Political science test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Secretariat
Blue Helmets
d'israeli
British politician and novelist.
departments
- no answer yet -
Caucus
a meeting of candidate supporters
Advantages of Federalism
diverse policies/programs
policy laboratories
dispersal of power
maximizes political participation
clientelism
aka patron-client relationships . involves a political org, such as a party,that dispenses benefits of favors in return for votes or some other form of support.
Beltway insiders
Person living in Washington metropolitan area who is engaged in, or well informed about, national politics and government
Nationalists
Constitutional reformers led by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton who sought to replace the Articles of Confederation. Opposed at the Constitutional Convention (1787) by states’ rights proponents, they favored a strong national legislature elected directly by the citizenry rather than the states and a national government that could veto any state laws it deemed unfit
Napoleaonic Wars
emergence of "total war" & mobilization of society; creation of european balance
Ends because of revolution
Feudalism and Slavery
Solidification of Germany
Decline of Autro-Hungarian Empire
agency
the basic organizational unit of federal government. Also known as office or bureau
pragmatism
character or conduct that emphasizes practicality.
22nd Amendment
Regarding presidential terms it would be possible for a president to serve two full four-year terms after having assumed the Presidency by means other than election for a duration of up to two years.
Cloture
3/5ths majority required for max of thirty hours of debate before vote taken
modern conservatism
response to the modern socialist welfare state. Sees a limited role in the state.
individuals have preferences, and they act to achieve the best possible outcome
rational choice
Theoretical Answer
Seeks more general explanations and longer-term, more indirect causes
Bicameralism
is an institution that has two legislative branches. This makes both institutions powerful.
created the present civil service system
Pendelton Act
Appropriation
The passage, by congress, of a spending bill specifying the amt. of authorizing funds that actually will be allocated for an agency's use.
Bretton Wood System
ii. Bretton Woods system: Free-trade economic regime headed by the US following the war
1. Got name from conference in Bretton Woods, NH in 1944 – countries devising a post-war economic plan to avoid the problems faces in the 1920s and 1930s
a. GATT – treaty signed by the US that says that we are going to limit our protectionist policies
b. IMF – monitor states and their monetary policies. Take their currency and tack it to the US dollar. IOTDT, states had to not engage in bad monetary policies (couldn’t print out more money, etc…)
i. The Bretton Wood system was so successful, that in 20 years under the free trade regime, Japan and Germany, both were in the top five economies of the world
1. By 1960s, US had to pull out of the fixed exchange rate because the Europeans had been so successful
honeymoon
the first several months of a presidency, when reporters are more forgiving than usual, Congress is more inclined to be cooperative, and the public is more receptive to new approaches
depravity
the state of being corrupted or abused
Political Actors
senator, mayor, managers. low levels of support.
Strict scrutiny
A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to determine the constitutional validity of a challenged practice.
Political Science
the study of power, politics, and government
1st amendment
guarantees the right of freedom of speech and assembly
Grants-in-Aid
Funds given by Congress to state or local governments for a specific purpose
Public goods
are benefits that you can enjoy without contributing to them.
* With programs like AARP, people may still receive benefits depending on what AARP's goal is for the country. And they may receive these benefits without signing up for AARP*
private goods
benefits or services over which the owner has full control of their use
Monetary Policy
A world currency created by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to replace gold as a world standard. Valued by a "basket" if batuibak currencies, the SDR has been called "paper gold"
Oxfam America
A private charitable group that works with local third world communities to determine the needs of their own people and to carry out development projoects. Oxfam does not operate the projects but provides funding to local organizations to carry them out.
Shared culture groups people together
History and Common Past
necessary and proper clause
constitutional clause that gives Congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" in carrying out its delegated powers
Federalist papers
argued that ensuring the division of power was the best way of preserving liberty
illiberal demos
protect political rights in order to hold eletions, do not enforce civil rights, do not check the power of the state
What are the four committees?
