Poisonous Plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pigs:Paralysis, Horses:blindness, Others:gastroenteritis, weakness, and diarrhea. is toxic to all species.
Buttercup
Primula spp. (PRIMROSE)
leaves cause dermatitis.
BITTERWEED (Helenium spp.)
plant causes dermatitis.
Tremors, dyspnea, paralysis, recumbency, can be fatal. Toxin can be passed through the milk of cows and poison the person who drinks it
White Snakeroot
Nightshade
All parts; especially the unripened berry Fatal. Intense digestive disturbance and nervous symptoms.
Oleander Leaves
branches Extremely poisonous. Affects the heart, produces severe digestive upset and has caused death.
PLUM (Prunus spp.)
seeds; plant is cyanogenetic.
SACAHUISTA (Nolina texana)
foliage; plant is hepatogenic.
BUR CLOVER (Medicago denticulata)
plant causes photosensitization.
Campsis spp. (TRUMPET VINE)
plant causes dermatitis.
CATCLAW (Acacia greggi)
foliage, plant is cyanogenetic.
Berries cause acute and chronic poisoning characterized by inflammation of the mouth, esophagus, and intestines. Called also bullnettle
Horsenettle
GUAJILLO (Acacia berlandieri)
foliage; plant is cyanogenetic.
MISTLETOES (Phoradendron spp.)
leaves, stems, berries; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins; plant also causes dermatitis.
Mushrooms
Many species of wild mushrooms are poisonous. Symptoms often include liver damage, kidney damage, etc. There are many toxins, little but symptomatic treatment, and fatalities are common.
Elderberry
The roots are poisonous and cause nausea and digestive upset.
Potato( Solanum tuberosum)
Can contain the glycoalkaloid solanine; this develops as the eyes prepare to sprout chiefly as a result of exposure to light. Foliage and green tinged flesh is a sign that the germination process has begun. Causes intense digestive disturbances; nervous sysmptoms.
SNOWBERRY (Symphoricarpos albus)
gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins; plant also causes dermatitis.
Thevetia peruviana (YELLOW-BE-STILL-TREE, YELLOW OLEANDER)
entire plant, esp. seeds; cardiovascular system affected by cardiac glycosides.
TOMATO (Lycospersicon evculentum)
vines. suckers: gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids.
Triticum aestivum (WHEAT)
nontoxic unless contaminated with fungi.
PRIDE-OF-INDIA (Melia azedarach)
fruit, bark; plant contains convulsants.
POISON SUCKLEYA (Suckleya suckleyana)
leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.
PIGEONBERRY (Phytolacca americans)
all parts, esp. roots; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.
BUCKWHEAT (Fagopyrum esculentum)
plant causes photosensitization and contact dermatitis.
COWSLIP (Caltha palustris)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin protoanemonin; plant also causes dermatitis.
Delphinium spp. (LARKSPUR)
cardiovascular system affected by alkaloids including delphinine; plant also causes dermatitis.
DOCKS (Rumex spp.)
leaves; plant contains soluble oxalates and may contain toxic levels of nitrates: plant also causes dermatitis.
Convallaria majalis (LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY)
entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides convallarin and convallamarin.
Seed of the berry causes severe diarrhea, may also cause excitement and dyspnea
Chinaberry
LARKSPUR (Delphinium spp.)
leaves; cardiovascular system affected by alkaloids including delphinine; plant also causes dermatitis.
MANCHINEEL (Hippomane mancinella)
latex; toxins affect gastrointestinal tract; plant also causes dermatitis.
FOXTAILS (Equisetum spp.)
stems; toxic principles uncertain; fungus growing on plant may cause toxicity.
Hedera helix (ENGLISH IVY)
berries, leaves; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins; plant also causes dermatitis.
GROUNDSEL (Senecio spp.)
entire plant; pyrrolizidine alkaloid causes hepatic veno-occlusive disease (Budd-Chiari syndrome) in humans.
HELIEBORE (Ranunculus spp.)
sap; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by the toxin protoanemonin; plant also causes dermatitis.
HORSE NETTLE (Solanum sp.)
immature growths; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
Equisetum (horsetails)
-swampy areas in northeast
- contain thiaminase which breaks down vitamin B1
- thiamine deficiency:
- weightlosse
- neurological signs
- generalized weakness
AppleMalus domestica)
Seeds contain cyanogenic acids in them although the amount found in most apples won't kill a person with enough seeds; one could die from it.
Autumn Crocus
Star of Bethlehem Bulbs Vomiting and nervous excitement.
Dumbcane / dieffenbachia
All parts are poisonous, causing intense burning, irritation, and immobility of the tongue, mouth, and throat. Swelling can be severe enough to block breathing leading to death.
