POLISCI1100 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Eighteenth-century republican principles included all of the following EXCEPT:
Popular sovereignty
The president under whose administration the nation acquired California and most of what is now the southwestern United States was:
Slaughterhouse Cases
~ privileges and immunities(1873)• Background: After Civil War there was an outbreak of disease due to raw sewage and dead carcasses being dumped into the waterways. The state legislature passed a law that granted a monopoly to one slaughterhouse that everyone had to use. Competing slaughterhouses said that the government hurt their business and brought a lawsuit saying that it violated their privileges and immunities.• Ruling: 2 kinds of citizenship, state and U.S. States can’t discriminate against a citizen coming in from another state (a U.S. citizen) but can discriminate against it’s own citizens.• OPENED UP DOORS FOR RACIAL SEGREGATION!
Protected speech
symbolic speech, hate speech.
According to the text, __________________ is/are the best mechanism(s) for ensuring that leaders will be responsive to the people's wishes.
Periodic elections
(Office of Management and Budget)a division of the Executive Office of the President created by executive order in 1970 to replace the Bureau of the Budge. The OMB's main functions are to assist the president in preparing the annual budget, to clear and coordinate all departmental agency budgets, to help set fiscal policy, and to supervise the administration of the federal budget.
Miranda vs. Arizona
(1966)• Background: Ernesto Miranda was arrested and charged with kidnapping and rape. After two hours of questioning he confessed and later was convicted. Miranda’s lawyer appealed and argued that Miranda had never been informed of his right to remain silent and to be represented by counsel. • Ruling: Ruled for Miranda and established the Miranda rights.
hired guns
modern day campaign organization consisting of consultants, pollsters, media producers, and fund-raising specialists who charge for their services.
Voting Rights Amendmens?
15, 19, 24, 26
questions the method of the experiment, properly performed, operationalized
The Tennessee Valley Authority would be an example of a(n):
Government corporation
The President who required that any proposed regulation be subjected to a cost-benefit analysis was:
Common Law
Judge-made law that originated in England from decisions shaped according to prevailing customs. Decisions were applied to similar situations and thus gradually became common to the nation.
Shaw vs. Reno
North Carolina created "Majority- Minority Districts". Courts said it was racial discrimination and a violation of the 14th amendment, equal protection
Conference Committee
a special joint committee appointed to reconcile differences when bills pass the two chambers of Congress in different forms.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
~ Expansion of Commerce Clause(1824)• Background: Robert Fulton developed first shipping business (across water). Sold business to Gibbons and Ogden but they had a falling out. Gibbons starts own company and gets license. Takes to court. Ogden wins and appeals made.• Question: who has authority to regulate waterways? State or national?• Ruling: John Marshall says that national government has authority to regulate it because it’s used to travel. He defined commerce as shipment of goods and services but people as well (allowed Congress to pass laws regulating involvement or travel of people).
Near vs. Minnesota
~ free press/prior restraint (1931)• Background: Minnesota had a gag law that allowed the government to stop someone from publishing something in advance. J.M. Near published a weekly scandal sheet in which he wrote about public officials. He was a bigot and also called the mayor sheriff, etc. gang members. Officials went to court and got an injunction prohibiting him from future publications under the gag law. The Chicago Daily Tribune came to his assistance and brought a lawsuit claiming that it was in violation of his freedom of press. • Ruling: 5to 4-decision court said that it was a prior restraint. Said there are some instances when the government can stop publications in advance (publishing military plans) but can’t in general. Let them publish and then sue them.
political party
an ongoing coalition of interests joined together to get their candidates for public office elected under a common label.
Plural executives are...
shared responsibilites for different aspects of state goverment, divided powers.
How well an experiment was performed given the method in which it was done.
executive agreement
an agreement, usually pertaining to administrative matters and less formal than an international treaty, made between chiefs of state without senatorial approval.
The president who saw the spoils system as an important compliment to democratic government was:
Andrew Jackson
The averate Senate race now costs around ________.
$5 million
The Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act were examples of efforts to provide greater public control over the growing power of:
Big business
Removal Power
Established in Myers vs. U.S. that even though it’s not in the constitution, the President has the power to remove people he appoints. Says it’s an implied power.
Case Law
the rules and principles announced in court decisions. Case law includes judicial interpretations of common law principles and doctrines as well as interpretations of constitutional law, statutory law, and administrative law.
Minority Leader
the party leader elected by the minority party in the House.
Majority Opinion
a court opinion reflecting the views of the majority of the judges.
party coalition
the groups and interests that support a political party.
What rights are due process rights?
4-6 & 8
Natural Law
law of self preservation and forbids humans from taking actions destructive in their own lives.
an act or policy of restricting the territorial growth or ideological influence of another, esp. a hostile nation.
Supporters of states' rights are most likely to point to the ________________ of the Constitution to support their position.
Reserved powers clause
A filibuster can be ended through a:
Vote of cloture
Dissenting Opinion
a separate opinion in which a judge dissents from (disagrees with) the conclusion reached by the majority on the court and expounds his or her own views about the case.
Widmar vs. Vincent
~ Equal Access under 1st amendment (1981):• Background: Clark Vincent was the leader of the Christian Evangelical group and asked to use a room in the student union to promote his organization. He was denied use of the room and filed a lawsuit against Dean Widmar at UMKC. Students claimed it was violation of free exercise of religion and University said it was violation of Establishment clause because it’s a state college, government money.• Ruling; For the University to deny the group to meet is a violation of free speech and free exercise. • View Point/Content Based Discrimination- When the government is involved in determining what views are okay to be heard, censorship. NOT ACCEPTABLE
split-ticket voting
the pattern of voting in which the individual voter in a given election casts a ballot for one or more candidates of each major party. This pattern is the opposite of straight-ticket voting.
Prior restraint, LIbel, Slander?
the prohibitation of speech or publication before the fact//
//printed false statements// spoken false statements.
The melian dialogue
Arguement of the liberal and realist ideas of international relations. Melians wanted their neutrality respected. Athens took realist stance.. the strong do what they can and the weak suffer what they must. Exterminated population.
secretary of state
the head and chief administrator of the U.S. Department of State.
The president's White House Office advisors include all of the following EXCEPT:
Chairman of the Federal Reserve
Thomas Jefferson drew heavily from writers such as _______________ when he wrote in the Declaration of Independence that all men are created equal and endowed with certain unalienable rights.
Adam Smith and John Locke
to send a case back to the court that originally heard it.
Everson vs. board of education
~ 1st Amendment, establishment clause • Background: State of New Jersey authorized local school districts to be used to reimburse parents of children who rode the bus to Parochial School. Taxpayer, Archie Everson, felt it was a violation of the establishment clause because it was using tax money for supporting a religious institution.• Ruling: Justice Hugo Black said the law wasn’t unconstitutional. Said it was okay under the Child Benefit Theory- who benefits the most, the children or the state. The primary beneficiary of this law is the child not the religion. Justice Black said the Establishment Clause means this:o Government can’t set up churcho Can’t compel you to go to churcho Can’t tax to support churcho Can’t aid religiono Can’t prefer one religion over anothero Can’t punish a person for his/her beliefso Classic Quotation: “There is a wall of separation between church and state” –Thomas Jefferson• Thomas Jefferson had no involvement in writing the First Amendment, wrote this in a letter.
26th amendment
lowers the voting age to 18 yeas old (from 21)
The federal structure of the American system represents a compromise between:
Centralized and highly decentralized government
There have been significant changes in all of the following areas of the presidency EXCEPT:
The president's formal constitutional powers
Advise and Consent
The power vested in the Senate by the Constitution (Article 2, Section 2) to give its advice and consent to the president on treaties and presidential appointments.
primary election (direct primary)
a form of election in which voters choose a party's nominees for public office. In most primaries, eligibility to vote is limited to voters who are registered members of the party.
Altran, Axelrod, Davis - Sacred Barriers to conflict resolution
Overcoming moral barriers to smbolic concessions and their emotional underpinnings may pose more of a challenge but offer greater chances of peace

