Pre-Ap Chemistry Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Phosphorous
P
Manganese
Mn
Zinc
Zn
Sulfur
S
hexa
6
avagadro's number
6.02x10^23
FlourineDiatomic Molecule
F2
Enthalpy
(thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity equal to the internal energy of a system plus the product of its volume and pressure
3 elements were
Sc, Ga, Ge
The hydrogen ion
is a proton
atom
(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
Quantum
"fixed amount" the smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorbed
Which substance has the lowest density
Hg(g) Hg(l) H2O(g) H2O(l)
H2O(g)
mass
the amount of matter an object contains
Calorimetry
the precise measurement of heat flow out of a system for chemical and physical processes
Limiting Reactant
the reactnat that is completely consumed in the reaction
Which of the following decreases the average kinetic energy of solvent molecules?
a. decreasing the pressure
b. not stirring the solution
c. decreasing the contact area between the solvent and the solute
d. decreasing the temperature
d.
polar
having a pair of equal and opposite charges
Periodic Law
Periodic repeating of one chemical and physical properties of elements when arranged by atomic number (same group)
Molecular Formula
TRUE FORMULA, a formula showing the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
sublimation
the process in which a solid changes to a gas or vapor without passing through a liquid
Hund
The lowest energy is attained when the electron spin is maximized
Which of the following is soluble in water?
a. potassium nitrate
b. silver
c. benzene
d. carbon tetrachlroide
a.
alkali metal
any of the monovalent metals of group I of the periodic table (lithium or sodium or potassium or rubidium or cesium or francium)
Ideal Gas
a gas in which the particles are considered to have no volume and therefore exert no attraction for eachother
photo electric effect
The radiant energy striking a metal surface
Proton
+1 charge; relative mass of 1; in the nucleus
Molar Heat of Vaporization
the amount of heat necessary to vaporize one mole of a given liquid
Balance
_CH3OH + _O2 ---> _CO2 + _H2O
1, 1, 1, 2
How many moles of HCl are present in 0.70 L of a 0.33M HCl solution? (molar mass of HCl = 36.46g/mol)
0.23 mol
Molar Heat of Condensation
the amount of heat released by one mole of a vapor as it condenses to a liquid at a constant temperature
Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical change:
a.) spoiling cheese
b.) dusting
c.) rusting
d.) evaporating
e.) crushing
f.) corrosion
a.) chemical
b.) physical
c.) chemical
d.) physical
e.) physical
f.) chemical
Law of Multiple Proportions
2 or more different compounds can be composed of the same elements but will have different whole number ratios of the atoms
How can you decrease the pressure in a closed container?
open container-increase volume, cool temperture-decrease temperature
Compared with a 0.01 m sugar solution, a 0.01 m MgCl2 solution has
about three times the freezing point depression
penta
5
Magnesium
Mg
Bromine
Br
Carbon
C
Iodine
I
hepta
7
1911
Henrey Moseley
OxygenDiatomic Molecule
O2
C
Speed of Light m/s
nuclear change
Protons or atomic number
Which mixture contains visible particles that settle out unless the mixture is stirred?
suspension
metalloid
an element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals
Spectrum
When radiation is seperated into different wavelength components
What determines the average kinetic energy of the molecules of any gas?
temperature
gas
the state of matter distinguished from the solid and liquid states by: relatively low density and viscosity
Calorimeter
an insulated device used to measure the absorption or release of heat in chemical or physical processes
A compound empirical formula is N2O5. If the molar mass is 108g/mol. What is the molecular formula?
N2O5
The separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves is called
dissociation
Which of the following values for enthalpy of solution at 25*C represents the greatest release of energy?
a. -3.50 kJ/mol b. -0.01 kJ/mol
c. 1.33 kJ/mol d. 12.40 kJ/mol
a.
representative element
Groups in the periodic table that includes metals, metalloids, and nonmentals (groups 1, 2, 13~18)
Dimitri Mendeleev
Grouped by similar properties and by mass, First Periodic table
Mole Ratio
a conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of 2 substances
phase diagram
a graph showing the conditions at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or vapor
Quantum Theory
The arrangement of electrons in an atom
If the pressure and temperature of a gas are held constant and some gas is added to the container or some is allowed to escape, a change in which of the following can be observed?
a. kinetic energy b. fluidity
c. volume d. elasticity
c.