DaphneDaphne sp.)
The berrieseither red or yellow) are poisonous, causing burns to mouth and digestive tract, followed by coma. Often fatal.
English hollyIles aquifolium)
The berries are poisonous, causing severe gastroenteritis.
ST. JOHNSWORT (Hypericum perforatum)
entire plant causes photosensitization and contact dermatitis.
RED SQUILL (Urginea maritima)
bulbs; cardiovascular system affected by cardiac glycosides.
Ranunculus spp. (BUTTERCUPS, CROWFOOTS, HELIEBORE)
sap; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by the toxin protoanemonin; plant also causes dermatitis.
SPINDLE TREE (Euonymus europaeus)
fruit; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides evobioside, evomonoside, and evonoside.
TRAVELLER'S JOY (Clematis spp.)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
SPRING RABBITBUSH (Tetradymia glabrata)
leaves, buds; plant is hepatogenic.
PRICKLY POPPY (Argemone mexicana)
entire plant; isoquinoline toxin causes "epidemic dropsy" in humans.
VIPER'S BUGLOSS (Echium plantagineum)
entire plant; pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause hepatic venoocclusive disease (Budd-Chiari syndrome) in humans.
YEWS (Taxus spp.)
entire plant, except red aril; gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system affected by volatile oils and the alkaloids taxine, and ephedrine.
RUE (Ruta graveolens)
gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxins furocoumarins, tannins, and xantotoxins; plant also causes photosensitization.
CLIMBING LILY (Gloriosa spp.)
entire plant, esp. tubers; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin colchicine.
CASTOR BEAN (Ricinus communis)
seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins; plant also causes dermatitis.
Seeds contain a potent toxin which causes a nephritis and fatal hepatitis. Poisoning occurs from eating the young seedlings. vomiting, dyspnea, recumbancy, convulsions
Common Cocklebur
MILK BUSH (Euphorbia spp.)
latex; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin euphorbin; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
Lotus corniculatus (BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL)
entire plant; plant is cyanogenctic.
FIDDLENECK (Amsinckia intermedia)
seed-like nutlets; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
MEADOW SAFFRON (Colchicum autumnale)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by colchicine and other alkaloids; plant also causes dermatitis.
GOAT WEED (Hypericum perforatum)
entire plant; plant causes photosensitization and contact dermatitis.
MONKEY POD (Samonia samon)
gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins; plant also causes dermatitis.
MUSTARD (Brassica sp.)
leaves; plant is goitrogenic; may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Nolina texana (BUNCH GRASS, SACAHUISTA)
foliage; plant is hepatogenic.
Angel's TrumpetBrugmansia)
All parts of the plant contains the tropane alkaloids scopolamine and atropine.
Verbesina encelioides (CROWNBEARD)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
WATER HEMLOCK (Cicuta spp.)
entire plant, esp. roots; nervous system affected by the convulsant cicutoxin.
SWEET PEA (Lathyrus spp.)
stems, seeds; nervous system affected by plant toxins.
Sephora secundiflora (FRIJOLITO, MESCAL BEAN)
seeds; nervous system affected by nicotine-like quinolizidine alkaloids.
WHITE BRYONY (Bryonia dioica)
gastrointestinal tract affected by the glycosides bryonin and bryonidin; plant also causes dermatitis.
Stellaria media (CHICKWEED)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
WINDFLOWER (Anemone spp., includes Pulsatilla)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin protoanemonin; plant also causes dermatitis.
SQUIRREL CORN (Dicentra cucullaria)
entire plant, esp. bulbs; plant contains convulsants including isoquinoline; plant also causes dermatitis.
DUTCHMAN'S BREECHES (Dicentra cucullaria)
entire plant, esp. bulbs; plant contains convulsants including isoquinoline; plant also causes dermatitis.
CALEY PEA (Lathyrus spp.)
stems, seeds; nervous system affected by plant toxins.
Abrus precatorius (CRAB'S EYE, JEQUIRITY BEAN, PRECATORY BEAN, ROSARY PEA)
seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.
Clematis spp. (CLEMATIS, TRAVELLER'S JOY, VIRGIN'S BOWER)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
GOLDENCHAINTREE (Laburnum x watereri)
entire plant, esp. seeds; nervous system affected by the alkaloid cytisine.
Fritillaria meleagris (SNAKE'S HEAD BULB)
cardiovascular system affected by alkaloid toxins.
MARVEL OF PERU (Mirabilis jalapa)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the alkaloid tri gonelline; plant also causes dermatitis.