There are more than rational thought to be taken into consideration
Local units of government like cities and counties are different from states in that:
Their boundaries can be changed without their consent
Support for devolution during the 1980's and 1990's was based on a belief that:
State and local governments were more effective and responsive than the national government
Executive agreements that a president makes with other nations:
Are as legally binding as formal treaties
Steps in Law Making Process
Every law begins as a bill introduced in either the House or Senate. Then the bill is referred to a committee and its subcommittees for study, discussion, hearings and rewriting. After the bill has been passed in each chamber it is sent to a conference committee and then sent to the President.
Reiter - Exploring the bargaining model of war
Three conditionss under which war is possible 1. disagreement between two sides 2. War may occure because of an inability to commit not to fight in the future 3. advantages to be had from striking first, then the outcomes of the war will differ
Democratic theorists believe that big government is okay as long as it is:
Carrying out the tasks agreed to by the people
Altran- The genesis of suicide terrorism
First line of defense is to stop people from becoming terrorists in the first place

Doubtful because STs are often portrayed as crazy with a senseless objective for destruction. "fundamental attribution error" - explaining behvior in terms of the individual when significant situational factors are at work

currently don't know what those factors are
When Richard Neustadt wrote that the power of the presidency was the power to persuade, he was making the point that:
To get much done, presidents need the cooperation of others
In regards to the federal courts, the Constitution states that:
There will be a Supreme Court and those inferior courts that COngress chooses to establis
If Congress passes a bill, sends it to the president, and then adjournes within 10 days:
The bill dies from a "pocket veto" unless the president signs it
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