Polisci I final Flashcards

Supreme Court of the United States
Terms Definitions
Positive
How things are
Cabinet-level departments are:
Established by Congress
Executive Privilege
(not in Constitution)• Washington set a precedent that a President could claim Executive Privilege and refuse to testify in front of Congress because it’s a violation of Separation of Powers
24th amendment
makes poll taxes illegal
deregulation
to remove government regulatory controls from (an industry, a commodity, etc.):
The Constitutional Convention was held in:
1787
Gerrymandering
The drawing of legislative district boundary lines for the purpose of obtaining partisan or factional advantage. A district is said to be gerrymandered when its shape is manipulated by the dominant party in the state legislature maximize electoral strength at the expense of the minority party.
Engel vs. Vitale
~ Establishment Clause (1962)• Background: Board of Regions, governing board of education in New York, decided that all school children had to begin the school day with a prayer. Steven Engle challenged the law under the Establishment Clause.• Ruling: Court agreed saying the government, state or federal, has no business composing or imposing prayers. • Prayer allowed if initiated by students.
Missouri vs. Holland
(1920):• Background: Congress tried to regulate duck and geese hunting but courts threw out the case because it wasn’t in the jurisdiction of the government. U.S. made treaty with Great Britain and Canada regulation hunting (with law)• Facts: o Congress passes regulations o Holland tried to enforce but Missouri said they couldn’t• Ruling: By itself the law is unconstitutional but with the treaty it becomes “law of the land” or constitutional. Holland could enforce regulations
nomination
the designation of a particular individual to run as a political party's candidate (its "nominee") in the general election.
2nd amendment
the riht to bear arms.
True or False: Federal Judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate
True
Southern whites, African Americans, white ethnics, Catholics, Jews, union members, and small farmers were all part of the New Deal Coalition that made the Democratic party the nation's majority party between:
1932 and 1968
Cabinet
an advisory group selected by the president to aid in decision making. The cabinet includes the heads of fifteen executive departments and others named by the president. Depending on the president, the cabinet may be highly influential or relatively insignificant in its advisory role.
Joint Committee
a legislative committee composed of members from both chambers of Congress
Mapp vs. Ohio
(1961)• Extends 4th amendment and exclusionary rule to cover states• Background: Dolree Mapp lived in an upstairs apartment in a residential neighborhood in Ohio. Police thought that she was harboring a man who was wanted for many wrong doings. She wouldn’t allow the police to enter without a warrant. They left and then returned with a piece of paper that she took. They entered, ruffed her up and searched her house. Guy wasn’t there but they did find pornography. She was charged and convicted with possession of porn. • Ruling: Exclusionary rule applies to state officials.
party competition
a process whereby conflict over society's goals is transformed by political parties into electoral competition in which the winner gains the power to govern.
6th amendment
right to legal counsel, speedy trial,trial by an impartial jury, right to confron witnesses.
15 amendment
extends vote to black male citizens
inflation
a persistent, substantial rise in the general level of prices related to an increase in the volume of money and resulting in the loss of value of currency (
During the late 1990s, Vice President Al Gore was a strong advocate of the ___________ approach to reforming bureaucracy.
Reinventing government
The checks and balances found in the Constitution reflected a growing concern among delegates over the possible abuse of power by:
Legislators
Emergency Power
an inherent power exercised by the president during a time of national crisis, particularly in foreign affairs.
Gomillion vs. Lightfoot
Alabama drew boundaries that the court said was a form of "Racial Gerrymandering"
In re Neagle
Long lasting fight between senators ends in body guard of one killing the other. Body guard is released from jail because he was appointed by EXECUTIVE ORDER
soft money
process made possible by a loophole in campaign finance regulation which enables a contributor to give an unlimited amount of money to a political party. This money must be spent only on party activities (rather than the candidate individually) building party membership, getting out the vote through ads and registration drives, and advertising campaigns that raise public awareness about political issues.
the free exercise clause
no governemtn interference with citizens right to practice their religion
Continuous quantification
capture the notion of variation along a continnum, age. Many values on a single scale
business cycle
a recurrent fluctuation in the total business activity of a country.