JIMSON WEED (Datura stramonium)
entire plant; nervous system affected by the alkaloids atropine,scopolamine, and hyoscyamine; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
HORSEBEAN (Parkinsonia aculeata)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
HEMLOCK (Conium maculatum)
entire plant, esp. roots and seeds; nervous system affected by the alkaloids coniine, conidrine, and coniceine; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
Helleborus niger (CHRISTMAS ROSE, HELLEBORE)
entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides helleborin and helleborein; plant also causes dermatitis.
INDIAN TOBACCO (Lobelia inflata)
leaves, stems, fruit; nervous system affected by pyridine, a nicotine-like toxin; plant also causes dermatitis.
Darnel/Poison RyegrassLolium temulentum)
The seeds and seed heads of this common garden weed may contain the alkaloids temuline and loliine. Some experts also point to the fungus ergot or fungi of the genus endoconidium both of which grow on the seed heads of rye grasses as an additional source of toxicity.[2]
Stanleya pinnata (PRINCES'S PLUME)
entire plant; plant may absorb toxic levels of selenium.
WOOD LAUREL (Daphne sp.)
entire plant esp. fruit and seeds; gastrointestinal tract and kidneys affected by coumarin glycosides; plant also causes dermatitis.
WHITE SNAKEROOT (Eupatorium sp.)
leaves; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
TUNG NUT3, TUNG TREE (Aleurites fordii)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins and toxalbumins.
PRINCESS'S PLUME (Stanleya pinnata)
entire plant; may absorb toxic levels of selenium.
PRICKLY LETTUCE (Latuca sariola)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
POISON HEMLOCK (Conium maculatum)
entire plant, esp. roots and seeds; nervous system affected by alkaloids including coniine, conidrine, and coniceine; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
Dicentra spp. (BLEEDING HEART, DUTCHMAN'S BREECHES, GOLDEN EAR-DROPS, SQUIRREL CORN, STAGGER WEED, STEER'S HEAD)
entire plant, esp. bulbs; plant contains convulsants including isoquinoline; plant also causes dermatitis.
COAST GOLDENBUSH (Haplopappus venetus)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Amaranthus hybridus (AMARANTH, CARELESS WEED, TUMBLEWEED)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Brassica spp. (CABBAGE, KALE, MUSTARD)
leaves; plant is goitrogenic; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; B. napus (CULTIVATED RAPE) is hepatogenic.
Lactuca sariola (PRICKLY LETTUCE)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
MESCAL BEAN (Sophora secundiflora)
seeds; nervous system affected by the nicotine-like, quinolizidine alkaloids.
Myoporum laetum (no trivial [common] name in U.S.)
fruit, esp.leaves; plant contains convulsants.
Toxicodendron spp. (POISON IVY, POISON OAK, POISON SUMAC)
leaves, bark and fruit cause dermatitis.
Bryonia dioica (DEVIL'S TURNIP, WHITE BRYONY)
gastrointestinal tract affected by the glycosides bryonin and bryonidin; plant also causes dermatitis.
Conium maculatum (HEMLOCK, POISON HEMLOCK)
entire plant, esp. roots and seeds; nervous system affected by alkaloids including coniine, coniceine, and conidrine; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
Lathyrus spp. (CALEY PEA, SINGLETARY PEA, SWEET PEA, VETCHLING, WILD PEA)
stems, seeds; nervous system affected by plant toxins.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN BEE PLANT (Cleome serrulata)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Oxytropis spp. (LOCOWEEDS, POINT VETCH)
entire plant; plant is reputed to be toxic.
causes acute indigestion
Mustard
SNEEZEWEED (Helenium spp.)
plant causes dermatitis.
Agave lecheguilla (LECHUGUILLA)
plant is hepatogenic.
Dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea in cattle. May be the cause of "Pyrexia-Pruritis-hemorrhage" syndrome in dairy cattle. Dermatitis, fever, and mucosal petechiation
Hairy Vetch
Delphinium
Contains the alkaloid Delsoline. Young plants and seeds are poisonous causing nausea muscle twitches paralysis often fatal.
Vinca spp. (PERIWINKLE)
entire plant; contains hallucinogens.
YAUPON (Ilex vomitoria)
berries; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.
Phoradendron spp. (MISTLETOES)
leaves, stems, berries; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins; plant also causes dermatitis.
BUCKEYES (Aesculus spp.)
nuts, immature growths; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.
Echinopanax horridum (DEVIL'S CLUB)
plant causes dermatitis.
COPPERWEED (Oxytenia acerosa)
leaves; toxic principle unknown.
BROOMCORN (Sorghum sp.)
leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.