STANDING COMMITTEE, SELECT COMMITTEE, JOINT COMMITTEE, CONFERENCE COMMITTEE
Motor Voter Bill
Also known as the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 requires states to allow citizens to register to vote when applying for or renewing their drivers' licenses, to register by mail, or to receive mail registration forms and assistance in filling them out at state welfare offices. Has added millions to voter rolls and potential to increase turnout by as much as 10 percentage points although right after enacted, less voters voted.
the rarest of american elections is the ---- or --- election
critical or realigning
Random Sample
Everyone has an equal chance of being polled. (Choosing people at random)
Solid South
refers to the electoral support of the Southern United States for the Democratic Party candidates for nearly a century from 1877, the end of the Reconstruction, to 1964, during the middle of the Civil Rights era.
Next major issue for the EU:
Creation of a constitution
Collective Security
Formation of a broad alliance of most major actors
Critical election
election that marks the emergence of a new, lasting alignment of partisan support within the electorate
2 things about ideology:
ideas impact mass political behavior and leaders rely on ideology to save time (if i say i'm a conservative)
Duties of Congress
The duties are to write, debate, and pass bills.
The Cold War
1945-1990, emergence of the U.S. as a sole "superpower"
A tariff is the most visible form of trade barrier and thus the easiest to dismantle
Tariff Preferance
D)presidential election
which of the following is a form of political participation?A)writing a letter to a local offical about a problemB)giving money to a candidate for a school board electionC)putting up a yard sign to support a caidate for the sate legistatureD0all of the above
Second Step for Cloture
Needs 60 votes to end filibuster; the prior 16 votes can be used towards the 60.
Katz v. US:
• This is the case in which the court first held that electronic
surveillance of telephone communications constitutes as search and seizure and must be performed pursuant to a warrant
• The supreme court’s ruling that the 4th amendment protects persons and not just places is found in this case
• FBI and a bookie? To take illegal bets with a phonebook
[1967]; didn’t listen in to any conversations that involved him talking to anyone about a personal matter; court says that any time the govt observes you, they have to obtain a warrant if
[1]Reasonable expectation of privacy
D) all of the above
would you expect the voter turnout rate to be highest for peole earning 80,000 or those making 30,000A)turnout would be greater for higer incomeB)turnout would be greater for lower incomeC)trunout would be sameD)turnout would be tgreater for higher in all elections but presidential elections where turnout would be the same
How does pluralism relate to democracy?
The interest groups are supposed to make sure no extreme sides emerge by compromise and by canceling each other out. Become moderate and attractive, willing to compromise.
1. Re-named the EEC into the EU2. Implement monetary union: this is the Treaty that began the Euro3. Common Foreign Policy4. The creation of a joing military rival NATO
3&4 were not as successful
Article II, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution
Presidential pardons; "Power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment." A reprieve reduces the severity of a punishment without removing the guilt of the person reprieved. A pardon removes both punishment and guilt.
C)AARP affirmative action is trying to make sure certain %s can get in. trying to change past discrimination
which of the following pairs of organizations would be most likely to be on the opposite sides of the issue of abortion?A)right to life and NARAL pro choice americaB)us chamber of commere nad AFL CIOC)club for growth and teh NRAD)sierra club and NOW
D)FALSE the federal law does NOT limit the parties to two. the rest are correct
an election system that awards office to the candiate with the most votes is known by which of teh following terms?A)proportional representationB)party realignmentC)plurality election systemD)two party system
austerity
strict economy.
Suffrage
the right to vote.
Iran-Contra affair
Reagan administration facilitated weapons sales from Iran to gorillas in Nicaragua. NSA helped.
regionalism
institutionalized cooperation within a geographic area
World Bank
international financial institution that provides financial and technical assistance[2] to developing countries for development programs (e.g. bridges, roads, schools, etc.) with the stated goal of reducing poverty.
How did nationalism affect the development of Yugoslavia after the end of the Cold War?
...
Direct Mellowing
Social functions, "revolving door", campaign assistance, GOTV (PAC) contributions.
Major administrative unit with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
departments
integration
creation of a new political identity
Cartel
The interest reat charged by governments when they lend money to private banks. The discount rate is set by countries' central banks.