Even though the Constitution does not specifically give Congress the right to tell with whom private businesses must do business, the Supreme Court has ruled that Congress does have this authority under the:
Interstate commerce clause
True or False? : Most members of the Supreme Court have had their education at very expensive and selective universities.
True
Civil Service
a collective term for the body of employees working for the government. Generally, the term is understood to apply to all those who gain government employment through a merit system.
Reverse
to annul or make void a court ruling on account of some error or irregularity.
War Powers Act
the president can use troops abroad under three conditions:•When Congress has declared war•When Congress has given him specific authority to do so•When an attack on the U.S. or its military creates a national crises o Unless Congress approves the use of troops, the president must withdraw them within 60 days, or 90 days if he needs more time to protect them.
Tinker vs. Des Moines School Dist.
~ Symoblic Speech (1969)• Background: Students (including the Tinker children) in the Des Moines school district wanted to wear black armbands as a form of protest to the Vietnam War. The school passed a rule against the armbands. The Tinker children brought a lawsuit saying the rule violated their freedom of symbolic expression• Ruling: Justice said, “Children do not lose their rights at the school house gates.” Other students were allowed to wear crosses, and other political buttons but the rule only outlawed armbands, which can’t be done (if you outlaw one thing you have to outlaw all things).
money chase
term used to explain the activity of candidates who are forced to spend much of their time raising funds because of the high cost of campaigns.
Civil rights act of 1964
outlaws segegation in public facilities and racial discrimination in employment, education, and voting. Created the EEOC
Roe v Wade
gives women the right to an abortion.
voucher system
a plan in which each school-age child receives a publicly funded entitlement worth a fixed amount of money with which his or her parents can select a participating public or private school.
The president's constitutional power to "appoint and receive ambasadors" means that the president:
Decides unilaterally with whom the United States will have diplomatic relations
Under the Great Compromise, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention agreed to:
Create a bicameral legislature composed of a House and Senate
Incremental Budgeting
agencies ask for the same amount of $ as the previous year and a little bit more.
Sunset Laws
when you start a new agency, you set a date as to when it will be finished with its’ work (will go out of business when it reaches its goal which never happens because they’ll always find something else to regulate).
Brown vs. Board of Education
(1954): (reversal of Plessy vs. Ferguson)• Ruling: established that segregation of races in public schools violates the equal protection clasue of the 14th amendment.
De Jure vs De Facto discrimination.
Discrimination by law v
Discrimination from practice.
federal reserve bank
a U.S. federal banking system that is under the control of a central board of governors
The French philosopher Montesquieu believed that the best form of government was:
A mixed government with some elements of democracy combined with other non-democratic elements
Franking privileges permit those in Congress to:
Send mail to constituents without paying for any postage
packaging (of a candidate)
the process in a campaign of placing aspects of the candidate's partisanship, policy positions, record, and personality in the context of the voters' "ideal" candidates.
Pollack - Next stop baghdad
The united states should invade Iraq because the present regime is dangerous and nonabiding to international agreements. Neither deterrence or containment will work. Must be aggressive
The Lincoln quote - "Eight votes for and one against; the nays have it" - is cited in the text to make the point that:
In cabinet deliberations, the president's "vote" is the only one that really counts
Mearshimer & Walt -An unnecessary War
The united states can contain Iraq effectively, Saddamn can be deterred because he is not a serial aggressor
The 2000 presidential election showed that:
The United States is not a pure democracy
Chapman & Reiter - The UN security council and the rally around the flag effect
When nation is involved in international conflict, the public will rally to support the national leadership. Patriotism drives the rally effect. Therefore, international organizations do good.
Which of the following is NOT true?
The United States today is much closer to being a true direct democracy than it was at its founding
Hedley Bull - Hobbes and International Anarcy
States are in a condition of war...as in they have aknown disposition to fight. Price to pay of international anarchy is worth everyone's security.
The "rule of four" is that at least four Supreme Court judges must:
Agree to grant certiorari and hear a case
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Term:
Definition:
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