Shrubs, and trees. Depression, tremors, incoordination, paralysis. Called also horse chestnut
Red Buckeye
KALE (Brassica sp.)
leaves; plant is goitrogenic.
Heteromeles artbutifolia (CHRISTMAS-BERRY)
leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.
PrivetLigustrum sp.)
Berries and leaves are poisonous. Berries contain ligustrin and syringin, which causes difestive disturbances, nervous symptoms. Can be fatal.
Moonseed
The fruits and seeds are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. Often fatal.
Oak
most species Foliage and acorns are poisonous, causing severe digestive upset, heart trouble, contact dermatitis. Often fatal.
SKUNK CABBAGE (Symplocarpus foetidus)
leaves; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins.
SQUILL (Urginea maritima)
bulbs; cardiovascular system affected by cardiac glycosides.
Trifolium spp. (CLOVERS)
plant causes photosensitization and contact dermatitis; T repens (WHITE CLOVER) is cyanogenetic.
WINTERSWEET (Acokanthera spp.)
seeds; cardiovascular system affected by cardiac glycosides.
RICINO (Ricinus communis)
seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins; plant also causes dermatitis.
Wisteria spp. (WISTERIA)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins.
SHEEP LAUREL (Kalmia augustifolia)
leaves, nectar; gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular and nervous systems affected by the toxins andromedotoxin and arbutin.
Cypripedium spp. (LADY SLIPPER, MOCCASIN FLOWER, SHOWY LADY SLIPPER, YELLOW LADY SLIPPER)
plant causes dermatitis.
BINDWEED (Ipomea spp.)
entire plant; plant contains LSD-related hallucinogens and may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Severe contact dermatitis (same as Poison Ivy)
Poison Sumac
LEEK (Allium tricoccum)
bulbs, bulblets, flowers, stems; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY (Convallaria majalis)
entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides convallarin and convallamarin.
Florestina tripteris (FLORESTINA)
entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic.
Sleepygrass
- horses seem to become addicted
- causes stuporous behavior and deep sleep
- vigorous attempts to wake horse result in short periods of partial consciousness
- drug companies have tried to isolate but they can't
Lantana CamaraRed Sage)
Green berries Fatal. Affects lungs kidneys heart and nervous system. Grows in the southern U.S. And in moderate climates.
Jerusalem cherry
All parts, especially the berries, are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. It is often fatal, especially to children.
Yew Berries
foliage Fatal. Foliage more toxic than berries. Death is usually sudden without warning symptoms.
Elderberry All parts
especially roots Children have been poisoned by using pieces of the pithy stems for blowguns. Nausea and digestive upset.
CherryPrunus cerasus)
as well as other speciesPrunus sp) such as peachPrunus persica) plumPrunus domestica) almondPrunus amygdala) and apricotPrunus armeninaca). Leaves and pits contain cyanogenic glycosides
LarkspurDelphinium ajacis-)
Young plants and seeds are poisonous, causing nausea, muscle twitches, paralysis. Often fatal.
Stillingia treculeana (QUEEN'S DELIGHT)
leaves, stems; plant is cyanogenetic.
SLIPPER FLOWER (Pedilanthus tithymaloides)
latex; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; mouth irritated by plant raphides.
STRYCHNINE (Strychnos nux-vomica)
entire plant; nervous system affected by the alkaloid strychnine.
SPINELESS HORSEBRUSH (Tetradymia canescens)
leaves, buds; plant causes photosensitization.
PHYSIC NUT (Jatropha curcas)
seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins and cathartic oils; plant also causes dermatitis.
Viscum album (EUROPEAN MISTLETOE)
leaves, stems; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.
Sambucus spp. (ELDERBERRY)
entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic; may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
TARWEED (Amsinckia intermedia)
seed-like nutlets; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
SHEEP SORREL (Rumex acetosella)
leaves; plant contains soluble oxalates; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
Taxus spp. (YEWS)
entire plant, except red aril; gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system affected by volatile oils, and the alkaloids taxine and ephedrine.
CURCAS BEAN (Jatropha curcas)
seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins and cathartic oils; plant also causes dermatitis.
CAROLINA ALLSPICE (Calycanthus spp.)
seeds; cardiovascular and nervous systems affected by plant toxins.
BOUNCING BET (Saponaria officinalis)
seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.
BOX, BOXWOOD (Buxus sempervirens)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
COMMON PRIVET (Ligustrum vulgare)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the glycoside ligustrin.
ELDERBERRY (Sambucus spp.)
entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic and may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
CHERRY LAUREL (Prunus sp.)
entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic.
BLUEBONNETS (Litpinus subcarnosus)
leaves, esp. seeds; plant contains numerous alkaloid toxins including quinolizidine and piperidine.