Lateral Pressure
Connects economic competition with security.
unfunded mandates
federal regulations that impose burdens on state and local governments without appropriating enough money to cover costs
apolitical
not political; of no political significance:
Filibuster
a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches; Informal term for any attempt to block or delay Senate action on a bill or other matter by debating it at length, by offering numerous procedural motions, or by any other delaying or obstructive actions.
National Conventions
1832 Jackson first national party conventions, more democratic and allows broader popular participation in making presidential nominations. Forum for doing politicking that convinces diverse party factions to agree to rally behind a single presidential ticket. Party officials controlled nominees for Senator, House, and Governor, and control all delegates at National Presidential Convention.
interest groups
organization that shares the same view/interest
election rules are written mostly by
state legislature
Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
coprorations that span state boundaries, auto/tobacco industries
Thomas Hobbes
Believed in Leviathan: Government less state in nature.

Limits on government power

"Contract Theory" - Political system where it gave up freedom for ordenary society.

Anarchy -- Pleasure high, and avoid pain = #1 Priority

In the state of Anarchy everyone is out for themselves, one against all.
an economic system based on private ownerships of the means of productionon individual economic freedom
Capitalism
the ability to influence government and politics
political efficacy
GATT
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT) was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization (ITO). GATT was formed in 1947 and lasted until 1994, when it was replaced by the World Trade Organization. The Bretton Woods Conference had introduced the idea for an organization to regulate trade as part of a larger plan for economic recovery after World War II.
machine
a highly organized party under the control of a boss, and based on patronage and control of government activities. Machines were common in many cities in the late 19th century
ennui
a feeling of utter weariness and discontent resulting from satiety or lack of interest; boredom:
Leninism
primacy of a communist party- the party that leads the reveloution; the party that governs country after eliminating foes. Communist party exercised a dictatorial role over the Soviet Union
lawmaking function
the authority (of a legislature) to make the laws necessary to carry out the government's powers
Absolute Monarchy
Monarch has all power, people have little power. Example: Middle East is 1 country that has this = very little power
Veto
The formal power of the president to reject bills passed by both houses of Congress. It can be overridden by a two-thirds vote in each house
Federalism
A system of government in which power is divided between a central government and several regional governments. In the United States the division is between the national government and the states
Thirty Years' War
1618-1648, emergence of nation state as an actor, ended with Treaty of Westphalia
free-rider problem
a situation in which individuals can reieve the benefits from a collective activity whether or not they helped to pay for it, leaving them with no incentive to contribute
Free Trade
Attempts to promote free trade and reduce protectionalism:
Excessive Military Spending:
As a percentage, global south countries or LDCs spend more on defense (1% GDP).
Loose coordinating structure linking the former republics of the Soviet Union.
Not the Baltic states
CNN effect
purported ability of TV to bring foerign tragedies to national prominence by broadcasting vivid images
Nullification
a doctrine that says that states have the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
Nation
a group of people whose members share a common identity on the basis of distinguishing characteristics and a claim to a territorial homeland
CASE WORK
Social work devoted to the needs of individual clients or cases
Percieved Differences Between Alternatives
Candidates have clear differences, and one will be better than other.
this tells the voter a great deal about the candidate, even without knowing the candidates name
party identifications
Soft money
campaign funds that are spent on a candidate's behalf by an interest group or political party but that the candidate doesn't receive or coordinate directly
The Great Compromise
Was a debate on state population affected how many representatives a state receives. Smaller states felt there should be equal representation. This was the big debate against the constitution.
Goldstein argues that integration is the process whereby supranatural institutions replace nationa insititutions and there is a transfer of sovereignty.
Theories of Integration: Functionalism
Characteristics of a Nation:
1. Language2. Religion3. Culture and Traditions4. History and Common Past5. Territory
executive privilege
the right of the president to deny Congress information it requests on the grounds that the activities of the executive branch must be kept confidential
china is
a one party state and has uncontested elections or referenda. they have other parties but do no contest ccp.
