Pre-AP World History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Minoans
Peaceful
appropriated
set aside
flotilla
fleet of boats
enlil
wind and rain
Tariff of 1799
...
karma
belief in reincarnation
today's behavior determines future life
Isaac Newton
published Principia Mathematica
Charter
a document incorporating an institution and specifying its rights
monogamous
one marriage at a time
upanishads
ancient religion book of hinduism
Ashoka
grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire
Janissaries
Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, partially after 15th century
Triple Entente
contained Britain,France, and Russia
Conversion
a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life
taoism
path of life
founder- lau tzu
be gentle, kind and respect nature
christianity
monotheistic religion based on the teaching of jesus
Kiev
trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in the 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to the 12th century
Coptic Church
Christian minority; larger church branch from the split of North African Christianity
Belisarius
one of Justinian's most important military commanders during period of reconquest of Western Europe; commended in North Africa and Italy
William/John Harvey
English physician who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump
Enlightenment
Intellectual movement in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study of human society; beliefs that rational laws could describe social behavior
Zhou Dynasty
displaced Shang Dynasty; alliances with regional princes and families (feudal system); overtook Yangtze River Valley (Middle Kingdom); invoked the "Mandate of Heaven"; Mandarin Chinese language; Confucious (philosopher)
Constantine
accepted Christianity in 313; this united his empire
Southern Slaves
The Emancipation Proclamation only freed slaves of Confederate States (the south)
guardianship
a situation where one entity guards another
great Migration
when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times
Michael Angelo
Sculpted the statue of David
Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
exodus
movement of the hebrews out of egypt
Babylonians
extended their empire and helped bring civilization to other parts of the Middle East; famous for Hammurabi's Law Code
Muhammad of Ghur
military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of N India; brought much of Indus Valley, Sind, and India under his control
Jurchens
Founders of the Qin Kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of Yellow River basin forced Song to flee to south
Socrates
Greek Philosopher; chief human duty is "improvement of the soul"
Robert Boyle
Used Scientific method in chemistry and is considered the father of modern chemistry. Best known for the discovery of a law that helps to explain chracteristics of gases.
Committees of Correspondence
(1772 and after) local committees established across Massachusetts and later in each of the 13 colonies to maintain colonial opposition to British policies through the exchange of letters and pamphlets.
Separatists
sub-group of the Puritans who vowed to break completely with the Church of England
Muhammad
Muslims believe that this man was the last prophet, and that he is the greatest of the prophets
xerxes 1
persian king
son of darius 1 who inherited greek war
lost greek war
brought about social and religious reforms
Jamestown (30)
Setting sail in late 1606, the Virginia Company's three ships landed near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, where Indians attacked them. Pushing on up the bay, the tiny band of colonists eventually chose a location on the woodland and malarial banks of the James River, named in honor of King James I. The site was easy to defend, but it was mosquito-infested and devastatingly unhealthful. There, on May 24, 1607, about a hundred English settlers, all of them men, disembarked. they called the place Jamestown. Virginia was saved from utter collapse at the start by the leadership and resourcefulness of an intrepid young adventurer, Caption John Smith. In the end, Lord De La Warr, ordered the settlers to stay in Jamestown, to impose a harsh military reign on the colony and soon undertook aggressive military action against the Indians.
Yin & Yang
symbolizes universal balance and a "harmonious earthly life";
Triangular Trade
Commerce linking Africa, the New World colonies, and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar and tobacco transported to Europe
Middle Ages-
was the period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15th century.
Russia's pressence in Manchuria
this caused the Russo-Japanese war
hominid
any of the modern or extinct bipedal primates of the family Hominidae, including all species of the genera Homo and Australopithecus.
Sir edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England
Legalism
Belief that all humans are evil, so we need strict laws.
Tuscarora War (40)
North Carolina was involved in the ongoing tragedy of bloody relations between Indians and Europeans. Tuscarora Indians fell upon the fledgling settlement at New Bern in 1711. The North Carolinians, aided by their heavily armed brothers from the south, retaliated by crushing the Indians in the Tuscarora War, selling hundreds of them into slavery and leaving the survivors to wander northward to seek the protection of the Iroquois.
Jesus of Nazareth
prophet and teacher among the Jews; believed by Christians to be the Messiah
Whiskey Rebellion
def: a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
Sig: 1774, tax on liquor in united states
artisan
a person skilled in an applied art; a craftsperson.