Dieffenbachia spp. (DUMBCANE)
leaves; mouth irritated by plant raphides; plant also causes dermatitis.
Aleurites spp. (CANDLEBERRY, CANDLENUT, TUNG3 NUT, TUNG TREE)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins and toxalbumins.
BUSHMAN'S POISON (Acokanthera spp.)
seeds; cardiovascular system affected by cardiac glycosides.
Cause dermatitis. Also called Klamath weed or goatweed
St. John's Wort
MARIJUANA (Cannabis sativa)
leaves, flower bracts; plant contains the hallucinogens tctrahydro-cannabinols.
Ornithogalum spp. (STAR-OF-BETHLEHEM, WONDER FLOWER)
entire plant, esp. bulbs; gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins.
Ledum spp. (LABRADOR TEA)
leaves; plant contains toxic resins.
MORNING GLORIES (Ipomea spp.)
entire plant; plant contains LSD-related hallucinogens; may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
JAPANESE LANTERN (Physalis spp.)
unripe berries; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids.
MUSHROOMS (many wild varieties)
see appropriate literature for toxicities.
JAVA BEAN (Phaseolus lunatus)
entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic.
MOCK ORANGE (Poncirus trifoliata)
fruit; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins.
Glyceria striata (FOWL MANNAGRASS)
entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic.
FOOL'S PARSLEY (Aethusa cynapium)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins.
Hyacinth Narcissus Daffodil Bulbs
Nausea vomiting diarrhea. May be fatal.
Aconitewolfsbane monkshood)Aconitum napellus)
The poison is concentrated in the unripe seed pods and roots but all parts are poisonous. Causes digestive upset nervous excitement. The juice in plant parts is often fatal.
Wild and cultivated cherries
Twigs foliage Fatal. Contains a compound that releases cyanide when eaten. Gasping; excitement and prostration are common symptoms.
WATER DROPWORT (Oenanthe crocata)
entire plant; plant contains the convulsant oenanthetoxin.
Rumex spp. (DOCKS, SHEEP SORREL)
leaves; plant contains soluble oxalates; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
SKELETONWEED (Lygodesmia juncea)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Rhododendron spp. (AZALEAS, LAUREL, RHODODENDRON)
leaves; cardiovascular system affected by the resinoid andromedotoxin.
WHITE CALLA (Zantedeschia aethiopica)
leaves; mouth irritated by plant raphides.
POISON IVY (Toxicodendron radicans)
leaves, bark, and fruit cause dermatitis.
POISON OAK (Toxicodendron spp.)
leaves, bark, and fruit cause dermatitis.
Prunus spp. (APRICOT, CHERRY, CHERRY LAUREL, PLUM, PEACH)
seeds; plant is cyanogenetic.
SOYBEAN (Glycine max)
may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant is goitrogenic.
BUCKTHORN (Karwinskia humboldtiana - do not confuse with the mildly toxic Rhamnus spp.)
fruit; toxins affect nervous system.
BERMUDA BUTTERCUP, BERMUDA OXALIS (Oxalis pes-caprae)
leaves; plant contains soluble oxalates.
BLOODROOT (Sanguinaria canadensis)
juices from stems and rootstocks cause dermatitis.
BLUE TARO (Xanthosoma spp.)
leaves; mouth irritated by plant raphides; plant also causes dermatitis.
Caltha palustris (COWSLIP, MARSH MARIGOLD)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin protoanemonin; plant also causes dermatitis.
Claviceps spp. (ERGOT)
an ascomycetous fungus which grows on small grain (e.g., rye); also contains the alkaloid indole.
Cicuta spp. (WATER HEMLOCK)
entire plant, esp. roots; nervous system affected by the convulsant cicutoxin.
ACONITE (Aconitum spp.)
entire plant, esp. leaves and roots; cardiovascular system affected by alkaloid toxins.
May cause glaucoma in man. In chickens causes low egg production, edema, ataxia, comb cyanosis and gastroenteritis
Mexican Poppy
GOLDENRODS (Aplopappus spp.)
leaves; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Gelsemium sempervirens (FALSE JESSAMINE, YELLOW JESSAMINE)
flowers, leaves, roots; plant contains convulsants including indole; plant also causes dermatitis.
Oenanthe crocata (WATER DROPWORT)
entire plant; plant contains the convulsant oenanthetoxin.
Ipomea spp. (BINDWEED, MORNING GLORIES, SWEET POTATO VINES)
entire plant; plant contains LSD-related hallucinogens; may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Deadly Nightshade/BelladonnaAtropa belladonna)
All parts of the plant contain the toxic alkaloid atropine.