Federalism is the product and symbol of the continuting idealogical struggle between the values of a) freedom and equalityb) unity and diversityc) justice and protectiond) individualism and nationalism
b) unity and diversity
commerce clause
the clause in article 1, section 8, of the constitution which gives congress the the authority to regulate commerce between other nations among states
"Law of nations"
Covers the conduct of the states and IGOs.
Civil Servant appointee or political appointee
Consular officers: Staff of Embassy
Writ of certiorari
An order by the Supreme Court that a lower court send up the record of a case.
What is civil liberties?
areas of personal freedom in which the government is constrained from interfering
Democratic Peace Theory
Democracies do not go to war with each other so everyone should promote democratization
How have costs and benefits changed over time?
Gathering information costs have gone down but deciphering information has gotten more complicated; more confusion. Transaction costs gone down with Motor Voter, no cost to register, no literacy tests, mail-in ballots make voting easier, poll taxes. Generational- more obligation.
A) relavily low compared to other democracies
which of the statements about compulsory voting in Australia is true?A)people who do not vote in Australia can go to jail for as long as a yearB)voter turnout is much hgher than the USC)political scienteists believe taht this harms working class parties bc it weakend teh advantage labor unions enjoy in turning out their voeD)none of the above
Ways to fix Free Rider Problem
1) Raise goals or purpose to higher level (religious, moral) or extremeness of other side, 2) increase sense of obligation (local chapters) by increasing individual contribution importance, and 3) deliver material benefits like insurance, magazines, and discounts.
D) an incumbant running from either side
A PAC representing Interest Group A contributed to Congressman B' reelecation campaign even though the congressman sides with the intereste group's issue positions only about 60% of the time. The PAC is acting in accordance with which of the following principles?A)friendly incumbant ruleB)common causeC)club for growthD)affirmative action
fox news and liberal democrats (its VERY republican)
which of the following has research on bias in teh network evening news discovered?A)the network evening news treats democratic candidates more favorably tahtn it does republicansB)the network evening news treats republicans better than demorcratsC) teh network evening news treats tehm all the sameD)generally favors incumbant president
Senate
Approves Treatise(2/3 vote)-Congressional Terms 6 years (unlimited term)-No Rules Committee (unlimited debate)
British Gold Standard
Gold Standard
veto
Executive rejection of legislation, which usually may be overridden by a super majority in the legislature
government
the institutions and procedures through which people are ruled
Alliance Reliability
a. Alliances are meaningful commitments
b. Alliances are not worth the paper they are written on
i. States continue to make them
c. Historical record
i. Sabrosky (1980): Between 1816-1965, 73% are not honored
Explain how race and ethnicity, religion, and class shape a country's political cultures of Japan and the United States.
...
Preamble
the introduction to a constitution, detailing the reasons for establishing the government in the way spelled out in the rest of the constitution.
during realigning eras, --- parties appear and turnout ----
thirdrises
virginia plan
constitutional blueprint drafted by james madison that sought to reform the a of cs
-introduced at constitutional convention
-proposed tripartite national gov but provided popularly elected legislature that would dominate national decision making
The institution trhough which the state maintains scoial order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on all people in living in the state
Government
IMF
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a private international organization that oversees the global financial system by following the macroeconomic policies of its member countries, in particular those with an impact on exchange rates and the balance of payments. It is an organization formed to stabilize international exchange rates and facilitate development.[2] It also offers financial and technical assistance to its members, making it an international lender of last resort. Its headquarters are located in Washington, D.C., USA.
frank
name given to representatives and senators’ free use of the US mail for sending communication to constituents
omnibus
pertaining to, including, or dealing with numerous objects or items at once:
Equal Rights Amendment
Proposed ammendment to the Constitution that states "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex."
Direct Primary
Allow party's voters to nominate candidates- deprives party machines crucial political resource which was the ability to control access to elective public office by controlling nominations.