Atoms
smallest part of an element with all properties of that element and are not indivisible
Heat of Reaction
the quantity of energy released or absorbed as heat during a chemical reaction
Coefficients
a whole number in front of a formula in an equation; represent the relative amounts of moles of reactants and products
What must be the same amount of on each side of a chemical equation?
coefficients
What is the molarity of a solution that contains 31.0g HCl in 5.00 kg water? (molar mass of HCl = 36.46 g/mol)
0.170 m
Electron
-1 charge; relative mass of 0; in the electron cloud
Heat of Combustion
the energy released as heat by the complete combustion of one mole of a substance
What is the OH- concentration of a sloution with a pH of 9.3?
2 x 10-5
How many moles of ions are produced by the dissociation of 0.5 mol of Na2CO3?
1.5 mol
Molar Heat of Fusion
the amount of heat absorbed by one mole of a solid substance as it melts to a liquid at a constant temperature
Place the following in scientific notation:
a.) 0.0026 hg
b.) 430000 cm
c.) 0.000000437 ng
d.) 7204000000 dL
a.) 2.6x10^-3 hg
b.) 4.3x10^5 cm
c.) 4.37x10^-7 ng
d.) 7.204x10^9 dL
Hess's Law of Heat Summation
if you add two or more thermochemical equations to give a final equation, then you also add the heats of reaction to give the final heat of reaction
What is a derived unit?
A unit that is a combination of SI base units
In a solution, the slightly charged part of a water molecule
forms ionic bonds with ions in ionic compounds
Potassium
K
Selenium
Se
Silver
Ag
deca
10
Beryllium
Be
BromineDiatomic Molecule
Br2
Einstein
photo electric effect
Define average atomic mass
?
Explain the difference between qualitative and quantitative
?
density
the amount per unit size (mass/volume)
pascal (Pa)
the SI unit of pressure
Which of the following expresses concentration?
a. molality
b. molarity
c. moles of solute per liter of solution
d. all of the above
d.
chemical change
(chemistry) any process determined by the atomic and molecular composition and structure of the substances involved
non-metals
usually gasses of brittle solids, poor conductors
Electromagnetic radiation
Carries energy through space, there are 3 types
Which of the following will dissolve most rapidly?
a. sugar cubes in cold water
b. sugar cubes in hot water
c. powdered sugar in cold water
d. powdered sugar in hot water
d.
atomic number
the order of an element in Mendeleyev's table of the elements
Specific Heat
the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree centigrade
In an experiment, 56.3g of product was produced, but 74.9g should have been produced. What is the percent yield of this experiment?
133%
Decomposition
when one substance breaks down into 2 or more substance
-usually requires heat, light, or electricity
allotrope
one of two or more different molecular forms of an element in the same physical state; oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) are allotopes of the element oxygen.
Classify each of the following as a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture:
a.) oreo cookie
b.) a cup of coffee
c.) 14 kt. gold
d.) carpet
a.)
b.)
c.)
d.)
When solutions of NH4OH and K2SO4 are combined, what precipitate(s) forms?
none
halogen
an element found in group 17 of the periodic table
Location of Electrons
No electrons in nucleus, or between orbitals.
What is the pH solution with a H+ concentration of 1.2 x 10-3
2.9
kinetic energy
the energy an object has because of its motion
Pressure has the greatest effect on the solubility of
gases in liquids
electron cloud
a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found
Word War 2
Scientist sent to new mexico to develp atomic bomb
What is the volume of 45.6g of ice? The density of ice is 0.92g/cm^3
42.0 L
half-life
the time it takes for one half of the parent nuclides in a radioactive sample to decay
normal boiling point
the boiling point of a liquid at a presure of 101.3kPa or 1 atm
A 15 M acetic acid solution is
a concentrated and weak electrolyte
To correct for partial pressure of water vapor, the vapor pressure of H2O at the collecting temperature is
subtracted from the total gas pressure
Why does a can collapse when a vacuum pump removes air from the can?
The unbalanced outside force from atmospheric pressure crushes the can
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