AP LIT POETRY TERMS Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dactyl
IUU
pyrrhic
unstressed interruption
spondaic
stressed, stressed
iambic
unstressed, stressed
euphonious
plesant in sound
anapestic
unstressed, unstressed, stressed
cacophony
loud confusing disagreeable sounds
pentameter
five feet per line
hexameter
6 feet per line
Euphony
any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds.
Using lots of vowels will be euphonious also, often l, m, n, r, soft v and f, th, wh.
epigram
any witty, ingenious, or pointed saying tersely expressed
rhythm
the arrangement of spoken words alternating stressed and unstressed elements
blank verse
unrhymed verse (usually in iambic pentameter)
sonnet
a poem, properly expressive of a single, complete thought, idea, or schtiment, of 14 lines, usually in iambic pentamater, with rhymes arranged according to one of certain definite schemes
conceit
an eloberate, fanciful metaphor of a strained or farfetched nature
euphony (euphonic)
a plesant sounding or harmonic combination or succession of words
assonance
the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words
onomatopoeia
words that imitate the sound they denote
Italian/Petrarchan Sonnet
Divided into Octave and Sestet.
Rhyme scheme: abbaabba then: cdcdcd or cdecde usually
extra-metrical syllables
In metrical verse, extra unaccented syllable added at the beginnings or ending of lines, these may be either a feature of the metrical form of a poem or occur as expectations to the form.
masculine rhyme
a rhyme of but a stressed syllable
continuous form
lines follow each other without formal grouping
third person limited
the narrator only knows the thoughts and feelings of a single character, while other characters are presented only externally
sestina
a poem of 6 6-line stanzas and a 3-line envoy, originally without rhyme, in which each stanza repeats the end words of the lines of the first stanza, but in different order, the envoy using 6 words again, 3 in the middle, and 3 at the end
anapestic meter
Meter that is composed of feet that are short-short-long or unaccented-unaccented-accented, usually used in light or whimsical poetry, such as limerick.
perfect rhyme
rhyme of 2 words spelled or pronounced identically but differing in meaning
third person omniscient
the narrator only knows the thoughts and feelings of all the characters in the story
catalexis
the absence of a syllable in the last foot of a verse
Free verse
consists of lines of poetry that do not have a regular rhythm and do not rhyme
feminine rhyme
a rhyme either of 2 syllables at which the second is unstressed or of the three syllables of which the second and third are unstressed
end-stopped line
a line that ends with a natural speech pause, usually marked by punctuation
/
stressed
duple
double meter
hyperbole
extreme exaggeration
decorum
propriety in writing
villanelle
nineteen lines; repetition
meter
measure of pattern
tercet
three line stanza
foot
metrical unit of poetry
denotation
having a dictionary meaning
tetrameter
4 feet per line
Refrain
repeated word/phrase/line/group of lines w/ fixed position in stanzaic poem
quatrain
a stanza of four lines
iamb
a metrical unit with unstressed-stressed syllables
alliteration
repetition of initial consonant sounds
spondee
two equally stressed consecutive syllables
rising meter
unaccented to accented (iambic/anapestic)
Dimeter
metrical line containing two feet
personification
attributing human qualities to inanimate objects, things, or ideas, kind of metaphor
Chaucerian stanza
7 lines, rhyme ababbcc
elegy
poem commemorating someone's death, usually in a reflective or mournful tone
ballad
usually simple narrative poem that accounts an exciting/dramatic episode and usually meant to be sung
synecdoche
symbolism; the part signifies the whole, or the whole the part (all hands on board)
colloquial
the casual conversation or informal writing of literate people
gustatory
imagery appealing to sense of taste
Octameter
eight metrical feet in a line
Scansion
process of measuring metrical verse, marking accented/unaccented syllables
simile
a comparison using like or as
irony
a contrast between expectation and reality
cadence
the beat or rhythm of poetry
theme
insight about human life that is revealed in a literary work
concrete verse
poems shaped like a specific object
couplet
a 2-lined stanza, poem or poetic saying
dramatic dialogue
A literary, usually verse composition, in which a speaker reveals his or her character often in relation to a critical situation or event, in a monologue addressed to the reader or to a presumed listener.--a soliloquoy is an example
caesura
pause in the middle of a line
sibilance
hissing sounds represented by s, z, sh
Enjambment
The continuation of a syntactic unit from one line or couplet of a poem to the next with no pause.
Approximate rhyme
rhyming pattern w/ some sound correspondence, but not perfect rhymes
Extended (sustained) figure
figure of speech sustained/developed through considerable # of lines/whole poem (ex. metaphor, simile, etc.)
Prose poem
short composition w/ intentions of poetry but written in verse
apostrophe
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as Time or Love
narrative poem
a poem that tells a story
dactylic
a metrical measurement of one accented syllable and two unaccented (' u u)
slant rhyme
rhyme that is not exact but close
carpe diem
Latin for "seize the day"; common motif in lyric verse, with an emphasis on making the most of current pleasures because "life is short"; especially popular in early 17th c.
dramatic monologue
dramatic poem in which a single character makes an extended speech revealing his/her psychology at a significant moment
haiku
3 unrhymed lines (5, 7, 5) usually focusing on nature
enjambent/ run-on line
Continuation of syntactic unit from one line of verse to the next without a pause
general English
most literate speech and writing; more studied than colloquial but not pretentious
limerick
a kind of humorous verse of five lines, in which the first, second, and fifth lines rhyme with each other, and the third and fourth lines, which are shorter, form a rhymed couplet
end rhyme
rhyme at the end syllable of poetry
Epic
A very long narrative poem on a serious theme in a dignified style; typically deal with glorious or profound subject matter.
