed: ex- contradict
Denotation
the dictionary definition of a word
Repetition
words or phases that are repeated
paradox
a statement that contradicts itself. Although the statement may seem to be at odds with ordinary experience, it usually turns out to have a coherent meaning and reveals a truth that is normally hidden.
Sample Poetry
Daffodils by William Wordsworth, Meeting at Night by Robert Browning, April Rain Song by Langston Hughes, Someone by Walter de la Mare, Concord Hymn by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening by Robert Frost, Lost by Carl Sandburg, Stars by Gary Soto, The Geese by Richard Pack, Plazza Place by John Crowe Ransom, the Weary Blues by Langston Hughes.
sentimentality
indulgence in emotion for its own sake; expression of more emotion that an occasion warrants
Amphimacer
A foot with stressed, unstressed, and stressed syallables
PROSE
Ordinary form of written language in sentences and paragraphs.
figurative language
language expanded beyond its literal meaning
epic
a long, dignified narrative poem which gives the account of a hero important to his nation or race.
prediction
when you guess what will happen next
allusion
a reference to something in previous literature or history
Narrative Poem
A poem that tells a story.
masculine rhyme
last accented syllable of rhyming words correspond exactly in sound: night...bright
diction
word choice; the vocabulary used and the appropriateness/ power of the words
sonnet
A rigid 14-line verse form, with variable structure and rhyme scheme according to type:
A. Shakespearian (English) - three quatrains and concluding couplet in iambic pentameterm rhyming abab cdcd efef gg or abba cddc effe gg. The Spenserian sonnet is a specialized form with linking rhyme abab bcbc cdcd ee
-Robert Lowell, "Salem"
-William Shakespeare, "Shall I compar Thee?"
B. Petrarchian (Italian) - an octave and sestet, between which a break in thought occurs. The traditional rhyme scheme is abba abba cde cde (or -cdcdcd.)
-John Milton, "On His Blindness"
-John Donne, "Death, Be Not Proud"
a figure of speech that uses exaggeration
Hyperbole
Haiku
a Japanese form of poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables
apostrophe
addressing someone absent or dead or something nonhuman as if it were alive and present and could reply
run-on/enjamed
lines that don't pause at the end
implied metaphor
suggests a comparison WITHOUT using "is"
cacophony
the use of inharmonious sounds in close conjunction for effect; opposite of euphony
Theme
Theme is an idea or intellectually reprehensible meaning inherent and implicit in a workIn determining a poem's theme we should be careful neither to oversimplify the poem nor to distort its meaningWe should also recognize that poems can have multiple themes: poems can be interpreted for more than one perspective and there is more than one way to state or explain a poem's meaning.
Medieval Romance
A long, narrative poem dealing with chivalric adventure, courtship, and love
Understatement
Minimizes what we know to be true (Opposite of Hyperbole)
metaphors
describe one thing as if it were something else
Colorful Language
is precise and lively words and phrases that help to create clear pictures in the readers mind.
Litotes
a form of understatement in which the negative antonym is used to achieve emphasis and intensity
mxed metaphore
The inconsistent mixture of two or more metaphors; a common problem in bad writing, and they can often be unintentionally funny
Examples: Put it on the back burner and let it germinate; that's a very hard blow to swallow; let's set sail and get this show on the road
Tanka
a poem of five unrhymed lines which evokes a strong feeling with a single image.
Onomatopoeia
Use of words that imitate the sounds they describe.
Rhetorical Question
question asked for effect whose answer is made obvious by the context
Free Verse
poetry that avoids use of regular rhythm
attitude or tone words
usually adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and abstract nouns.
Symbolism
the use of symbols or objects to represent something more significant than the object itself.
irony
states one thing when in fact the opposite meaning is intended
Rhythm and Meter
Rhythm- regular recurrence of the accent or stress in the poem or songIt is the pulse or beat we feel in a phrase of music or a line of poetry. Meter- measure or patterned count of a poetic linecount of the stresses we feel in the poem's rhythmby convention the unit of poetic meter in English is the foot
Juvenalian (Satire)
The type of formal satire which is "biting, bitter, and angry"
Dramatic
a poem in which the writer tells a story using a character's own thoughts or statements
rhyme scheme
pattern of end rhymes; can mark the rhymes using letters
onomatopeoia
use of a word whose sound imitates its meaning
concrete words
refer to what we percieve with our senses
onomatpoeia
the use of words that sound like their meanings
literary allusion
A reference to a person, place, or thing from previous literature
Metonymy
a figure of speech that uses the name of one thing to represent something else with which it is associated
Syllabic Meter
the number of total syllables in a line is fixed, but the number of stressed syllables is not. (opposite of accentual meter)
end rhyme
when one or more rhyming words are at the ends of lines
Petrarchan sonnet
14 lines, has an octave then a break in thought, then a sestet-- abba abba cde cde
synecdoche
A kind of metaphor in which a part of something is used to signify the whole.
Idioms
use of words in such a way that the means is lost if the expression is translated litterally
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