Pax Romana, Roads, Missionary messages
The reasons that Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire
System of Ethics
"do unto others as your status and theirs dictates"
Franklin D. Roosevelt
entered WW2 as president of the United States
Battle of the Fallen Timbers
def: 1794 general anthony wayne gained control of the ohio valley when he defeated the miami indians in the battle of the fallen timbers. the victory ended the fighting b/w the indians and whites over white settlement west of the ohio river that had been ongoing since the early 1790s.
sig: gained control of the ohio river valley
vishnu
presever
ratify
formally approve
Rennaissance
Rebirth of learning
mecca
holy islam city
Joseph II
abolished serfdom
assyrians
literate and barbaric civilizations
captured at nineveh
Twantinsuyu
word for Inca Empire
Guild
Union, train, regulate production, price and quality of goods
3 processes of dating
carbon dating
dendrochronology
geology
Topiltzin
most influential toltec leader; dedicated to the god Quetzalcoatl
Sinification
Extensive adaptation of CHinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam
Thomass Jefferson
Wrote Declaration of Independence
Armed Neutrality
(1780) Loose alliance of nonbelligerent naval powers, organized by Russia's Catherine the Great, to protect neutral trading rights during the war for American Independence.
anthropomorphic
gods have human characteristics and personalities
java man is
1st to walk upright
Mary Wollstonecraft
Enlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that new political rights should extend to women
Sharia
Islamic Law; defined among other things the patrilineal nature of Islamic inheritance
Plato
Greek philosopher and pupil of Socrates; three perfect forms: true good and beautiful; intellectual achievement
Henry Fielding
wrote modern novel Tom Jones
Mercantilism
Economic theory that closely linked a nation's political military power to it's bullion reserves. Generally favored protectionism and colonial acquisition as means to increase exports.
Pocahontas
a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617)
Daoism
Belief to let nature take its course
Learn from nature
Poor Richard's Almanack
(1732-1758) widely read annual pamphlet edited by Benjamin Franklin. Best known for it's proverbs and aphorisms emphasizing thrift, industry, morality, and common sense.
Proletariat
class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufactoring workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries
The Bourbon Reforms
Provided better administration and defense to the growing populations in New Spain
Ministry of Rites
Administrated examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars
Galleons
large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World
Jesuits
a new religious order founded furing the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored missions to South America, North America, and Asia
Yangdi
2nd member of the Sui Dynasty; murdered his father to gain the throne; restored confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618
Cossacks
Peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia; particularly in South; combined agriculture with military conquests; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements
Indentured Servants
Migrants who, in exchange for transatlantic passage, bound themselves to a colonial employer for a term of service, typically between 4 and 7 years. Their migration addressed the chronic labor shortage in the colonies and facilitated settlement.
Elba
The 1st island Napoleon was banished to
Quebec Act
(1774) Allowed the French residents of quebec to retain their traditional, political, and religious institutions, and extended the boundaries southward to the Ohio River. Mistakenly perceived by the colonists to be part of Parliament's response to the Boston Tea Party.
Bacon's Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
Stars (astrology)
What the Mayans based their calender on
natron
dry body and dissolve fat for skin removal
Chabi
wife of Kublai Khan; advised him in political and dipliomatic matters
Chaldiran
site of battle in 1514 between the Safavids and the Ottomans; Safavids were severly beaten by Ottomans; checked Safavid western advance ; Sunnis became more dominant
Ivan IV
Also known as Ivan the Terrible; confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars (aristocracy); continued policy of Russian expansion; est. contacts with Western Wuropean commerce
Cuneiform
a form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge-shaped stylus and clay tablets
Cyrus the Great
established massive Persian Empire by 550 BCE; successor state to Mesopotamian Empires
ilkhan
Name for Middle East when under Mongol rule
Maria-Therese Geoffrin
ran the most influential of Paris' salons during the Enlightenment
Underground Railroad
a secret network of safe places for slaves to hide as they escaped to the North or Canada
Henry VIII
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
Gupta Era
This era in the Indian society was when Learning thrived. Everything that was good happened
Ivan III
Also known as Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik; responsible for fleeing Russia from Mongols after 1462; took title of tsar or caesar (emperor)
Election of 1796
def: election where there was the president from 1 party, (John Adams- Federalists) and a vice president from another party (Thomas Jefferson- Democratic / Republicans)
sig: 1st election with rival parties, Adams elected
War of Jenkin's Ear
(Began in 1739) small-scale clash btwn Britain and Spain in the Caribbean and in the Buffer colony, Georgia. It merged with the much larger war of Austrian succesion in 1742.
neanderthal man is
5'4'' tall
1st to live in caves
1st to wear skin clothing
1st to have organized burial
1st human
The Magna Carta-
was the Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy.
Old Regime
feudal system in use in France in the 1770's
Secretary of State
def: the position of the head of the State Department
sig: gov. minister for foreign relations
ishtar
nature
ten commandments
spiritual
founder of islam
mohammed
brahaman
great world soul
Ghenghis Khan
Mongol leader
Military genius
Conquered lots of land (2x the size of Alexander the Great's empire)
Spread death and destruction, but also spread:
Civilized law
use of yams (posting stations)
Commerce (political institutions, economic development, Cultural diversity of many lands)
Rooted out adultery and theft
Severity of laws against thieves
No one would dare to pick something up unless they were the owner
Monotheistic (Karakorum)
zoroastranianism
persian religion
prelude to christianity
Changan
Capital of Tang Empire
homo sapien sapien
first modern humans
oriental seclusion
veiling women
women are chattle
Olmec Culture
featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion; beginnings of calendrical and writing systems
Stoics
Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery
Wazir
chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of Empire
Monsoon
seasonal winds crossing Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia; during summer, bring rains to hot, dry places in India; favorable=good harvest (critical for farming)
tariff
a tax, often on imported goods
Beringia
Two continents (Asia and North America) that were once connected
carbon dating
radioactivity measures loss and remains
Old Lights
Orthodox clergymen who the emotionalism of the Great Awakening in favor of more rational spirituality.