Whiggs
high class party, split due to slavery issue
the first major candidate to be nominated by delegates at a convention rather than by caucus
jackson
politics
the process by which indivduals and groups reach agreement on a common course of action even as they continue to disagree on the goals that action is intended to achieve
superstructure
Marx's term everything that is built on top of the economy (laws, art, politics, etc)
Directorate-Generals (DGs)
The bureaucracy within the commission that handle specific public policies.
A)friendly incumbant rule
an organization created by individualss adn groups to influence the outcomes of elections by reaising and speinding money that candidates and political parties cannot legally raise isknown as what?A)political action comitteesB)interest groupC)political partyD)527 committee
Why so many governments?
Protection from tyranny(Federalist 51). Efficiency and Flexibility(montana different from Rhode island). Innovation(states as laboratories). Ensure Policy Responsiveness(vote with ones feet)
priming
occurs when the media affect the standards people use to evaluate political figures or the severity of a problem
diaspora
the scattering of the Jews to countries outside of Palestine after the Babylonian captivity.
Ideology
coherent set of ideas that typically includes: theory about political relations and role of state. 2) notion of what constitutes political legitimacy and highest political values. 3) action program indicating the goal and ideas, policies to be pursued by
Division of powers
a basic principle of federalism establish by the US constitution. In a federal system, powers are divided between units of government
Separation of Powers
the assignment, according to the constitution, of certain specific powers to each of the three branches of government.
Opportunity Cost
Opportunity cost: The value of what you give up when you choose one activity over another
Unitary state:
Invests most of the political power at the national level, with limited local authority.
Theory
Simply a way of knowing things and, ideally, of predicting things
Inevitable discovery exception:
The inevitable discovery exception to the exclusionary rule holds that illegally obtained evidence should not be excluded if investigators would have discovered the evidence by some alternative legal means
Immigration Law
A branch of international law and political theory that defines when wars can be justly started and how they can be justly fought.
RTB 4:Common Market
Market that eliminates all barriers among member state and allows for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services.
Internation Regime
Rules, norms, and procedures that must be followed by certain actors
electoral system
the way in which a country’s constitution or laws translate popular votes into control of public offices
override
congressional passage of a bill by a 2/3 vote despite the president’s veto
political power
the ability to determine or influence the decisions or behavior of gov officials
Thirteenth Amendment
One of the three Civil War Amendments; specifically bans slavery in the United States.
Herb Kohl
he is a senator who is a democrat
the belief that you can make a difference in the political process
political efficacy
shared federalism
a system in which that national and state governments share in providing citizens with a set of goods
The government is not restricted in their monetary policy
Floating Exchange Rate
Newly Industrializing Countries(NICs)
Third world states that have achieved self-sustaining capital accumulation, with impressive economic growth. The most successful are the "four tigers" or "four dragons" of East Asia: South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore.
Wars in 3rd world that are typically civil wars.
Sino-Soviet Split
popular vote
the total vote cast across the nation for a candidate
Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution
3rd episode of utopianism. encouraged people (especially students) to form red guards- group attack anyone not loyal to mao. Schools and govt offices closed down and economic development came to a halt. Result was complete anarchy.
collective goods
the general goods of all people in a given community.
Powell v. Alabama:
The court held that in capital cases the 6th amendment requires states to proved council for indigent defendants
• Black men were accused of raping 2 white girls; not residence, traveling; presented to a judge; formally accused and there is going to be a trial; capital case; 14th…compulsory right but, not
necessarily in all cases; effective counsel
the sysytem where by the each branch of government exercise soem control on the others
Checks and Balances
Chinese- communist revolution created the alliance.
China became independent when they disagreed with Soviet moves towards peaceful coexistence with the US
What is an interest group?
A collection of individuals with a common political goal, social movement to directly influence administration, and thus legislation. Can pursue law action, court action, etc.