Sorghum spp. (BROOMCORN, JOHNSON GRASS, SORGHUM, SUDAN GRASS)
leaves; plant is cyanogenetic; may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
SPURGE LAUREL (Daphne laureola)
entire plant, esp. fruit and seeds; gastrointestinal tract and kidneys affected by coumarin glycosides; plant also causes dermatitis.
Zamia pumila (COONTIE, FALSE SAGO PALM, FLORIDA ARROWROOT)
roots, trunk; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by plant toxins.
POPCORN FLOWER (Plagiobothrys sp.)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Datura stramonium (DEVIL'S TRUMPET, JIMSON WEED, THORNAPPLE)
entire plant; nervous system affected by the alkaloids atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
Allamanda cathartica (ALLAMANDA, CANARIO, GOLDEN TRUMPET VINE, YELLOW ALLAMANDA)
bark, leaves, fruit, seeds, sap; plant contains cathartic toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
BARNYARD GRASS (Echinochloa crusgalli)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Montia perfoliata (MINER'S LETTUCE)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Malva parviflora (CHEESEWEED, MALLOW)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Labumum x watereri (GOLDENCHAINTREE, LABURNUM)
entire plant, esp. seeds; nervous system affected by cytisine, a nicotine-like alkaloid.
Lobelia spp. (CARDINAL FLOWER, LOBELIA, INDIAN TOBACCO)
leaves, stems, fruit; nervous system affected by pyridine, a nicotine-like toxin; plant also causes dermatitis.
Sanguinaria canadensis (BLOODROOT, RED PUCCOON)
juices from stems and rootstocks cause dermatitis.
Brugmansia x candida (ANGEL TRUMPET TREE)
entire plant, esp. seeds; nervous system affected by belladonna alkaloids; plant contains hallucinogens.
LOCOWEEDS (Astragalus spp., Oxytropis spp.)
entire plant; may absorb toxic levels of selenium.
Bromus spp. (RESCUE GRASS, SMOOTH BROMEGRASS)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
OLEANDER (Nerium oleander, other species)
entire plant, and water used for cut plants; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides oleandrin, oleandroside, and nerioside; plant also causes dermatitis.
Severe contact dermatitis
Poison Ivy
RUBBERWEED (Helenium spp.)
plant causes dermatitis.
Dionaea sp. (VENUS FLYTRAP)
entire plant.
Sorghum fodder, cyanogenic properties
Johnson Grass
Jasmine Berries
Fatal. Digestive disturbance and nervous symptoms.
POTATO (Solanum tuberosum)
immature growths; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
CULTIVATED RAPE (Brassica napus)
plant is hepatogenic.
ARROWGRASS (Triglochim maritima)
leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.
Contains a copious white sap. Diarrhea, incoordination, convulsions in cattle
Milkweed
LADY SLIPPER (Cypripedium spectabiles)
plant causes dermatitis.
Oxytenia acerosa (COPPERWEED)
leaves; toxic principle unknown.
INDIA WHEAT (Fagopyrum tataricum)
plant causes photosensitization.
MOCCASIN FLOWER (Cypripedium spectabiles)
plant causes dermatitis.
Sweet clovers
- develop bleeding disorders (warfarin)
- no problem with fresh clover, the chemical needs to be stored to become toxic
Larkspur Young plant
seeds Digestive upset; nervous excitement; depression. May be fatal.
VIRGIN'S-BOWER (Clematis sp.)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
SNOW-ON-THE-MOUNTAIN (Euphorbia marginata)
latex; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin euphorbin; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
STAR-OF-BETHLEHEM (Omithogalum umbellatum)
entire plant, esp. bulbs; gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins.
Suckleya suckleyana (POISON SUCKLEYA)
leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.
Triglochin maritima (ARROWGRASS, GOOSEGRASS, SOURGRASS)
leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.
RUSTYLEAF (Menziesia ferruginea)
leaves; plant contains toxic resins.
PERIWINKLE (Vinca spp.)
entire plant; plant contains hallucinogens.
CLOVERS (Trifolium spp.)
plant causes photosensitization and contact dermatitis (also see WHITE CLOVER).
BLACK NIGHTSHADE (Solanum nigrum)
leaves, berries; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanin glycoalkaloids; plant also causes dermatitis.
BULL NETTLE (Solanum sp.)
immature growths; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates; also causes dermatitis.
COONTIE (Zamia pumila)
roots, trunk; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by plant toxins.
Areca catechu (ARECA PALM, BETEL NUT)
entire plant.
Also called False Castor Oil Plant, Jamestown weed, Jamestown Lily, mad apple, thornapple, brugmansia. Causes excitement, restlessness, pupillary dilatation. Plant is very unpalatable
Jimsonweed
JOHNSON GRASS (Sorghum halepense)
leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.