Zoroastrianism
animist religion that saw material existence as battles between forces of good and evil; stressed the importance of moral choice; righteous lived on after death in "House of Song"; chief religion of the Persian Empire
Polynesians
people from Polynesia; reached islands such as Fiji and Samoa
Tatars
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state in 1236; left Russian orthodoxy and aristocracy in tact
Leisler's Rebellion
(1689-1691) Armed conflict between aspiring merchants led by Jacob Leisler and the ruling elite of New York. One of many uprisings that erupted across the colonies when wealthy colonists attempted to recreate European social structures in the New World
Waterloo
where Napoleon suffered his last defeat
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Olive Branch Petition
(July 1775) conciliatory measure adopted by the continental congress, professing American loyalty and seeking an end to the hostilities. King George rejected the petition and proclaimed the colonies in Rebellion.
solomon
3rd king of hebrews
great temple of solomon
squatters (40)
North Carolinians have been called "the quintessence of Virginia's discontent." The newcomers, who frequently were "squatters" without the legal right to the soil, raised their tobacco and other crops on small farms, with little need for slaves.
Shiva
the Brahman, later Hindu, god of destruction and reproduction; worshipped as the personification of cosmic forces of change
1756-1763
7 Years War (French and Indian War)
Ali
cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi'a
Carthage
became a major port and commercial power in the western Mediterranean; fought the Punic Wars with Rome for dominance of the western Mediterranean
Johannes Kepler
Resolved basic issues of planetary issues; practiced astrology and casting horoscopes
Indies Pieces
Term utilized within the complez exchange system est. by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave
Lepanto
Naval Battle between the Spanish and the Ottoman Empire resulting in a Spanish vicotry in 1571; deminstarted European naval superority over Muslim
Creole Slaves
American born descendants of saltwater slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slavewomen or process of misintegration
Virginia Plan
def: Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states.
sig: Jame's Madison's idea of government
peninsula
an area of land almost completely surrounded by water except for an isthmus connecting it with the mainland.
King William's War
(1689-1697) war fought largely between French trappers, British settlers, and their respective allies. The colonial theater of the larger war of the League of Augsburg in Europe.
Sir Walter Raleigh
English courtier (a favorite of Elizabeth I) who tried to colonize Virginia
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese concept that believes that greater forces and ancestors chose a certain ruler through nature.
hanging gardens of babylon
terraced palace
built by king nebuchadnezzar
one of the 7 wonders of the world
Punic Wars
fought between Rome and Carthage to establish dominance in the western Mediterranean; won by Rome after 3 separate conflicts
Scientific Revolution
Culminated in 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the developement of wider theoretical generalizations; resulted in changed in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages
Vasco de Balboa
First Spanish Captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamercia in 1509; inital settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains
Royal African Company
english joint-stock comp. that enjoyed a state-granted monopoly on the colonial slave trade from 1672 until 1698. the supply of slaves to the north american colonies rose sharply once the company lost its monopoly privileges.
Frederick the Great
rulled Prussia as an enlgihtened despot
1st Continental Congress
(1774) Convention of delegates from 12 of 13 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. To craft a response to the Intolerable Acts. Delegates established Association, which called for a complete boycott of British goods.
Mary II
she and her husband take over england and the throne in the glorious revolution and parliament passes the bill of rights
dynasty
rule of a family over a period of time
Li Bo
Most famous poet of the Tang Era; belnded images of the mundane world with phiosophical musings
Secretary of War
def: head of a former executive department
sig: handles problems with war
Massachusetts Bay Colony
One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community
First Anglo-Powhatan War (32)
De La Warr introduced "Irish tactics" against the Indians. His troops raided Indian villages, burned houses, confiscated provisions, and torched cornfields. A peace settlement ended this First Anglo Powhatan War in 1614, sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to the colonist, John Rolfe-the first known interracial union in Virginia.
Thomas Aquinas
- was an Italian born monk who taught at the University of Paris. He maintained the basic belief that faith came first, but he greatly expanded the scope given to reason.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
(1789) Declaration of Rights adopted during the French Revolution. Modeled after the American Declaration of Independence.
French and Indian War (Seven Years War)
(1754-1763) 9-year war between the British and the French in North America. It resulted in the expulsion of the French from the North American Mainland and helped spark the 7 years' war in Europe.
/ 161
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online