Understatement
figure of speech; saying less than one means
diction
use of words in a literary work. Described as formal, informal, colloquial or slang.
sestet
a rhythmic group of six lines of verse
metaphor
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
pastoral
a poem set in tranquil nature (ideally around shepherds)
Shakespearean sonnet
14 lines in iambic pentameter, ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
extended metaphor
a metaphor that is extended through a stanza or entire poem, often by multiple comparisons of unlike objects or ideas
didactic poetry
poetry written to teach or state a message
pure rhyme
initial sounds differ but the rest of the sound is identical ex: wrong/song
dramatic monolgue
a lyric poem in which the speaker tells an audience about a dramatic moment in his/her life and, in doing so, reveals his/her character
end rhyme ex
i was last
but that's in the past
figurative language
Writing or speech that is used to create vivid impressions by setting up comparisons between dissimilar things, [examples are metaphor, simile, and personification]. not the literal meaning.
concrete poetry
a poem wherein shape of words and lines conveys the meaning
fixed form
type of poetic structure that has a recognizable rhyme scheme, meter or stanzaic pattern
Suspension of disbelief
The demand made of a theater audience to accept the limitations of staging and supply the details with their imagination.
open form
A type of structure or form in poetry characterized by freedom from regularity and consistency in such elements as rhyme, line length, metrical pattern, and overall poetic structure.
end- stopped
a line with a pause at the end. ex. period, comma, colon, semi colon
subject
central topic
anapestic ex
contradict
phyrric
2 unstressed syllables
octave
8 line stanza
assonance ex
shake, hate
trimeter
3 feet per line
eclogue
buccolic or pastoral poem
septet
7 lines of poetry
connotation
having associations and suggested meanings
didactic
a moral lesson to teach
anapest
3 syllables, third is stressed
Imagery
representation through language of sense experience
Satire
literature that ridicules human folly/vice w/ ostensible purpose of bringing about reform/keeping others from falling into similar folly/vice
asyndeton
lack of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses or words
dissonance
the grating of incompatible sounds
catalog
list of things, people, or events
allegory
an expressive style that uses fictional characters and events to describe some subject by suggestive resemblances
accentual meter
# of accents per line
organic
imagery that evokes sensations of hunger, thirst, fatigue, nausea
Consonance
The repetition of consonant sounds within words (rather than at their beginnings)
tone
authors attitude to subj and audience
Metonymy
figure of speech where significant aspect/dtail of experience is used to represent the whole experience
oxymoron
conjoining contradictory terms (as in 'deafening silence')
doggerel
crude, simplistic verse, often in sing-song rhyme
diphthong
2 syllables that are counted and pronounced as 1, used to make words fit metrical requirements
ode
a poem usually addressed to a particular person, object or event that has stimulated deep and noble feelings in the poet
stanza
a group of lines whose metrical pattern is repeated throughout the poem; a division in a poem comparable to a paragraph in prose
Romantic Era
a complex artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe; a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.
trochaic
a metrical measurement of one stressed syllable and one unstressed (' u)
style
how an author selects and arranges words to express ideas and, ultimately, theme
pun
the deliberate misuse of a word or thought resulting in comic relief; wordplay
dramatic irony
(theater) irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play
speaker
the person speaking in the poem, like the narrator in prose - not always the poet
William Wordsworth
Romantic poet; helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with the 1798 joint publication Lyrical Ballads; huge advocate for nature
Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet
usually divided into two sections--the first eight lines are the octave (often poses a question or problem) and the last six lines are the sestet (usually answering the question or posing solution to the problem). rhyme scheme of abba abba cde cde.
volta
the shift or point of dramatic change in a poem
juxtaposition
placing two elements side by side to present a comparison or contrast
ballad stanza
quatrain (4 lines) in which the 1st and 3rd lines have 4 stressed syllables, the 2nd and 4th lines have 3 stressed syllables and only the 2nd and 4th lines rhyme
rhyme scheme
a regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem
poetic diction
"a system of words refined from the grossness of domestic use"; a system that admitted into serious poems only certain words and subjects
iambic pentameter
a common meter in poetry consisting of an unrhymed line with five feet or accents, each foot containing an unaccented syllable and an accented syllable
anaphora
repetition of a wrod or phrase at the beginning of several succesive lines or verses
John Keats
Romantic poet; one of the key figures in the second generation of the Romantic movement, despite the fact that his work had been in publication for only four years before his death.[1] During his life, his poems were not generally well received by critics; however, after his death, his reputation grew to the extent that by the end of the 19th century he had become one of the most beloved of all English poets.
English (Shakespearean) sonnet
rhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef gg
end-stopped
a term that describes a line of poetry that ends with a natural pause often indicated by a mark of punctuation
italian sonnet/ petrarchan sonnet
a sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern cdecde or cdcdcd
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