MOUNTAIN-MAHOGANY (Cercocarpus montanus)
wilted leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.
HELLEBORE (Helleborus niger)
entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides helleborin and helleborein; plant also causes dermatitis.
JASMINE (Cestrum spp.)
fruit, sap; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids; nervous system affected by atropine-like toxins.
HONEYSUCKLE BUSH (Lonicera spp)
berries; gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular and nervous systems affected by plant toxins.
English ivy
The leaves and berries are poisonous, causing stomach pains, labored breathing, possible coma.
Caladium
All parts of the plant are poisonous. Symptoms are generally irritation, pain, and swelling of tissues. If the mouth or tongue swell, breathing may be fatally blocked.
RhubarbRheum rhaponticum)
Leaves but not stems contain oxalic acid salts causing kidney disorders convulsions coma. Often fatal.
Mistletoe Berries
Fatal. Both children and adults have died from eating the berries.
PURPLE ALLAMANDA (Cryptostegia sp.)
entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by digitalislike glycosides.
SNOWDROP (Galanthus nivalis)
gastrointestinal tract affected by the alkaloids lycorine and galantamine.
WAFER ASH (Ptelea baldwinii)
plant causes photosensitization and contact dermatitis.
WHITE ANTHURIUM (Spathiphyllum spp.)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
WILD BALSAM-APPLE (Momordica charantia)
seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.
RAIN TREE (Samonia samon)
gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins; plant also causes dermatitis.
Ruta graveolens (RUE)
gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxins furocoumarins, tannins, and xantotoxins; plant also causes photosensitization.
YELLOW OLEANDER (Thevetia peruviana)
entire plant, esp. seeds; cardiovascular system affected by cardiac glycosides.
SWEET BELLS (Leucothoe spp.)
leaves, nectar; cardiovascular and nervous systems affected by plant toxins.
Sarcobatus vermiculatus (GREASEWOOD)
plant contains soluble oxalates; also causes dermatitis.
SENNA (Cassia occidentalis)
entire plant: plant contains cathartic toxins.
THORNAPPLE (Datura stramonium)
entire plant; nervous system affected by the alkaloids atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.
ROUGE PLANT (Rivina humilis)
leaves, roots; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.
SANDBOX TREE (Hura crepitans)
seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins; plant also causes dermatitis.
FALSE JESSAMINE (Gelsemium sempervirens)
leaves, roots; plant contains convulsants including indole; plant also causes dermatitis.
DAY-BLOOMING JESSAMINE (Cestrum diurnum)
fruit, sap; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids; nervous system affected by atropine-like toxins.
BELLYACHE BUSH (Jatropha gossypiifolia)
seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins and cathartic oils; plant also causes dermatitis.
Cannabis sativa (MARIJUANA)
leaves, flower bracts; plant contains the hallucinogens tetrahydro-cannabinols.
CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta)
leaves, esp. roots; plant is cyanogenetic.
DESERT ROSE (Adenium spp.)
entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by digitalis-like glycosides.
BURNING BUSH (Euonymus spp.)
fruit; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides evobioside, evomonoside, and evonoside.
DUMBCANE (Dieffenbachia spp.)
leaves; mouth irritated by plant raphides; plant also causes dermatitis.
Buxus sempervirens (BOX, BOXWOOD)
entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
FALSE HELLEBORE (Veratrum spp.)
entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by alkaloid toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
Manihot esculenta (CASSAVA)
leaves, esp. Roots; plant is cyanogenetic.
NAKED-LADY LILY (Amaryllis sp.)
bulbs; gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins.
Narcissus spp. (DAFFODIL, JONQUIL)
bulbs; gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
GOUT STALK (Jatropha podagrica)
seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins and cathartic oils; plant also causes dermatitis.
Galanthus nivalis (SNOWDROP)
gastrointestinal tract affected by the alkaloids lycorine and galantamine.
Nightshade climbing / bittersweet
All parts, especially unripe berries, are poisonous causing digestive disturbances, nervous symptoms. Often fatal.
SORRELS (Oxalis pes-caprae, Rumex spp.)
leaves; plant contains soluble oxalates; plant also causes dermatitis.
SUDAN GRASS (Sorghum sp.)
leaves; plant is cyanogenetic; may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
SINGLETARY PEA (Lathyrus spp.)
stems, seeds; nervous system affected by the plant toxins.
TARO (Alocasis sp., Colocasia esculenta): leaves, stems
mouth irritated by plant raphides.