Steps to making a casual inference
1. Generate hypothesis
2. Search for evidence that test these hypothesis
3. Observe/analysis evidence
4. Draw tentative conlusion
5. Questions should be addressed to different researchers, utilizing different data, over and over again to test the robustness of your data
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
The supreme court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the Constitution's supremacy clause. The court's broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers.
what two states had not been ratified into the constitution yet?
rhode island and north carolina
which of the followig positions would be most likely to be taken by a conservative?A)government has a responsiblitiy to ensure that all americans have access to affordable healthcareB)goverment should act aggressivly to adopt regullations to slow global w
C)should protect unborn chilidren and limit access to abortion
The example of Quebec province in Canada illustratesa) political conflict in a federal systemb) a federal system based on religionc) the disintegration of a federal systemd) none of the above
a) political conflict in a federal system
how do parties contribute to the democratic process?
simplify the electoral system, find a develop new talent, focus responsibility
This election is often cited as the first one in which the candidate who obtained the greatest popular vote (Jackson) failed to be elected president.
In 1824, there were four fairly strong contenders in the presidential contest (Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, and Henry Clay) each of whom represented an important faction within the now vastly dominant Democratic-Republican Party. The electoral votes were so divided amongst them that no one received the necessary majority to become president (although the popular John C. Calhoun did receive enough electoral votes to become vice president). In accordance with the provisions of the 12th Amendment, the choice of president devolved upon the House of Representatives who narrowly selected John Quincy Adams despite the fact that Andrew Jackson had obtained the greater number of electoral votes.
Libel
printed false statements
60s-80s
explosion of interest groups
5 dominant culture types
The establishment clause
no national religion
A ___________________ would advocate:- Support of traditional values and lifestyles- Cautious toward change- Economic self determination
Conservative
hearsay
second-hand testimony obtained about what one has heard from another person
1949
Mao and communists complete takeover of mainland China
Far Right Parties
France: National FrontGermany: RepublikanerUK: British National Party
One's _______________ include life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
Natural Rights
Policy Formulation
Developing and evaluating different courses of action to deal with a problem.
Constituents
Residents of their districts or states
indigent
lacking the necessities of life because of poverty
Weber's model
bureaucracies function like efficient machines
Investigation of an opponent's background the purpose of exploiting weaknesses or undermining credibility is called _____________.
opposition research
October 1950
MacArthur crosses 38th parallel into North Korea
stare decisis
doctrine of legal president"let the decision stand"
Libertarianism
modern revial of the classic liberal tradition that characterized many of the nations founders. It favored small government in all areas of public policy, not in just some areas
______________ is speech that is harmfully anti government.
Seditious speech
Supremacy Clause
federal laws supereme to state leg.
Pacted Transition
A democratic transition tht occurs when pacts or agreements among the elites of formerly undemocratic states permit the establishment of democratic government.
Highest growing ethnic race in America
Latinos, 13%
Mo Attorney General
-state's chief law enforcement officer
-represents the state in all legal action
Resource Extraction
the practice of locating, acquiring and selling any resource, but typically a natural resource.
aggravating circumstances
the factors which the prosecution introduces in a capital case
Outside strategies
Strategies in which interest group leaders appeal to the public for support in order to put pressure on decision-makers concerning public policies
Talk radio
A format featuring conversations and interviews about topics of interest, along with call-ins from listeners.
recreational research
to satisfy intellectual curiosity and gain better understanding of the universe.
1970 (Vietnam)
Nixon announces end of large scale B-52 bombing in order to pursue peace
by-product theory
group leaders overcome the free rider problem by either offering selective benefits or coercive incentives - Mancur Olson
which member of the current Supreme court was quoted as saying, "The Constitution is not a living organism, it is a legal document," which should be interpreted "as it was originally written and intended."
Antonin Scalia
A _______________ is when the media and politicians use each other to mutual advantage
Symbiotic relationship
Checks and Balances
Senate 2/3 maj vote- conduct trial
censure- officially dissaproval
fines-penalties
 
Dual Sovernty
theory of federalism by which both national government and state have final authority over there own policy domains
Structural Adjustment Program (SAP)
A program administered by international financial institutions, which offer loans at very favourable interest rates to governments facing problems paying their debt if they adopt the programs espoused by the Washington Consensus.
Social Contract
Agreement among memebers of a society to form and recognize the authority of centralized goverment that is empowered to make and enforce laws governing members of that society.