WORMSEED (Chenopodium ambrosioides)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
POISON SUMAC (Toxicodendron vernix)
leaves, bark, and fruit cause dermatitis.
ERGOT (Claviceps spp.)
an ascomycetous fungus which grows on small grain (e.g., rye); also contains the alkaloid indole.
AMARANTH (Amaranthus hybridus)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Astragalus (LOCOWEEDS, POISON-VETCHES)
entire plant; plant may absorb toxic levels of selenium.
BRACKEN FERN, BRAKE FERN (Pteridium sp.)
fronds; plant contains thiaminase.
Amaryllis spp. (AMARYLLIS, NAKED-LADY LILLY)
bulbs; gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins.
Cestrum spp. (DAY-BLOOMING JESSAMINE, JASMINE, NIGHT-BLOOMING JESSAMINE)
fruit, sap; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids; nervous system affected by atropine-like toxins.
Cephalanthus occidentalis (BUTTONBUSH)
entire plant, esp. leaves; plant is reputed to be toxic.
CANARIO (Allamanda cathartica)
bark, leaves, fruit, seeds, sap; plant contains cathartic toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
GOATHEAD (Tribulus terrestris)
plant is hepatogenic and may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
HENBANE (Hyoscyamus niger)
seeds; nervous system affected by the alkaloids atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine.
Karwinskia humboldtiana (BUCKTHORN, COYOTILLO)
fruit; nervous system affected by plant toxins.
MEADOW BRAKE (Onoclea sensibilis)
leaves; nervous system affected by plant toxins.
Hippobroma longiflora (HORSE POISON, MADAM FATA)
entire plant; plant contains convulsants.
Oxalis pes-caprae (BERMUDA BUTTERCUP, BERMUDA OXALIS, SORREL, SOURSOB)
leaves; plant contains soluble oxalates.
Hyoscyamus niger (HENBANE)
seeds; nervous system affected by the alkaloids atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine.
JAPAN PLUM (Eriobotrya japonica)
kernel in pit; plant is cyanogenetic.
Castor oil plantRicinus communis)
Oil is purgative seed meal separated from the oil is the source of the extremely deadly toxic protein Ricin
SOW THISTLE (Sonchus spp.)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Veratrum spp. (FALSE HELLEBORE, INDIAN POKE)
entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by alkaloid toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.
Samonia samon (MONKEY POD, RAIN TREE)
gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins; plant also causes dermatitis.
Papaver somniferum (OPIUM POPPY)
unripe seedpods; plant contains a wide variety of alkaloids including morphine, codeine, papaverine, narcotine, and isoquinoline.
Plagiobothrys sp. (POPCORN FLOWER)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Eriobotrya japonica (LOQUAT, JAPAN PLUM)
kernel in pit; plant is cyanogenetic.
Celastrus scandens (BITTERSWEET)
entire plant; plant is reputed to be toxic.
BALSAM PEAR (Momordica charantia)
outer rind of ripe fruit, seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.
Lupinus spp. (BLUEBONNETS, LUPINES, PURSH, SILKY LUPINE)
leaves, esp. seeds; plant contains numerous alkaloid toxins including quinolizidine and piperidine.
MINER'S LETTUCE (Montia perfoliata)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
GROUND IVY (Glechoma hederacea)
plant contains a variety of volatile oils.
Gymnocladus dioicus (KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE)
seeds; nervous system affected by nicotine-like toxins.
JIMMY WEED (Aplopappus heterophyllus)
leaves; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
OPIUM POPPY (Papaver somniferum)
unripe seedpods; plant contains a wide variety of alkaloids including morphine, codeine, papaverine, narcotine, and isoquinoline.
Black nightshadeSolanum nigrum)
All parts of the plant except the ripe fruit contain the toxic glycoalkaloid solanine
Polygonum spp. (LADY'S THUMB, SMARTWEEDS)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates; also causes photosensitization and contact dermatitis.
Aplopappus spp. (GOLDENRODS, JIMMY WEED, RAYLESS)
leaves; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
Nicotiana spp. (TOBACCO, TREE TOBACCO)
leaves; nervous system affected by the alkaloids nicotine and pyridine.
Prunus spp. (cherry, plum, peach)
- prunasin: product in leaves, twigs and pits that breaks down into cyanide
- signs: convulsions, staggering, death
- toxin has ^ concentration during dry summers
- as little as 3 pounds lethal in cattle
Cleome serrulata (ROCKY MT. BEE PLANT)
plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.
YewTaxus baccata, the "English yew")
All parts of the plant, except for the fleshy red bit of the fruit, contain taxane alkaloids. The seeds are especially poisonous and are quickly fatal when ingested.
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