Third Amendment

Third Amendment - NO quartering of troops in houses against owners will, EXCEPT in times of war.
How many men signed the Declaration of Independence
56
ICJ/World Court
the primary judicial organ of the United Nations.main purpose-settle legal disputes between states.
strike
to choose from a given panel the persons to serve on a jury
Party Theory Program
-Support contagion of conflict and easy voting accessibility-Strengthen party organizations, so they will be held accountable-Impose party discipline-Provision of a clear choice-Concentrate governmental power in the hands of the winning majorityParty competition in and between elections
Senators and Representatives
sometimes join caucuses to mobilize votes press the regular committees to hold hearings or pass legislation on topics they think arent being adequately addressed by the formal congressional organization
Blogosphere 
A community, or social network in a given time period.
theory definition
simplified view of the world that allows us to describe, explain, and make predictions
5 Presidents over Vietnam War
Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon
Parties and party systems
parties and party systems developed differently in Eastern Europe b/c of communism- other parties are not allowed- Countries had no experience w/ democracy when it was instituted- didn't know how to run elections- they don't have set parties that most importantly don't have set ideologies- weak link between the parties and the electorate
An example of the agent of political socialization of _________________ would be a speech made by Sarah Palin.
Opinion Leaders
Collective Responsibility
The convention that the Cabinet as a group will defend, explain, and take responsibility for the actions of the government in Parliament.
What were Plato's views of a man?
Rational By Nature
Article 1 of Constitution
Describes the powers of Congress, establishes manner of elections and qualifications of members of each House, establishes limits on powers of both Congress and States.
State of Nature
the condition of human beings without gov
concurring opinion
a judge agrees, but for a different reason
challenge or cause
to take formal exception to a juror
Positive Rights
A right to services or benefits such as the right to eduction, health care, and employment.
Liberals
think that strong economy is the key to national success
"cheney's law" frontline video (PBS)
giving the president unlimited power and keeping congress from infringing on the powers
In a parliamentary system, the executive __________________________________.
is chosen by the legislature
Purchasing Power Parity
A measure of per capita income that shows the purchasing power of an income, instead f its worth at current exchange rates.
Marbury vs. Madison
Dealt with: judiciary act of 1789 and the writ of mandamas
Ended: power of any federal court to declare any federal or state law (or executive action) unconstitutional
Liberties taken by the President due to 9/11
-Wiretapping-Suspension of habeas corpus-Secrecy in White House
Security Council
the true center of power in the United Nations
3 Reasons for European Imperialism
1. Search for Sea-borne trade routes to Asia (because of 1453)2. Strengthening the European home country3. European superiority in technology (ex. seafaring, navigation, weapons, tech. innovations, etc.)
Agenda building is ______________.
the process of getting the government to be aware that an issue requires action.
What is required to draw a valid causal inference?
Logical and empirical support
Purpose of the Federalists Papers
explain benefits for strong nat gov, explain weaknesses of articles of Confederation, defend new const, exposition on the truths & dangers of free gov
Framers thought of President as:
a servant of Congress or chief administrator
Basic promise of an interest group
"right of the people to peaceably assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances" - first amendment
The relationship between sample size and sampling error is ______________________.
the larger the sample, the smaller will be the sampling error
Primary task of the Federal Bureaucracy:
to implement the policies of congress, president, and the federal courts
The conservative Burger and Rehnquist Courts have
retreared from many of the more liberal decisions of the earlier Warren Court
_______________ shape the media’s presentation of the news
The pressure to make a profit and the need to attract an audience
Inherent powers, as seen in history (established by custom/precedent, not law)
-Executive order - telling agency to take specific action-Dismissal power - can dismiss any office holders-'Soft Powers' - bargaining, 'going public', agenda setting
Which of the following is true?
Sharia law is drawn not only from the Koran, but also from the way the Prophet Muhammad lived his life.
Wedge issues are controversial matters _________________.
that one party uses to split voters in the other party
What happened when Trent Lott when he supported the George Bush's immigration bill?
He was hammered from the left and the right.
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